A bipod is an attachment to a weapon, that helps support and steady it. The bipod provides significant stability along two axes of motion. Bipod comes from the Latin and Greek roots bi and pod, meaning "two" and "foot, or feet" respectively. On firearms, bipods are used on rifles and machine guns to provide a forward rest and reduce motion, they are seen on other long-barrelled weapons. Bipods permit operators to rest a weapon on objects, like the ground or a wall, reducing their fatigue and increasing accuracy and stability. Bipods can be of adjustable length; some can be tilted and have their tilting point close to the barrel's central axis, allowing the weapon to tilt left and right. Some designs allow the weapon to be rotated side-to-side. There are three ways for bipods to be folded: away from the shooter, towards the shooter, or into a vertical foregrip; the first known use of bipods on firearms can be traced back to hand cannons of the 12th century which were cast iron barrels laid on top of short poles.
Bipods on rifles are first known to have been used in an improvised fashion during the mid-19th century by frontiersmen hunting American bison and other wild animals. For example, the painting "The Long Shot" by Howard Terpning shows native American hunters shooting a rifle with an improvised bipod consisting of two crossed arrows. During the 20th century, use of dedicated bipods increased, was seen on different types of rifles during wars. For example the Lewis gun was fitted with an adjustable bipod; the technology became more advanced, with hinged legs and extendable or retractable legs. One of the first companies to manufacture commercially successful bipods was Harris Engineering, Inc founded in 1979 in Barlow, Kentucky by Gerald Harris, Margaret Harris, Susan Wilkerson. Before starting the company, Gerald had applied for a patent on the bipod. In 2019, their successful Harris Bipods have been produced for nearly forty years, have remained unchanged. Recent advances in manufacture of bipods include use of lightweight materials such as aluminium, carbon fiber and titanium, use of different quick attachment and detachment mechanisms and various types of feet materials such as rubber, metal, or a "basket" designed to stop the bipod from sinking into soft surfaces such as fine sand or deep snow.
The Best of the Monkees is a Monkees compilation released by Rhino Entertainment. It contains 25 songs from the Monkees' repertoire, listed in chronological order by release date. Included is a bonus karaoke CD with five tracks. Unlike previous Rhino compilations, this one does not include any material from the 1980s or 1990s reunions, focusing on the band's 1960s output; the Best of the Monkees replaced The Monkees Greatest Hits, released in 1995 in anticipation of the band's 30th anniversary celebration the following year. The album debuted on the Billboard 200 in the issue dated May 17, 2003, at number 51, it spent six weeks on the chart. Following the death of member Davy Jones on February 29, 2012, it re-entered at No. 20 with 17,000 copies sold for the week ending March 4, 2012. The album has since been certified Gold for selling 500,000 copies. " The Monkees" – 2:18 "Last Train to Clarksville" – 2:46 "I Wanna Be Free" – 2:24 "Papa Gene's Blues" – 1:59 "I'm a Believer" – 2:46 " Steppin' Stone" – 2:24 "She" – 2:39 "Mary, Mary" – 2:17 "Your Auntie Grizelda" – 2:28 "Look Out" – 2:15 "Sometime in the Morning" – 2:28 "A Little Bit Me, a Little Bit You" – 2:47 "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" – 2:34 "Shades of Gray" – 3:21 "Randy Scouse Git" – 2:33 "For Pete's Sake" – 2:10 "You Just May Be the One" – 2:03 "Pleasant Valley Sunday" – 3:15 "Words" – 2:51 "Daydream Believer" – 2:59 "Goin' Down" – 4:23 "What Am I Doing Hanging'Round" – 3:07 "Valleri" – 2:20 "Porpoise Song" – 4:10 "Listen to the Band" – 2:28 " The Monkees" – 1:25 "I'm a Believer" - 3:13 " Steppin' Stone" - 2:49 "Pleasant Valley Sunday" – 3:39 "Daydream Believer" – 3:14
Cuilapan de Guerrero is a town and municipality located in the central valley region of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. It is 10 kilometres to the south of the capital city of Oaxaca on the road leading to Villa de Zaachila, is in the Centro District in the Valles Centrales region. Cuilapan called Sahayuca, has been a permanent settlement since at least 500 BCE, it developed into a city state but was absorbed by Monte Alban until between 600 and 900 CE. After this, Cuilapan returned to being an independent city-state, equal to a number of other important city states in the area. After the Spanish conquest, Cuilapan had a population of over 40,000 people with formidable social and cultural institutions. For this reason, a major monastery dedicated to James the apostle was established there in the 1550s in order to evangelize the Mixtec and Zapotec populations. However, the area underwent decline of its native population in the 16th and early 17th century and the extravagant monastery complex would deteriorate in the 19th century.
