Judicial corporal punishment in Afghanistan
Judicial corporal punishment in Afghanistan is lawful and can be carried out in public or private. Flogging is a lawful sentence under Shari'a law in Afghanistan for crimes such as adultery, which may be punished with 100 lashes of a whip. Flogging may be administered as a disciplinary measure in penal institutions. Courts have ordered flogging for alcohol use, although a BBC report has claimed that this is rare
Caning in Malaysia
Caning is used as a form of legal corporal punishment in Malaysia. It can be divided into at least three contexts: judicial/prison and sharia. Of these three, the first two are a legacy of, are influenced by, British colonial rule in the territories that are now part of Malaysia Malaya. Similar forms of corporal punishment are used in some other former British colonies, including two of Malaysia's neighbouring countries and Brunei. Judicial caning, ordered as part of a criminal sentence imposed by civil courts on male criminals, is the most severe of the three types of caning, it is always ordered in addition to a prison sentence for adult offenders. Male convicts who were not sentenced to caning earlier in a court of law may be punished by caning if they commit aggravated offences while serving time in prison. In primary and secondary schools, male students who commit serious offences may be punished with a light rattan cane. Malaysia, being a Muslim majority country, has a separate justice system for its Muslim population.
Under this system, sharia courts can sentence Muslim men and women to caning for committing certain offences. The offender is caned by an officer of the same sex. Sharia caning is much less severe, compared to judicial caning, is designed to humiliate the offender rather than to inflict physical pain; this form of caning is practised in Indonesia's Aceh Province, where it is more common. Malaysia has been criticised by human rights groups for its use of judicial caning, which Amnesty International claims, "subjects thousands of people each year to systematic torture and ill-treatment, leaving them with permanent physical and psychological scars". Caning, as a form of sanctioned corporal punishment for convicted criminals, was first introduced to Malaya by the British Empire in the 19th century, it was formally codified under the Straits Settlements Penal Code Ordinance IV in 1871. In that era, offences punishable by caning were similar to those punishable by birching or flogging in England and Wales.
They included robbery, aggravated forms of theft, assault with the intention of sexual abuse, a second or subsequent conviction of rape, a second or subsequent offence relating to prostitution, living on or trading in prostitution. The practice of judicial caning was retained as a form of legal penalty after the Federation of Malaya declared independence from Britain in 1957, it is a legacy of British colonial rule and has nothing to do with "Islamic justice" though the majority of the Malaysian population are Muslims. Sections 286–291 of the Criminal Procedure Code lay down the procedures governing caning, referred to as "whipping" in the Code in accordance with traditional British legislative terminology; the procedures include the following: The offender cannot be sentenced to more than 24 strokes of the cane in a single trial. In the case of a juvenile offender, the number of strokes is capped at 10; the rattan cane used shall not be more than half an inch in diameter. In the case of a juvenile offender or a person sentenced to caning for committing less serious offences, the caning is inflicted in the way of school discipline using a light rattan cane.
Caning is not to be carried out by instalments. If an offender is sentenced to caning in two or more separate trials, the total number of strokes may be inflicted in a single session if it does not exceed 24. A medical officer is required to be present and to certify that the offender is in a fit state of health to undergo the punishment. Boys aged between 10 and 18 may be sentenced to a maximum of ten strokes with a light rattan cane. ExemptionsThe following groups of people shall not be caned: Women Men above the age of 50, except those convicted of rape Men sentenced to death Malaysian criminal law prescribes caning for a wide range of offences, always in addition to a prison term and never as a punishment by itself. Caning is a routine punishment for serious offences, notably those involving rape, violence or drug trafficking, but for lesser offences such as illegal immigration and criminal breach of trust; every year, thousands of illegal immigrants are incarcerated, punished with one or two strokes of the cane, deported.
