The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Alexander Charles Yoong Loong (simplified Chinese: 熊龙. Yoong began his career in saloon cars before moving into the Proton one-make series, he raced in single-seater cars where he won the Malaysian Championship in 1995. He moved into Formula Renault in 1996 with help from sponsors but finished outside the top-10. Yoong consulted his father who believed his son would succeed in lower categories. Yoong dropped out in 1999 after withdrawal from his sponsors, he subsequently went into Formula 3000 and managed to improve despite a horrific crash at Spa-Francorchamps during the season. Yoong raced in Formula Nippon where he achieved no success. Yoong became the first Malaysian to race in Formula One with Minardi at the 2001 Italian Grand Prix and left the sport in 2002. Yoong had a less successful career in CART World Series but had improved in the Porsche Carrera Cup with a less successful foray into V8 Supercars. Yoong scored three victories. In between this, Yoong raced in the Le Mans 24 Hours. Yoong worked for Lotus Racing as head of driver development and is a commentator for Fox Sports Asia.
Yoong married Arriana Teoh, Miss World 1997 Malaysia in 2002 and has a son, born in 2003. Yoong was born on 20 July 1976 at the Sambhi Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, his mother, Johanna Bean, is a British expatriate and his father Hanifah Yoong Yin Fah is a Malaysian of Chinese descent through Alex's grandfather Yoong Wan Hoi who emigrated in 1933. His grandfather worked as a contractor and steel trader but was forced to retire during the 1997 Asian financial crisis. In an interview in 1999, Yoong states that he sees himself first as a Malaysian part Chinese and part English, his father started racing sedans in 1978 and his mother followed suit in 1983 in rallying. Yoong became an avid follower of Formula One by the age of four, he cited Ayrton Senna as his racing heroes. With a Kawasaki 50cc motocross he got on his eighth birthday, Yoong first showed his talent at racing, his early racing career started in saloon cars in 1992 when he was 16. Yoong became the youngest driver in Malaysian motorsport history and moved into a one-make Proton series.
He win in his fourth role and ended up winning two out of five races. In late 1992, Yoong took up saloon racing and took a Toyota Corolla to the Macau Grand Prix and finished third in the 1600cc class in the Guia race. Yoong moved up into a 400-horsepower DTM-spec BMW and was the most powerful saloon in the region. Moving up into the Formula Asia International Championship in 1994 with a RM 50,000 loan, Yoong took several podium finishes before claiming his first win in the season-ending rount at Zhuhai in China; this result led to Yoong to go a title challenge in 1995. He had won the Malaysian national crown, but the contential championship campaign was far less successful. Within the same year, Yoong assisted in the filming of Jackie Chan's racing film Thunderbolt at Shah Alam which led to Chan describing him as a "very good racing driver". Yoong was contacted by Paul Stewart to test a Formula Vauxhall car before he gained the opportunity to test a Formula Renault Sport machine at Donington Park and Snetterton for the Startline Racing team.
Yoong began a campaign in Formula Renault with Startline Racing in 1996 along with sponsorship from Malaysian tyre manufacturer, Silverstone tyres. At the first round in Donington, on lap one, Yoong outbraked three cars entering the Melbourne hairpin with his four tyres locking up and by the 5th lap, Yoong was in 6th but an eventual collision with Rollo McNally but managed to finish 20th. Throughout the rest of the season, Yoong managed to score numerous top six finishes but was unable to win a race. Going into 1997, Yoong remained with Startline and believed he had a chance of competing for race wins, but inexperience shown by a crash at the fourth round at Donington along with an uncompetitive chassis saw Yoong finish outside the top 10 of the championship. Yoong consulted with his father Hanifah, believed the best chance was to go into lower categories. However, he decided to go into Formula Three to convince himself, he joined Portman Racing Team in their Dallara HKS-Mitsubishi. Joining them at Spa, Yoong finished 16th in a field of thirty cars and came 11th at the next round at Silverstone.
During the off-season, Yoong took up mental and physical training with psychologists at the Bukit Jalil Sports Complex back in Malaysia. The training gave Yoong confidence when arriving back in England in 1998. Remaining with Portman Racing, the team were using Renault engines for their Dallara F397 and F398 chassis. Consistency brought Yoong result in the lower half of the top ten which included two sixth places at Silverstone. Going into the round at Spa, Yoong switched to Alan Docking Racing, he had to adjust to the Mugen-Honda engine and came up with results similar than with Portman Racing.1999 proved to be a watershed year. Yoong's sponsors dropped out and his father was forced to fund his son's racing activities until the family became indebted, he missed the first two rounds of the year but rebounded when he returned at Thruxton. Driving a Dallara F399 Mugen Honda, Yoong finished sixth, 11 seconds behind winner Jenson Button, he followed this strong finish with 5th at Brands Hatch, in a race that covered the top seven by 3.4 seconds.
