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Biplane

A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and higher speeds made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.

In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage and bracing wires to keep the structure from flexing, where the wings are not themselves cantilever structures.

The primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is its ability to combine greater stiffness with lower weight. Stiffness requires structural depth and where early monoplanes had to have this provided with external bracing, the biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. Rigging wires on non-cantilevered monoplanes are at a much sharper angle, thus providing less tension to ensure stiffness of the outer wing. On a biplane, since the angles are closer to the ideal of being in direct line with the forces being opposed, the overall structure can be made stiffer; because of the reduced stiffness, wire braced monoplanes had multiple sets of flying and landing wires where a biplane could be built with one bay, with one set of landing and flying wires. The extra drag from the wires was not enough to offset the aerodynamic disadvantages from having two airfoils interfering with each other however. Strut braced monoplanes were tried but none of them were successful, not least due to the drag from the number of struts used.

The structural forces acting on the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower as they are divided between four spars rather than two, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore lighter. A given area of wing tends to be shorter, reducing bending moments on the spars, which allow them to be more built as well; the biplane does however need extra struts to maintain the gap between the wings, which add both weight and drag. The low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation limited aeroplanes to low speeds; this required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. Obtaining a large enough wing area without the wings being long, thus dangerously flexible was more accomplished with a biplane; the smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. Following World War One, this helped extend the era of the biplane and, despite the performance disadvantages, military aircraft were among the last to abandon biplanes.

Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made in small numbers. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes when the high pressure air under the top wing and the low pressure air above the lower wing cancel each other out; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer, the gap must be large to reduce it appreciably. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power and speeds rose late in World War One, thick cantilever wings with inherently lower drag and higher wing loading became practical, which in turn made monoplanes more attractive as it helped solve the structural problems associated with monoplanes, but offered little improvement for biplanes. The default design for a biplane has the wings positioned directly one above the other.

Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger. It can increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings by a small degree, but more was used to improve access to the cockpit. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000. Alternatively, the lower wing can instead be moved ahead of the upper wing, giving negative

Tommy Benford

Thomas Benford was an American jazz drummer. Tommy Benford was born in West Virginia, he and his older brother, tuba player Bill Benford, were both orphans who studied music at the Jenkins Orphanage in Charleston, South Carolina. He went on tour with the school band, traveling with them to England in 1914. In 1920, he was working with the Green River Minstrel Show. Benford recorded with Jelly Roll Morton in 1928 and 1930, he played with Duke Ellington, Fats Waller and Eddie South. From 1932 till 1941 Benford lived in Europe, where in 1937 he participated in one of the most memorable recording sessions in Paris, with Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, Django Reinhardt and Stéphane Grappelli. Benford died on March 24, 1994, at Mount Vernon Hospital in Mount Vernon, New York

Strobelite Seduction

Strobelite Seduction is the fifth solo album by the house DJ Kaskade. It was released on May 2008, by Ultra Records; the first single from the album, "Move for Me", with the Canadian progressive house/trance musician deadmau5 and the vocalist Haley Gibby, reached number one on Billboard's Hot Dance Airplay chart on September 6, 2008, becoming Kaskade's fifth top ten hit, his first number one, on the list. The dance single has become a crossover hit, managing to reach number 71 on the Canadian Hot 100 on February 14, 2009; the second single from the album, "Angel on My Shoulder", was released in late 2008. It found success on the dance chart, reaching number 5 on Billboard's Hot Dance Airplay Chart; the third and final single, "Step One Two", was released in late 2008 with remixes by various artists, such as Tommy Trash. "I Remember", another collaboration with deadmau5 and Haley, was released as the third single from deadmau5's 2008 album Random Album Title. It became Kaskade's first UK hit; the single was his second chart topper on the Billboard dance chart.

The video clip which accompanied "I Remember" was filmed in England. The bonus track, the Adam K and Soha remix of "4 AM", became a digital single from the album; the original version of this track is featured on Kaskade's 2006 album Love Mysterious. Ryan Raddon - producer, writer Finn Bjarnson - producer, writer Joel Zimmerman - producer, writer Haley Gibby - vocals Tamra Keenan - writer, vocals Julien Louis Marc Aletti - additional production, writer Raphael Marc Romain Aletti - additional production, writer Sunsun - vocals Latrice Barnett - vocals John Hancock - writer, additional keyboards Becky Jean Williams - writer, vocals Late Night Alumni - additional production Ellen Bridger - cello Aaron Ashton - violin