Unlike in Singapore, foreigners who overstay their visa in Malaysia are not sentenced to caning. In November 2003, illegal moneylending was added to the list of offences punishable by caning. Malaysians have called for caning to be imposed as a punishment for illegal bike racing, snatch theft, traffic offences, deserting one's wife, perpetrating get-rich-quick schemes, vandalism. However, these offences still remain outside the list of offences punishable by caning. Although the Malaysian government does not release overall figures of the number of offenders sentenced to caning every year, in 2010 Amnesty International used statistical sampling to estimate that as many as 10,000 prisoners were caned in a year. In 2004, the Malaysian Deputy Home Affairs Minister stated that 18,607 undocumented migrants were caned in the first 16 months since caning for immigration offences started in August 2002. In 2009, the Malaysian parliament revealed 34,923 foreigners were caned between 2002 and 2008. Over 60 percent of them were Indonesians, 14 percent were Burmese, 14 percent were Filipinos.
The criteria for the selection of caning officers is stringent, with maybe only two out of every 30 applicants being chosen. The selected ones undergo special training for the job, they are trained to swing the cane at a speed of at lea
Flagellation, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, rods, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, the knout, etc. Flogging is imposed on an unwilling subject as a punishment; the strokes are aimed at the unclothed back of a person, in certain settings it can be extended to other corporeal areas. For a moderated subform of flagellation, described as bastinado, the soles of a person's bare feet are used as a target for beating. In some circumstances the word "flogging" is used loosely to include any sort of corporal punishment, including birching and caning. However, in British legal terminology, a distinction was drawn between "flogging" and "whipping". In Britain these were both abolished in 1948. Abolished in most Western countries, flogging or whipping, including foot whipping in some countries, is still a common punishment in some parts of the world in countries using Islamic law and in some territories under British rule. Medically supervised caning is ordered by the courts as a penalty for some categories of crime in Singapore, Malaysia, Tanzania and elsewhere.
Flogging is a form of punishment used under Islamic Sharia law. It is the prescribed punishment for offences including fornication, alcohol use and slander and is widely favoured as a discretionary punishment for many offences, such as violating gender interaction laws. Punishment is carried out in public. However, some scholars maintain. According to the Torah and Rabbinic law lashes may be given for offenses that do not merit capital punishment, may not exceed 40. However, in the absence of a Sanhedrin, corporal punishment is not practiced in Jewish law. Halakha specifies the lashes must be given in sets of three, so the total number cannot exceed 39; the person whipped is first judged whether they can withstand the punishment, if not, the number of whips is decreased. Jewish law limited flagellation to forty strokes, in practice delivered thirty-nine, so as to avoid any possibility of breaking this law due to a miscount. In Sparta, young men were flogged as a test of their masculinity. In the Roman Empire, flagellation was used as a prelude to crucifixion, in this context is sometimes referred to as scourging.
Whips with small pieces of metal or bone at the tips were used. Such a device could cause disfigurement and serious trauma, such as ripping pieces of flesh from the body or loss of an eye. In addition to causing severe pain, the victim would approach a state of hypovolemic shock due to loss of blood; the Romans reserved this treatment for non-citizens, as stated in the lex Porcia and lex Sempronia, dating from 195 and 123 BC. The poet Horace refers to the horribile flagellum in his Satires; the one to be punished was stripped naked and bound to a low pillar so that he could bend over it, or chained to an upright pillar so as to be stretched out. Two lictors alternated blows from the bare shoulders down the body to the soles of the feet. There was no limit to the number of blows inflicted—this was left to the lictors to decide, though they were not supposed to kill the victim. Nonetheless, Livy and Josephus report cases of flagellation where victims died while still bound to the post. Flagellation was referred to as "half death" by some authors, as many victims died shortly thereafter.
Cicero reports in In Verrem, "pro mortuo sublatus brevi postea mortuus". The Whipping Act was passed in England in 1530. Under this legislation, vagrants were to be taken to a nearby populated area "and there tied to the end of a cart naked and beaten with whips throughout such market town till the body shall be bloody". In England, offenders were sentenced to be flogged "at a cart's tail" along a length of public street near the scene of the crime, "until his back be bloody". In the late seventeenth century, the courts ordered that the flogging should be carried out in prison or a house of correction rather than on the streets. From the 1720s courts began explicitly to differentiate between private whipping and public whipping. Over the course of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the proportion of whippings carried out in public declined, but the number of private whippings increased; the public whipping of women was abolished in 1817 and that of men ended in the early 1830s, though not formally abolished until 1862.
