Micronesia is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It has a shared cultural history with two other island regions: Polynesia to the east and Melanesia to the south; the region is part of the Oceania ecozone. There are four main archipelagos along with numerous outlying islands. Micronesia is divided politically among several sovereign countries. One of these is the Federated States of Micronesia, called "Micronesia" for short and is not to be confused with the overall region; the Micronesia region encompasses five sovereign, independent nations—the Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and Nauru—as well as three U. S. territories in the northern part: Northern Mariana Islands and Wake Island. Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers; the earliest known contact with Europeans occurred in 1521. The coinage of the term "Micronesia" is attributed to Jules Dumont d'Urville's usage in 1832.
Micronesia is a region that includes 2100 islands, with a total land area of 2,700 km2, the largest of, Guam, which covers 582 km2. The total ocean area within the perimeter of the islands is 7,400,000 km2. There are four main island groups in Micronesia: the Caroline Islands the Gilbert Islands the Mariana Islands the Marshall IslandsPlus the island country of Nauru; the Caroline Islands are a scattered archipelago consisting of about 500 small coral islands, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines. The Carolines consist of two states: the Federated States of Micronesia, consisting of 600 islands on the eastern side of the chain with Kosrae being the most eastern and Palau consisting of 250 islands on the western side; the Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands, arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands; the Republic of Kiribati contains all of the Gilberts, as well as the island of Tarawa, the site of the country's capital.
The Mariana Islands are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains. The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region, the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth; the Marianas were politically divided in 1898, when the United States acquired title to Guam under the Treaty of Paris, 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. Spain sold the remaining northerly islands to Germany in 1899. Germany lost all of her colonies at the end of World War I and the Northern Mariana Islands became a League of Nations Mandate, with Japan as the mandatory. After World War II, the islands were transferred into the United Nations Trust Territory System, with the United States as Trustee. In 1976, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States entered into a covenant of political union under which commonwealth status was granted the Northern Mariana Islands and its residents received United States citizenship.
The Marshall Islands are located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the U. S. territory of Wake Island. The islands consist of 29 low-lying atolls and 5 isolated islands, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets; the atolls and islands form two groups: the Ratak Chain and the Ralik Chain. All the islands in the chain are part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a presidential republic in free association with the United States. Having few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture. Of the 29 atolls, 24 of them are inhabited. Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands. There are 23 islands in the Bikini Atoll; the islands of Bokonijien and Nam were vaporized during nuclear tests that occurred there. The islands are composed of sand; the average elevation is only about 2.1 metres above low tide level. Nauru is an oval-shaped island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km south of the Equator, listed as the world's smallest republic, covering just 21 km2.
With 11,347 residents, it is the second least-populated country, after Vatican City. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles; the presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island. A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 m wide lies inland from the beach. Wake Island is a coral atoll with a coastline of 19 km just north of the Marshall Islands, it is an unincorporated territory of the United States. Access to the island is restricted and all activities on the island are managed by the United States Air Force; the majority of the islands in the area are part of a coral atoll. Coral atolls begin as coral reefs; when the volcano sinks back down into the sea, the coral continues to grow, keeping the reef at or above water level. One exception is Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia, which still has the central volcano and coral reefs around it
The Amazon biome contains the Amazon rainforest, an area of tropical rainforest, other ecoregions that cover most of the Amazon basin and some adjacent areas to the north and east. The biome contains blackwater and whitewater flooded forest and montane terra firme forest and palm forest, sandy heath and alpine tundra; some areas are threatened by deforestation for timber and to make way for pasture or soybean plantations. The Amazon biome has an area of 6,700,000 square kilometres; the biome corresponds to the Amazon basin, but excludes areas of the Andes to the west and cerrado to the south, includes lands to the northeast extending to the Atlantic ocean with similar vegetation to the Amazon basin. J. J. Morrone defines the Amazonian subregion in this broader sense, divided into the biogeographical provinces of Guyana, Humid Guyana, Imeri, Amapá, Várzea, Madeira, Tapajós-Xingu, Pará, Yungas and Pantanal; the World Wildlife Fund takes a similar scope, where the Amazon biome includes the Guiana Shield rain forests in the north and the Chiquitano dry forests of Bolivia.