Today, the town is a quiet place with a fraction of its former prestige. The ruins of the monastery complex remain as a national monument administered by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia; the Cuilapan area has been settled by humans since 1500 BCE with a sedentary village established by 500 BCE. These sedentary peoples developed activities such as weaving and stonemasonry, with permanent houses, ceremonial structures and tombs; the society here grew and stratified over time and a simple writing system came into existence. Cuilapan developed as an independent city state until the rise of Monte Alban, which came into dominance because it provided a refuge in a defensible location. During this time, Cuilapan was one of the satellite cities of the dominion. Between 600 and 900 CE, Monte Alban declined and collapsed, allowing Cuilapan and others to become independent again. Excavations from this period show that Cuilapan gained prominence in the post Monte Alban period, but was not dominant over its neighbors and never reached the heights of the former dominion.
At that time, Cuilapan was identifiable as a Zapotec city state. In the post-classic period and other Zapotec cities would be overrun by the Mixtecs. At the time of the Spanish conquest, Cuilapan was a large multi-ethnic population center of 43,000 people and one of the centers of the political and cultural life of the central valleys of Oaxaca; the area was still the center of an ongoing struggle for dominance between the Mixtecs and the Zapotecs. To complicate things further, the Aztecs had a presence in the central valleys region, exacted tribute from Cuilapan through their military garrison in Huaxyácac; this tribute included products such as corn, clothing and cochineal. Cuilapan had a number of its own subject settlements which included Camotlán, Quauxilotitlan, Macuilcóchitl, Tlacochahuaya, Teítipac and Ocotlán. However, the Aztecs sought only tribute and left Mixtec cultural and political traditions here intact; the Spanish found a thriving community with formidable political and social organizations.
The Mixtecs dominated and society was divided into a ruling class called caciques and commoners called macehuales. This heterogeneous system would stay after the Spanish conquest, with the ruling class keeping many of its privileges with the conditions of conversion to Christianity and fealty to the Spanish crown; the original Mixtec settlement was at the foot of a hill in this area, but the modern town was established by Fray Domingo de Oguinaga and Zapotecs in 1551, with the founding of the monastery of Saint James. This monastery was a major center of evangelization efforts in the early colonial period in the central valleys region of Oaxaca, although it was never finished; the Dominicans were in charge of evangelization and in a few years had managed to baptize nearly all the inhabitants. However, this was not enough to ensure acceptance of the new faith, so the monastery with its large open chapel and elaborate murals was begun in the 1550s to reinforce Christian ideas, modified to relate to traditional Mixtec and Zapotec beliefs.
However, one major effect the monastery had was to move the population center from the original Mixtec settlement to one surrounding the monastery. Culiapan was caught up in a sovereignty dispute between Hernán Cortés, the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, the city of Antequera; as the Marquis, Cortés had absolute control over Cuiliapan and sixteen other towns in the valley as well as all of these towns’ subject villages. Residents of the city of Antequera were fearful of Cortés's unchecked political authority in the region in spite of their city charter granting them autonomy; the struggle lasted from the 1520s to the 1530s with each claiming land from the other. The authority of the Marquis was limited to four towns known as the Cuatro Villas in 1533, with Culiapan being one of them. With this arrangement, Culiapan became a Spanish “cabecera” for a number of other, smaller settlements; the decline of Cuilapan began in the 16th century, when the population fell from 43,000 in the 1520s to 7,000 in 1600.
Construction of the massive basilica and monastery was halted by the 1570s, was never finished. The Dominican friars were obliged to hand over the complex to regular clergy in the mid-18th century. From this point, the wealth and prestige of the institution declined. Church authorities neglected the maintenance of the complex, it deteriorated until it was divested of its religious function by the 19th century; the complex has had several uses since that time, including that of