Monoclinic crystal system
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. A crystal system is described by three vectors, in the monoclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal lengths, as in the orthorhombic system. They form a rectangular prism with a parallelogram as its base, hence two vectors are perpendicular, while the third vector meets the other two at an angle other than 90°. There is only one monoclinic Bravais lattice in two dimensions, the oblique lattice, two monoclinic Bravais lattices exist, the primitive monoclinic and the centered monoclinic lattices. In this axis setting, the primitive and base-centered lattices interchange in centering type, sphenoidal is monoclinic hemimorphic, Domatic is monoclinic hemihedral, Prismatic is monoclinic normal. Crystal structure Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Klein, hahn, Theo, ed. International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A, Space Group Symmetry
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earths atmosphere and biological organisms. Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering, mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water and pressure. While physical weathering is accentuated in very cold or very dry environments, chemical reactions are most intense where the climate is wet, both types of weathering occur together, and each tends to accelerate the other. For example, physical abrasion decreases the size of particles and therefore increases their surface area, the various agents act in concert to convert primary minerals to secondary minerals and release plant nutrient elements in soluble forms. The materials left over after the rock breaks down combined with organic material creates soil, in addition, many of Earths landforms and landscapes are the result of weathering processes combined with erosion and re-deposition.
Physical weathering, recognized as mechanical weathering, is the class of processes that causes the disintegration of rocks without chemical change, the primary process in physical weathering is abrasion. However and physical weathering often go hand in hand, physical weathering can occur due to temperature, frost etc. For example, cracks exploited by physical weathering will increase the area exposed to chemical action. Abrasion by water and wind loaded with sediment can have tremendous cutting power, as is amply demonstrated by the gorges, ravines. In glacial areas, huge moving ice masses embedded with soil and rock fragments grind down rocks in their path, plant roots sometimes enter cracks in rocks and pry them apart, resulting in some disintegration, Burrowing animals may help disintegrate rock through their physical action. However, such influences are usually of importance in producing parent material when compared to the drastic physical effects of water, wind. Physical weathering is called mechanical weathering or disaggregation.
Thermal stress weathering results from the expansion and contraction of rock, for example, heating of rocks by sunlight or fires can cause expansion of their constituent minerals. As some minerals expand more than others, temperature changes set up differential stresses that cause the rock to crack apart. Because the outer surface of a rock is often warmer or colder than the more protected inner portions and this process may be sharply accelerated if ice forms in the surface cracks. When water freezes, it expands with a force of about 1465 Mg/m^2, disintegrating huge rock masses, thermal stress weathering comprises two main types, thermal shock and thermal fatigue. Thermal stress weathering is an important mechanism in deserts, where there is a diurnal temperature range, hot in the day. The repeated heating and cooling exerts stress on the layers of rocks
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and they are classified based on the structure of their silicate groups, which contain different ratios of silicon and oxygen. Nesosilicates, or orthosilicates, have the orthosilicate ion, which constitute isolated 4− tetrahedra that are connected only by interstitial cations and these exist as 3-member 6− and 6-member 12− rings, where T stands for a tetrahedrally coordinated cation. Inosilicates, or chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with either SiO3,1,3 ratio, for single chains or Si4O11,4,11 ratio, for double chains. Nickel–Strunz classification,09. D Pyroxene group Enstatite – orthoferrosilite series Enstatite – MgSiO3 Ferrosilite – FeSiO3 Pigeonite – Ca0.251, all phyllosilicate minerals are hydrated, with either water or hydroxyl groups attached. Serpentine subgroup Antigorite – Mg3Si2O54 Chrysotile – Mg3Si2O54 Lizardite – Mg3Si2O54 Clay minerals group Halloysite – Al2Si2O54 Kaolinite – Al2Si2O54 Illite – 24O10 Montmorillonite –0 and this group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the Earth.
Tectosilicates, with the exception of the group, are aluminosilicates. Nickel–Strunz classification,09. F and 09. G,04. A, an introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Wise, W. S. Zussman, J. Rock-forming minerals, P.982 pp. Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Danas Manual of Mineralogy. Mindat. org, Dana classification Webmineral, Danas New Silicate Classification Media related to Silicates at Wikimedia Commons
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series and it is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earths outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earths crust, like the other group 8 elements and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen, fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, Iron metal has been used since ancient times, although copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history. Pure iron is soft, but is unobtainable by smelting because it is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon. A certain proportion of carbon steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron.
Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, further refinement with oxygen reduces the carbon content to the correct proportion to make steel. Steels and iron alloys formed with metals are by far the most common industrial metals because they have a great range of desirable properties. Iron chemical compounds have many uses, Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. Iron forms binary compounds with the halogens and the chalcogens, among its organometallic compounds is ferrocene, the first sandwich compound discovered. Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron is the metal at the site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants. A human male of average height has about 4 grams of iron in his body and this iron is distributed throughout the body in hemoglobin, muscles, bone marrow, blood proteins, ferritin and transport in plasma.