Private whipping of men in prison continued and was not abolished until 1948. The 1948 abolition did not affect the ability of a prison's visiting justices to order the birch or cat for prisoners committing serious assaults on prison staff; this power was not abolished until 1967, having been last used in 1962. Whipping occurred during the French Revolution, though not as official punishment. On 31 May 1793, the Jacobin women seized a revolutionary leader, Anne Josephe Theroigne de Mericourt, stripped her naked, flogged her on the bare bottom in the public garden of the Tuileries. After this humiliation, she refused to wear any clothe
Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits with a single cane made of rattan applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks or hand. Caning on the knuckles or shoulders is much less common. Caning can be applied to the soles of the feet; the size and flexibility of the cane and the mode of application, as well as the number of the strokes, vary — from a couple of light strokes with a small cane across the seat of a junior schoolboy's trousers, to 24 hard, wounding cuts on the bare buttocks with a large, soaked rattan as a judicial punishment in some Southeast Asian countries. The thin cane used for corporal punishment is not to be confused with a walking stick, sometimes called a cane, but, thicker and much more rigid, more to be made of stronger wood than of cane. Caning was a common form of judicial punishment and official school discipline in many parts of the world in the 19th and 20th centuries. Corporal punishment has now been outlawed in much, but not all, of Europe.
However, caning remains legal in numerous other countries in home, religious, judicial or military contexts, is in common use in some countries where it is no longer legal. Judicial caning, administered with a long, heavy rattan and much more severe than the canings given in schools, was/is a feature of some British colonial judicial systems, though the cane was never used judicially in Britain itself. In some countries caning is still in use in the post-independence era in Southeast Asia, in some African countries; the practice is retained, for male offenders only, under the criminal law in Malaysia and Brunei. Caning in Indonesia is a recent introduction, in the special case of Aceh, on Sumatra, which since its 2005 autonomy has introduced a form of sharia law for Muslims only, applying the cane to the clothed upper back of the offender. African countries still using judicial caning include Botswana, Nigeria and, for juvenile offenders only and Zimbabwe. Other countries that used it until the late 20th century only for male offenders, included Kenya and South Africa, while some Caribbean countries such as Trinidad and Tobago use birching, another punishment in the British tradition, involving the use of a bundle of branches, not a single cane.
In Singapore and Brunei, healthy males under 50 years of age can be sentenced to a maximum of 24 strokes of the rotan cane on the bare buttocks. It is imposed for certain breaches of prison rules. In Aceh caning can be imposed for adultery; the punishment is applied to locals alike. Two examples of the caning of foreigners which received worldwide media scrutiny are the canings in Singapore in 1994 of Michael P. Fay, an American student who had vandalised several automobiles, in the United Arab Emirates in 1996 of Sarah Balabagan, a Filipina maid convicted of homicide. Caning is used in the Singapore Armed Forces to punish serious offences against military discipline in the case of recalcitrant young conscripts. Unlike judicial caning, this punishment is delivered to the soldier's clothed buttocks. See Caning in Singapore#Military caning; the frequency and severity of canings in educational settings have varied often being determined by the written rules or unwritten traditions of the school. The western educational use of the cane dates principally to the late nineteenth century replacing birching—effective only if applied to the bare bottom—with a form of punishment more suited to contemporary sensibilities, once it had been discovered that a flexible rattan cane can provide the offender with a substantial degree of pain when delivered through a layer of clothing.
Caning as a school punishment is associated in the English-speaking world with England, but it was used in other European countries in earlier times, notably Scandinavia and the countries of the former Austrian empire. In some schools corporal punishment was administered by the headmaster, while in others the task was delegated to other teachers. In many English and Commonwealth private schools, authority to punish was traditionally given to certain senior students. In the early 20th century, such permission for prefects to cane other boys was widespread in British public schools; the perceived advantages of this were promptness of punishment and avoiding bothering the teaching staff with minor disciplinary matters. Canings from prefects took place for a wide variety of failings, including lack of enthusiasm in sport, with the punishment repeated, if necessary, until the younger boy's performance or attitude improved. From at least the late 19th century onwards, prefects had used canings to enforce youngsters' participation in other character-building aspects of public school life, such as compulsory cold baths in winter.