The biome covers parts of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Guyana and French Guiana. In Brazil the biome covers more than 4,100,000 square kilometres and covers all or parts of the states of Acre, Roraima, Rondônia, Pará, Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins and Mato Grosso; the Amazon biome covers 49.29% of Brazil. 16% of the biome is in Peru. As of 2015 about 23.4% of Peru's Amazon biome was protected, but of this less than half was protected. Much of the terrain of the Amazon biome around the rivers, is lowland plains; the Guiana Shield is an area of highlands along the border between Venezuela and Guyana. The southern Amazonian highlands cross parts of Rondonia and Mato Grosso and the southern parts of Amazonas and Para; the Amazon basin is crossed by ridges or "paleoarches" that connect the Guiana and Brazilian shields and divide it into geological sub-basins. They are the Iquitos or Jutai Arch in Peru and Acre, the Carauari Arch across the Rio Negro and Solimões, the Purus Arch to the west of Manaus, the Monte Alegre Arch to the west of the Tapajós and the Gurupa Arch to the west of Marajó.
Under the Paleoarch model, paleobasins between the arches form centers for biological diversification. Thus the Iquitos arch is considered the main reason for the different species of frogs and rodents and different forest types on either side of the ridge; the soil is very poor in nutrients, areas that have been deforested are unsuitable for agriculture or pasture. There are wide regional variations in soil types, thus 20% of the Rio Negro basin is covered by podzols and 55% by acrisols and ferralsols, with the remainder covered by alluvial and litholic soils and scattered areas of hydromorphic plinthosols. In the biome as a whole podzols cover just 136,000 square kilometres, or 2.7% of the area. In Brazil the average temperature of the biome is 22 to 26 °C and average rainfall is 2,300 millimetres, but there are wide variations from one region to another; the biome as a whole has annual rainfall from 1,500 to 3,000 millimetres, about half of, carried by winds from the Atlantic, the other half from evapotranspiration within the biome.
There are distribution of rainfall throughout the year. The Amazon watershed covers about 5,846,100 square kilometres; the Amazon River accounts for 15–16% of the total water discharged by rivers into the oceans of the world. Rivers may be whitewater or clearwater, thus the Rio Negro has clear, jet-black water caused by decomposition of organic matter in swamps along its margins, combined with low levels of silt. The Rio Branco and the Amazon itself have yellowish waters loaded with silt; the Tahuayo River in the Tamshiyacu Tahuayo Regional Conservation Area of Peru is classed as a blackwater river, but has similar chemistry to the whitewater rivers of the region since it is in the Amazon River floodplain, receives water from the Amazon. The Amazon and its major tributaries such as the Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira and Rio Negro form barriers to the geodispersal of plants and insects, thus the white-fronted capuchin and hairy saki are found west of the Tapajós, while the white-nosed saki is only found east of the river.
The World Wildlife Fund divides the biome into ecoregions defined as the regions lying between major tributaries of the Amazon. Most of the interior of the Amazon basin is covered by rainforest; the dense tropical Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest in the world. It covers between 5,500,000 and 6,200,000 square kilometres of the 6,700,000 to 6,900,000 square kilometres Amazon biome; the somewhat vague numbers are because the rainforest merges into similar biomes across its boundaries. The rainforest is so-called because most of the trees have broad leaves; the basin holds flooded riparian forest or várzea, seasonal forest and savanna. Seasonal forest covers much of the southeast border, with marked dry seasons when there are frequent fires; the Amazon biome contains areas of other types of vegetation including grasslands, swamps and palm forests. There are more than 600 types of land and freshwater habitat. Of the ecosystems, 34 are forest areas covering 78% of the biome, 6 are Andean covering 1.5%, 5 are floodplains covering 5.83%, 5 are savanna covering 12.75% an
The Southern Cone is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the continental area closest to Antarctica. In terms of social and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile and the Southern and Southeastern of Brazil. In its broadest definition, the Southern Cone includes southern Bolivia and Paraguay. High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America; the climates are temperate, but include humid subtropical, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold and semi-arid temperate regions.
Except for northern regions of Argentina, the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is; the Atacama is the driest place on Earth. One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil and Argentina; the only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law; the prairies region of central Argentina and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas. Central Chile has grading southward into oceanic climate; the Atacama and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border.
In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice. Argentina, Chile and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions; the asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more from the gauchos of Argentina and Southern Brazil and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity.
Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone. In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, with their descendants, have influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries. In a social survey, residents rated their countries as'good places for gay or lesbian people to live. By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia and Peru; the overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects: Castellano Rioplatense, spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is influenced by 19th-20th century Italian immigrants, has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world, it is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Castellano Argentino/Argentinean Spanish" due to the majority of the speakers being Argentinians.
Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region, differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish. Buenos Aires and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid-19th until mid-20th centuries. Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a recent phenomenon, developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration. Castellano Chileno These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words. Other minor languages and dialects include Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese, spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil; some Native American groups in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun, Quechua and Guarani. The first is
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, it is colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, a part of South Asia, is sometimes included in Central Asia. Central Asia has been tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe and China; this crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae.