The mechanical properties of iron and its alloys can be evaluated using a variety of tests, including the Brinell test, Rockwell test, the data on iron is so consistent that it is often used to calibrate measurements or to compare tests. An increase in the content will cause a significant increase in the hardness. Maximum hardness of 65 Rc is achieved with a 0. 6% carbon content, because of the softness of iron, it is much easier to work with than its heavier congeners ruthenium and osmium. Because of its significance for planetary cores, the properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures have been studied extensively
Pleochroism is an optical phenomenon in which a substance appears to be different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light. Anisotropic crystals will have properties that vary with the direction of light. The polarization of light determines the direction of the electric field and these kinds of crystals have one or two optical axes. If absorption of light varies with the relative to the optical axis in a crystal pleochroism results. Anisotropic crystals have double refraction of light where light of different polarizations is bent different amounts by the crystal, the components of a divided light beam follow different paths within the mineral and travel at different speeds. When the mineral is observed at some angle, light following some combination of paths and polarizations will be present, at another angle, the light passing through the crystal will be composed of another combination of light paths and polarizations, each with their own color. The light passing through the mineral will therefore have different colors when it is viewed from different angles, tetragonal and hexagonal minerals can only show two colors and are called dichroic.
Orthorhombic and triclinic crystals can show three and are trichroic, for example, with two optical axes, can have red, yellow or blue appearance when oriented in three different ways in three-dimensional space. Tourmaline is notable for exhibiting strong pleochroism, gems are sometimes cut and set either to display pleochroism or to hide it, depending on the colors and their attractiveness. The pleochroic colours are at their maximum when light is polarized parallel with a crystallographic axis, the axes are designated X, Y and Z. These axes can be determined from the appearance of a crystal in an interference pattern. Where there are two axes, the acute bisection of the axes gives Z for positive minerals and X for negative minerals. Perpendicular to these is the Y axis, the colour is measured with the polarization parallel to each direction. An absorption formula records the amount of parallel to each axis in the form of X < Y < Z with the left most having the least absorption. Minerals that are very similar often have very different pleochroic color schemes.
In such cases, a section of the mineral is used and examined under polarized transmitted light with a petrographic microscope. Another device using this property to identify minerals is the dichroscope
In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the concentration, measured in units of moles per liter. More precisely it is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion, solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic. Pure water is neutral, at pH7, being neither an acid nor a base, contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement, the pH of aqueous solutions can be measured with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or an indicator. In the first papers, the notation had the H as a subscript to the p, as so. The exact meaning of the p in pH is disputed, but according to the Carlsberg Foundation and it has been suggested that the p stands for the German Potenz, others refer to French puissance.
Another suggestion is that the p stands for the Latin terms pondus hydrogenii, potentia hydrogenii and it is suggested that Sørensen used the letters p and q simply to label the test solution and the reference solution. Currently in chemistry, the p stands for decimal cologarithm of, PH is defined as the decimal logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity, aH+, in a solution. P H = − log 10 = log 10 For example and this definition was adopted because ion-selective electrodes, which are used to measure pH, respond to activity. For H+ number of electrons transferred is one and it follows that electrode potential is proportional to pH when pH is defined in terms of activity. The reference electrode may be a silver chloride electrode or a calomel electrode, the hydrogen-ion selective electrode is a standard hydrogen electrode. Reference electrode | concentrated solution of KCl || test solution | H2 | Pt Firstly, the cell is filled with a solution of hydrogen ion activity. Then the emf, EX, of the cell containing the solution of unknown pH is measured.
PH = pH + E S − E X z The difference between the two measured emf values is proportional to pH and this method of calibration avoids the need to know the standard electrode potential. The proportionality constant, 1/z is ideally equal to 12.303 R T / F the Nernstian slope, to apply this process in practice, a glass electrode is used rather than the cumbersome hydrogen electrode. A combined glass electrode has a reference electrode. It is calibrated against buffer solutions of hydrogen ion activity
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency. Media having this property may be termed dispersive media. Sometimes the term chromatic dispersion is used for specificity, the most familiar example of dispersion is probably a rainbow, in which dispersion causes the spatial separation of a white light into components of different wavelengths. Most often, chromatic dispersion refers to material dispersion, that is. However, in a waveguide there is the phenomenon of waveguide dispersion, more generally, waveguide dispersion can occur for waves propagating through any inhomogeneous structure, whether or not the waves are confined to some region. In a waveguide, both types of dispersion will generally be present, although they are not strictly additive, for example, in fiber optics the material and waveguide dispersion can effectively cancel each other out to produce a zero-dispersion wavelength, important for fast fiber-optic communication.