Another claimed advantage was that boys who misbehaved would be chastised more by receiving a caning from a pre
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho
HM Prison Dartmoor
HM Prison Dartmoor is a Category C men's prison, located in Princetown, high on Dartmoor in the English county of Devon. Its high granite walls dominate this area of the moor; the prison is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. In 1805, Great Britain was at war with Napoleonic France, a conflict during which thousands of prisoners were taken and confined in prison "hulks" or derelict ships; this was considered unsafe due to the proximity of the Royal Naval dockyard at Devonport, as living conditions were appalling in the extreme, a prisoner of war depot was planned in the remote isolation of Dartmoor. Construction started in 1806. In 1809 the first French prisoners arrived, were joined by American POWs taken in the War of 1812. At one time the prison population numbered 6,000. By July 1815 at least 270 Americans and 1,200 French prisoners had died. Both French and American wars were concluded in 1815, repatriations began; the prison lay empty until 1850, when it was rebuilt and commissioned as a convict gaol.
After being buried on the moor, due to the establishment of the prison farm in about 1852, all the prisoners' remains were exhumed and re-interred in two cemeteries behind the prison. Designed by Daniel Asher Alexander and constructed between 1806 and 1809 by local labour, to hold prisoners of the Napoleonic Wars, it was used to hold American prisoners from the War of 1812. Although the war ended with the Treaty of Ghent in December 1814, many American prisoners of war still remained in Dartmoor. From the spring of 1813 until March 1815 about 6,500 American sailors were imprisoned at Dartmoor; these were naval prisoners, impressed American seamen discharged from British vessels. Whilst the British were in charge of the prison, the prisoners created their own governance and culture, they had courts which meted out punishments, there was an in-prison market, a theatre and a gambling room. About 1,000 of the prisoners were black Americans. After the prisoners heard of the Peace of Ghent, they expected immediate release, but the British government refused to let them go on parole or take any steps until the treaty was ratified by the United States Senate, 17 February 1815.
It took several weeks for the American agent to secure ships for their transportation home, the men grew impatient. On 4 April, a food contractor attempted to work off some damaged hardtack on them in place of soft bread and was forced to yield by their insurrection; the commandant, Captain T. G. Shortland, suspected them of a design to break out of the gaol; this was the reverse of the truth in general, as they would lose their chance of going on the ships, but a few had made threats of the sort, the commandant was uneasy. About 6:00 pm of the 6th, Shortland discovered a hole from one of the five prisons to the barrack yard near the gun racks; some prisoners were outside the fence, noisily pelting each other with turf, many more were near the breach, though the signal for return to prisons had sounded. Shortland was convinced of a plot, rang the alarm bell to collect the officers and have the men ready; this precaution brought back a crowd just going to quarters. Just a prisoner broke a gate chain with an iron bar and a number of the prisoners pressed through to the prison market square.
After attempts at persuasion, Shortland ordered a charge. Those near the gate, hooted at and taunted the soldiery, who fired a volley over their heads; the crowd yelled louder and threw stones, the soldiers without orders, fired a direct volley which killed and wounded a large number. They continued firing at the prisoners, many of whom were now struggling to get back inside the blocks; the captain, a lieutenant and the hospital surgeon succeeded in stopping the shooting and caring for the wounded – about 60, 30 besides seven killed outright. The affair was examined by a joint commission, Charles King for the United States and F. S. Larpent for Great Britain, which exonerated Shortland, justified the initial shooting and blamed the subsequent deaths on unknown culprits; the British government provided for the families of the killed, pensioned the disabled and promoted Shortland. A memorial has been erected to the 271 POWs. Dartmoor was reopened in 1851 as a civilian prison, but was closed again in 1917, when it was converted into a Home Office Work Centre for certain conscientious objectors granted release from prison.