The second race at Brands Hatch saw Yoong record a second place behind Narain Karthikeyan, followed up with another sixth at Ou
The Riley Nine was one of the most successful light sporting cars produced by the British motor industry in the inter war period. It was made by the Riley company of Coventry, England with a wide range of body styles between 1926 and 1938; the car was designed by two of the Riley brothers and Stanley. Stanley was responsible for the chassis and body and the older Percy designed the engine; the 1,087 cc four-cylinder engine had hemispherical combustion chambers with the valves inclined at 45 degrees in a crossflow head. To save the expense and complication of overhead camshafts, the valves were operated by two camshafts mounted high in the crankcase through short pushrods and rockers; the engine was mounted in the chassis by a rubber bushed bar that ran through the block with a further mount at the rear of the gearbox. Drive was to the rear wheels through a torque tube and spiral bevel live rear axle mounted on semi elliptic springs. At launch in July 1926 two body styles were available, a fabric bodied saloon called the Monaco at £285 and a fabric four-seat tourer for £235.
The saloon could give 40 mpg‑imp. A further two bodies were offered, the San Remo, an artillery wheeled basic saloon and a two-seater plus dickie open tourer and there was the option of steel panelling rather than fabric for the four-seater tourer. After the car's 1926 launch, Mark 1 production started in 1927 at Percy's engine factory, due to some resistance in the main works to the new design, it was such a critically acclaimed success that after fewer than a thousand cars had been produced the works shut down side-valve production and tooled up for the new Nine in early 1928. This switch to the main factory coincided with several modernisations of the Mark 1 - the cone clutch was dropped, the gear lever and handbrake were moved from the right to the centre of the car and a Riley steering box was adopted, thus making the car the Mark II; the Mark III was a gentle update of the II at the end of 1928, evolving stronger wheels and a different arrangement of rods to the rear brakes. The Mark IV was a thorough re working of the Nine.
Heavier Riley-made 6-stud hubs and axles replaced the bought-in five-stud items. A new cable braking system was introduced with larger drums; the range of bodies was further extended in 1929 with the Biarritz saloon, a de-luxe version of the Monaco. The improved brakes were fitted using the Riley continuous cable system and if the cable stretched it could be adjusted from the driver's seat. More body variants were added over the next few years and in 1934 a Preselector gearbox was offered for £27 extra; the range was slimmed down in 1935 to the Monaco saloon, Kestrel streamlined saloon and Lynx four-seat tourer as the works started gearing up for production of the new 12 hp model. In an attempt to keep costs down Riley entered into an agreement with Briggs Manufacturing to produce a steel body for a newly designed chassis; this new chassis was introduced in 1936 and incorporated such features as Girling rod operated brakes and a prop shaft final drive for the Nine. The Briggs body was named the Merlin and was available alongside the last nine Kestrel variant built on the "Merlin" chassis.
The Briggs body evolved through 1937 with a large boot extension to be called the Touring Saloon and an additional body style was added on the same chassis - the higher specified special series Monaco. The final version was the 1938 Victor available with 1496 cc engine; the Victor had the engine further forward to increase interior room, with the battery moved to the engine bay and smaller diameter wheels were fitted. The Riley company was bought by Lord Nuffield in 1938 and Nine production ceased as the company pursued a strict two-engine line up, continued after the war with the RM series; some saloonsOpen two-seatersTourers When compared with its contemporary Hillman Minx it had a sophisticated 1098 cc engine with hemispherical combustion chambers pumping out more than 25 per cent more horsepower than the 1185 cc Hillman. Riley's preselector gearbox provided easy progress through the gears; the Riley was adding to it. The Riley body was composite wood and metal, a style-leader — fabric top, centre-lock wire wheels.
The pressed steel Hillman body, ordinary. The Minx body rusted. Hillmans outsold Rileys better than 4.5:1But a Monaco was nearly double the price of a Minx. While the Monaco's handling was much better there was not a lot of difference in performance, the Minx was faster in a straight line. With a Riley "special series" twin carburettor engine you might reach 112 km/h. A 1931 Monaco weighed a 1937 model 1 160 kg. In spite of its standard twin carburettors the 1937 Monaco took half a minute to reach 50 mph and could exceed 62 mph or 100 km/h; the Automobile. February 1999. Modern Nines. Jonathan Wood The Production and Competition History of the Pre 1939 Riley Motor cars - AT Birmingham Photos of Tourer, Biarritz and Torpedo models
1954 Formula One season
The 1954 Formula One season was eighth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured a number of non-championship races; the World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series which commenced on 17 January and ended on 24 October 1954. The championship was won by Juan Manuel Fangio who drove, won races, for both Maserati and Mercedes-Benz over the course of the series. Argentine drivers gained the first two positions in the championship with José Froilán González placing second to his compatriot Fangio. With Formula One changing to 2.5 litre unsupercharged engines for 1954, Mercedes re-entered grand prix racing for the first time since the Second World War at the French Grand Prix with a streamlined single seater which Fangio and Karl Kling took to a 1–2 win. Fangio's French success had come after switching from the Maserati team, with whom he had won the first two Grands Prix of the season. Although the streamlined, closed-wheel body proved unsuitable for Silverstone, Mercedes produced a more conventional open-wheel body for the Nürburgring race.
Reigning champion Alberto Ascari had a less successful switch of teams, choosing to leave Ferrari for the newly formed Lancia team. Lancia's car, the D50, was not ready until the final World Championship race, meaning he had to sit out most of his title defence. Championship points were awarded for first five places in each race on an 8, 6, 4, 3, 2 basis with 1 point awarded for the fastest lap. Only the best five of nine scores counted towards the championship. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps unless one of the drivers was deemed to have completed "insufficient distance". Drivers who shared more than one car during a race received points only for their highest finish. Argentine Onofre Marimón was killed during practice for the German Grand Prix driving a Maserati 250F, it was the first fatality at a championship Formula One race weekend. The following races counted towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers. All championship races were open to cars complying with FIA Formula One regulations with the exception of the Indianapolis 500, for cars complying with AAA National Championship regulations, counted towards the 1954 AAA Championship.
The Dutch Grand Prix was supposed to be held at Zandvoort but there was no money for the race to be held, it was cancelled. The German Grand Prix was given the honorary title of being the European Grand Prix of 1954; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1954 FIA World Championship of Drivers. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between multiple drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; the following is a summary of the races for Formula One cars staged during the 1954 season that did not count towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Charles Wheeler (sculptor)
For others with the same name see Charles Wheeler Sir Charles Thomas Wheeler was a British sculptor who worked in bronze and stone who became the first sculptor to hold the Presidency of the Royal Academy, from 1956 through 1966. Wheeler was the son of a journalist and was born in Codsall and raised in nearby Wolverhampton, he studied at the Wolverhampton College of Art, now Wolverhampton University, under Robert Emerson, between 1908 and 1912. In 1912 he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art where he studied under Édouard Lantéri until 1917. Throughout the remainder of World War I Wheeler was classified as unfit for active service and instead modelled artificial limbs for war amputees. Wheeler came to specialize in architectural sculpture. From 1914 until 1970 he exhibited at the Royal Academy and became a Fellow of the Academy in 1940 and became its President in 1956, his tenure as RA president was controversial for the decision by the Academy to sell the most valuable painting in its collection, the Leonardo da Vinci cartoon of The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist.
The possibility that the painting might leave Britain caused a public outcry and it was sold to the National Gallery. From 1942 to 1949, he served as a Trustee of the Tate Gallery and in 1946 was a member of the Royal Fine Art Commission. In 1968 he wrote High Relief. During the Second World War Wheeler was the only sculptor to be given full-time contracts by the War Artists' Advisory Committee. In both 1941 and 1942, Wheeler was commissioned to produce portrait busts of Admiralty figures. Due to material shortages and other issues, Wheeler produced only three bronze figures during the commission period. Notable works include by Wheeler include, The 20-foot bronze doors and a major program of sculptures, including the "Lothbury Ladies" and the gilded finial figure of Ariel for the Bank of England, with architect Sir Herbert Baker, 1922–45 Fountain and memorial plates for Blackmoor War Memorial Cloister by Sir Herbert Baker. Sculptures for Rhodes House, with Baker, 1927 Sculptures for India House, with Baker, 1928–30 Sculptures for South Africa House with Baker, 1934 The western fountain figures in Trafalgar Square, 1948 The allegorical figures of the Seven Seas at the Tower Hill Memorial The statue of Lady Wulfrun outside St. Peter's Collegiate Church, Wolverhampton The monumental Earth and Water figures for the Ministry of Defence in Whitehall 2 paintings by or after Charles Wheeler at the Art UK site