Material dispersion can be a desirable or undesirable effect in optical applications, the dispersion of light by glass prisms is used to construct spectrometers and spectroradiometers. Holographic gratings are used, as they allow more accurate discrimination of wavelengths. However, in lenses, dispersion causes chromatic aberration, an effect that may degrade images in microscopes, telescopes. The phase velocity, v, of a wave in a uniform medium is given by v = c n where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. In general, the index is some function of the frequency f of the light, thus n = n, or alternatively. The wavelength dependence of a refractive index is usually quantified by its Abbe number or its coefficients in an empirical formula such as the Cauchy or Sellmeier equations. In particular, for materials, the susceptibility χ that appears in the Kramers–Kronig relations is the electric susceptibility χe = n2 −1. The most commonly seen consequence of dispersion in optics is the separation of light into a color spectrum by a prism.
From Snells law it can be seen that the angle of refraction of light in a prism depends on the index of the prism material. For visible light, refraction indices n of most transparent materials decrease with increasing wavelength λ,1 < n < n < n, or alternatively, in this case, the medium is said to have normal dispersion. Whereas, if the index increases with increasing wavelength, the medium is said to have anomalous dispersion, at the interface of such a material with air or vacuum, Snells law predicts that light incident at an angle θ to the normal will be refracted at an angle arcsin. Thus, blue light, with a refractive index, will be bent more strongly than red light
Hexagonal crystal family
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families. In the hexagonal family, the crystal is described by a right rhombic prism unit cell with two equal axes, an included angle of 120° and a height perpendicular to the two base axes. There are 52 space groups associated with it, which are exactly those whose Bravais lattice is either hexagonal or rhombohedral, the hexagonal crystal family consists of two lattice systems and rhombohedral. Each lattice system consists of one Bravais lattice, there are 3 lattice points per unit cell in total and the lattice is non-primitive. The Bravais lattices in the hexagonal crystal family can be described by rhombohedral axes, the unit cell is a rhombohedron. This is a cell with parameters a = b = c, α = β = γ ≠ 90°. In practice, the description is more commonly used because it is easier to deal with a coordinate system with two 90° angles. However, the axes are often shown in textbooks because this cell reveals 3m symmetry of crystal lattice.
However, such a description is rarely used, the hexagonal crystal family consists of two crystal systems and hexagonal. A crystal system is a set of point groups in which the point groups themselves, the trigonal crystal system consists of the 5 point groups that have a single three-fold rotation axis. The crystal structures of alpha-quartz in the example are described by two of those 18 space groups associated with the hexagonal lattice system. The hexagonal crystal system consists of the seven point groups such that all their groups have the hexagonal lattice as underlying lattice. Graphite is an example of a crystal that crystallizes in the crystal system. Note that the atom in the center of the HCP unit cell in the hexagonal lattice system does not appear in the unit cell of the hexagonal lattice. It is part of the two atom motif associated with each point in the underlying lattice. The trigonal crystal system is the crystal system whose point groups have more than one lattice system associated with their space groups.
The 5 point groups in this system are listed below, with their international number and notation, their space groups in name. The point groups in this system are listed below, followed by their representations in Hermann–Mauguin or international notation and Schoenflies notation
Muscovite is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl22, or 236. It has a perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably thin laminae which are often highly elastic. Sheets of muscovite 5 m ×3 m have been found in Nellore, Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.25 parallel to the face,4 perpendicular to the and a specific gravity of 2. 76–3. It can be colorless or tinted through grays, greens, yellows, or violet or red and it is anisotropic and has high birefringence. The green, chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite, mariposite is a type of muscovite. In pegmatites, it is found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials, the name muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass, a name given to the mineral in Elizabethan England due to its use in medieval Russia as a cheaper alternative to glass in windows. Media related to Muscovite at Wikimedia Commons
Transparency and translucency
In the field of optics, transparency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale, the photons can be said to follow Snells Law, in other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity, transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color. When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in different ways. These interactions depend on the wavelength of the light and the nature of the material, photons interact with an object by some combination of reflection and transmission. Some materials, such as glass and clean water, transmit much of the light that falls on them and reflect little of it. Many liquids and aqueous solutions are highly transparent, absence of structural defects and molecular structure of most liquids are mostly responsible for excellent optical transmission.
Materials which do not transmit light are called opaque, many such substances have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. Many substances are selective in their absorption of light frequencies. They absorb certain portions of the spectrum while reflecting others. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected or transmitted for our physical observation and this is what gives rise to color. The attenuation of light of all frequencies and wavelengths is due to the mechanisms of absorption. Transparency can provide almost perfect camouflage for animals able to achieve it and this is easier in dimly-lit or turbid seawater than in good illumination. Many marine animals such as jellyfish are highly transparent, at the atomic or molecular level, physical absorption in the infrared portion of the spectrum depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds, and on selection rules. Nitrogen and oxygen are not greenhouse gases because there is no absorption because there is no molecular dipole moment.
With regard to the scattering of light, the most critical factor is the scale of any or all of these structural features relative to the wavelength of the light being scattered. Primary material considerations include, Crystalline structure, whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit the long-range order evidenced in crystalline solids, glassy structure, scattering centers include fluctuations in density or composition. Microstructure, scattering centers include internal surfaces such as boundaries, crystallographic defects