It was reopened as a prison in 1920, contained some of Britain's most serious offenders. On 24 January 1932, there was a major disturbance at the prison; the cause of the riots is attributed to the food, not but just on specific days when it was suspected it had been tampered with prior to the disturbance. There had been other instances of disobedience prior to this, according to the official Du Parcq report into the incident such as a model prisoner attacking a popular guard with a razor blade and rough treatment of a prisoner being removed to solitary. At the parade that day, 50 prisoners refused orders, the rest were marched back to their cells but refused to enter. At this point, the prison governor and his staff fled to an unused part of the prison and secured themselves in there; the prisoners released those held in solitary. There was extensive damage to property and a prisoner was shot by one of the staff but no prison staff were injured. According to Fitzgerald
Human rights in the United Arab Emirates
According to human rights organizations, the government of the U. A. E violates a number of fundamental human rights; the UAE does not have democratically elected institutions and citizens do not have the right to change their government or to form political parties. There are reports of forced disappearances in the UAE, many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been abducted by the UAE government and illegally detained and tortured in undisclosed locations. In numerous instances, the UAE government has tortured people in custody. and has denied their citizens the right to a speedy trial and access to counsel during official investigations. Flogging and stoning are legal forms of judicial punishment in the UAE due to Sharia courts; the government restricts freedom of speech and freedom of the press, the local media is censored to avoid criticizing the government, government officials or royal families. Freedom of association and freedom of religion are curtailed. Despite being elected to the UN Council, the UAE has not signed most international human-rights and labor-rights treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.
Executions in the UAE is through either a firing squad, stoning. The UAE's judicial system is derived from Sharia law; the court system consists of Sharia courts. According to Human Rights Watch, UAE's civil and criminal courts apply elements of Sharia law, codified into its criminal code and family law, in a way which discriminates against women. Flogging is a punishment for criminal offences such as adultery, premarital sex and alcohol consumption. Due to Sharia courts, flogging is legal with sentences ranging from 80 to 200 lashes. Verbal abuse pertaining to a person's sexual honour is punishable by 80 lashes. Between 2007 and 2014, many people in the UAE were sentenced to 100 lashes. More in 2015, two men were sentenced to 80 lashes for hitting and insulting a woman. In 2014, an expat in Abu Dhabi was sentenced to 80 lashes for alcohol consumption and raping a toddler. Alcohol consumption for Muslims is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes, many Muslims have been sentenced to 80 lashes for alcohol consumption.
Sometimes 40 lashes are given. Illicit sex is sometimes penalized by 60 lashes. 80 lashes is the standard amount for anyone sentenced to flogging in several emirates. Sharia courts have penalized domestic workers with floggings. In October 2013, a Filipino housemaid was sentenced to 100 lashes for theft committed after her employer discovered her illegitimate pregnancy. Drunk-driving is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes. In Abu Dhabi, a man has been sentenced to 80 lashes for being drunk while with his girlfriend on the Corniche. Under UAE law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes. Stoning is a legal punishment in the UAE. In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi. In 2006, an expatriate was sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery. Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning. Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison. In recent years, several people have retracted their guilty plea in illicit sex cases after being sentenced to stoning or 100 lashes.
The punishment for committing adultery is 100 lashes for unmarried people and stoning to death for married people. Apostasy from Islam is a crime punishable by death in the UAE. Blasphemy is illegal, expats involved in insulting Islam are liable for deportation. UAE incorporates hudud crimes of Sharia into its Penal Code – apostasy being one of them. Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty. Emirati women must receive permission from male guardian to remarry; the requirement is derived from Sharia, has been federal law since 2005. In all emirates, it is illegal for Muslim women to marry non-Muslims. In the UAE, a marriage union between a Muslim woman and non-Muslim man is punishable by law, since it is considered a form of "fornication". Homosexuality is illegal and a crime punishable with death penalty in the UAE. Romantic kissing in public places is considered discourteous to the Emirati culture and is discouraged. However, it is not illegal for people to kiss.
Public sex is a crime punishable by law. The Sharia-based personal status law regulates matters such as marriage and child custody; the Sharia-based personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. Non-Muslim expatriates are liable to Sharia rulings on marriage and child custody. Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction to hear family disputes, including matters involving divorce, child custody, child abuse and guardianship of minors. Sharia courts may hear appeals of certain criminal cases including rape, driving under the influence of alcohol and related crimes. Article 1 of the Federal Penal Code states that "provisions of the Islamic Law shall apply to the crimes of doctrinal punishment, punitive punishment and blood money." The Federal Penal Code repealed only those provisions within the penal codes of individual emirates which are contradictory to the Federal Penal Code. Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously. A new federal law in the UAE prohibits swearing in Whatsapp and penalizes swearing by a $68,061 fine and imprisonment, expats are penalized by deportation.
In July 2015, an Australian expat was deported for swearing in Facebook. Amputation is a lega