After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmen and Uyghurs. From the mid-19th century until the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians; the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia; the most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, hence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was often used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия.
Soon after independence, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since this has become the most common definition of Central Asia; the UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and central Pakistan, northern India, western China and the former Soviet Central Asian republics."An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may be included; the Tibetans and Ladakhi are included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region.
Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, a village 200 miles north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China. Central Asia is an large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, treeless, grassy steppes; the vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too rugged for farming; the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: The world's northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, 50°18' N; the Northern Hemisphere's southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17' N. The world's shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km.
The Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Hari River and the Murghab River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia; the northern half of Cent
An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area, smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover large areas of land or water, contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species; the biodiversity of flora and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains constant, within an acceptable range of variation. Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa. Ecoregions reflect the best compromise for as many taxa as possible. Secondly, ecoregion boundaries form abrupt edges. Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats. Biogeographic provinces may originate due to various barriers.
Some physical, some climatic and some ocean chemical related. The history of the term is somewhat vague, it had been used in many contexts: forest classifications, biome classifications, biogeographic classifications, etc; the concept of ecoregion of Bailey gives more importance to ecological criteria, while the WWF concept gives more importance to biogeography, that is, distribution of distinct biotas. An ecoregion is a "recurring pattern of ecosystems associated with characteristic combinations of soil and landform that characterise that region". Omernik elaborates on this by defining ecoregions as: "areas within which there is spatial coincidence in characteristics of geographical phenomena associated with differences in the quality and integrity of ecosystems". "Characteristics of geographical phenomena" may include geology, vegetation, hydrology and aquatic fauna, soils, may or may not include the impacts of human activity. There is significant, but not absolute, spatial correlation among these characteristics, making the delineation of ecoregions an imperfect science.
Another complication is that environmental conditions across an ecoregion boundary may change gradually, e.g. the prairie-forest transition in the midwestern United States, making it difficult to identify an exact dividing boundary. Such transition zones are called ecotones. Ecoregions can be categorized using an algorithmic approach or a holistic, "weight-of-evidence" approach where the importance of various factors may vary. An example of the algorithmic approach is Robert Bailey's work for the U. S. Forest Service, which uses a hierarchical classification that first divides land areas into large regions based on climatic factors, subdivides these regions, based first on dominant potential vegetation, by geomorphology and soil characteristics; the weight-of-evidence approach is exemplified by James Omernik's work for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, subsequently adopted for North America by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. The intended purpose of ecoregion delineation may affect the method used.
For example, the WWF ecoregions were developed to aid in biodiversity conservation planning, place a greater emphasis than the Omernik or Bailey systems on floral and faunal differences between regions. The WWF classification defines an ecoregion as: A large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities that: Share a large majority of their species and ecological dynamics. According to WWF, the boundaries of an ecoregion approximate the original extent of the natural communities prior to any major recent disruptions or changes. WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions, 450 freshwater ecoregions across the Earth; the use of the term ecoregion is an outgrowth of a surge of interest in ecosystems and their functioning. In particular, there is awareness of issues relating to spatial scale in the study and management of landscapes, it is recognized that interlinked ecosystems combine to form a whole, "greater than the sum of its parts". There are many attempts to respond to ecosystems in an integrated way to achieve "multi-functional" landscapes, various interest groups from agricultural researchers to conservationists are using the "ecoregion" as a unit of analysis.
The "Global 200" is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF as priorities for conservation. Ecologically based movements like bioregionalism maintain that ecoregions, rather than arbitrarily defined political boundaries, provide a better foundation for the formation and governance of human communities, have proposed ecoregions and watersheds as the basis for bioregional democracy initiatives. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from marine ecoregions. In this context, terrestrial is used to mean "of land", rather than the more general sense "of Earth". WWF ecologists divide the land surface of the Earth into 8 major ecozones containing 867 smaller terrestrial ecoregions; the WWF effort is a synthesis of
East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea; the region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China influenced East Asia as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, East Asian vocabulary and scripts are derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script; the Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from.
Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism, Ancestral worship, Chinese folk religion in Greater China and Shintoism in Japan, Christianity and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus. East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state; the overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre, about three times the world average of 45/km2. In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China would possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.
As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic and political muscle onto its neighbors. Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically and militarily for over two millennia. Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it supplied Japan and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems. In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang.
Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, Confucian political institutions. Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Vietnamese society was impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, animal husbandry. Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years until the loss of independence under French Indochina; this cultural affiliation to China remained true when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan.
The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese, but after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and political independence; as full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Korea and Vietnam began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, urban planning, various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties. For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The trans
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste