Belvide Reservoir is a reservoir in South Staffordshire, England. It was built in 1833 to supply the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal, has been managed as a nature reserve since 1977, it has been used to study the effect of water level changes on bird populations. Owned by the Canal & River Trust, the reservoir was constructed around 1833 to feed the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal, which became part of the Shropshire Union Canal in 1846. Work began on it in 1832, the canal opened in early 1835. Traffic levels were high, the company had to buy 2,000 lockfulls of water in the first year, for which they paid £800 to the Wyrley and Essington Canal. In 1836, there was still pressure on the water supply, the engineer William Cubitt was instructed to enlarge the reservoir in May. In order to finance the improvements, the Commissioners agreed that they would not be paid until £20,000 had been spent on the improvements; the enlarged reservoir was completed in 1842. The valve gear which controls the flow of water from the reservoir to the canal is believed to be original.
It is housed in a circular gear house. Both were designed by Thomas Telford, are Grade II* listed structures; the structure has a cast iron dome, is a rare example of an original valve house. The reservoir covers an area of 180 acres when water levels are at their highest, but levels fluctuate as water is used for the canal, the surface area is around half of this figure when the water level is 12 feet lower; the reservoir is fed by a tributary of the River Penk. It is the site of a nature reserve, operated by the West Midland Bird Club since January 1977, is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the reserve is not open to the general public, a permit is required to visit it. The site has attracted interest from bird-watchers since the 1920s, when the ornithologist Arnold Boyd began visiting it and publishing reports in the magazine British Birds, although he did not reveal its location, as he called it "Bellfields" in the articles; the reservoir has been visited by many scarce and rare migrant birds, including white-winged black tern, whiskered tern, Caspian tern, spotted crake and spotted sandpiper.
Studies of the effects of changes in the water level at the reservoir have resulted in the publishing of an ideal regime for such draw-downs to maximise the benefits to wildlife. As with many such studies, there are conflicting interests, since moulting ducks such as pochard and tufted duck thrive in summers when the levels do not fluctuate much, whereas the larger draw-downs create better conditions for wading birds; the shallows are rejuvenated when a large draw-down occurs, dabbling ducks such as teal are most numerous as the reservoir refills, while the population of diving ducks is at its largest a year after such a draw-down has occurred. The reservoir is located to the south of the A5 road, which follows the course of the Roman Watling Street at this point; the canal is a little to the east, crosses the road at Stretton Aqueduct. Surplus water from the reservoir flows under the canal to reach the River Penk, a little further to the east; the nearest village is about 1 mile to the south-east.
Canals of the United Kingdom History of the British canal system Belvide Reservoir Map sources for Belvide Reservoir
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside cities. National parks and Country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and Provincial parks are administered by sub-national government agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks and trees, but may contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer and football, paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities; some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills; the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands square kilometers, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers.
In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are overseen by a park ranger or a park warden. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides and games of chance or skill. English deer parks were used by the aristocracy in medieval times for game hunting, they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks; these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown.
As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development. Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities; the design of a park may determine, willing to use it. Walkers may feel unsafe on a mixed-use path, dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may affect children's rates of use of parks according to sex.
Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can benefit pollinators, some parks have been redesigned to accommodate them better; some organisations, such as Xerces Society are promoting this idea. City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group, a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects, they argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.
Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities. There are a number of features. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility, appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can contribute to a feeling of safety. While Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has been used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in Stockholm, Sweden to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks, their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain forests, plains and other areas including the most developed urban areas, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that much wildlife is affected by human activities. Humans have tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal and moral sense; some animals, have adapted to suburban environments. This includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs and gerbils; some religions declare certain animals to be sacred, in modern times concern for the natural environment has provoked activists to protest against the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. The global wildlife population decreased by 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund.
Stone Age people and hunter-gatherers relied on both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters. Today, hunting and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas and non-commercial fishing are seen as a sport or recreation. Meat sourced from wildlife, not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat; the increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional food in East Asia is decimating populations of sharks, primates and other animals, which they believe have aphrodisiac properties. In November 2008 900 plucked and "oven-ready" owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Malaysia, according to TRAFFIC; the animals were believed to be sold in wild meat restaurants. Most are listed in CITES which restricts such trade. A November 2008 report from biologist and author Sally Kneidel, PhD, documented numerous wildlife species for sale in informal markets along the Amazon River, including wild-caught marmosets sold for as little as $1.60.
Many Amazon species, including peccaries, turtles, turtle eggs, armadillos are sold as food. Others in these informal markets, such as monkeys and parrots, are destined for the pet trade smuggled into the United States. Still other Amazon species are popular ingredients in traditional medicines sold in local markets; the medicinal value of animal parts is based on superstition. Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, they and their products may be used as sacred objects in religious rituals. For example, eagles and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects. In Hinduism the cow is regarded sacred. Muslims conduct sacrifices on Eid al-Adha, to commemorate the sacrificial spirit of Ibrāhīm in love of God. Camels, sheep and cows may be offered as sacrifice during the three days of Eid. Many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife. South Africa has, for example, many opportunities for tourists to see the country's wildlife in its national parks, such as the Kruger Park.
In South India, the Periar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary are situated around and in forests. India is home to many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries showing the diversity of its wildlife, much of its unique fauna, excels in the range. There are 89 national parks, 13 bio reserves and more than 400 wildlife sanctuaries across India which are the best places to go to see Bengal tigers, Asiatic lions, Indian elephants, Indian rhinoceroses and other wildlife which reflect the importance that the country places on nature and wildlife conservation; this subsection focuses on anthropogenic forms of wildlife destruction. The loss of animals from ecological communities is known as defaunation. Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of modern man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 – 70,000 years ago; the rate of extinctions of entire species of plants and animals across the planet has been so high in the last few hundred years it is believed that we are in the sixth great extinction event on this planet.
Destruction of wildlife does not always lead to an extinction of the species in question, the dramatic loss of entire species across Earth dominates any review of wildlife destruction as extinction is the level of damage to a wild population from which there is no return. The four most general reasons that lead to destruction of wildlife include overkill, habitat destruction and fragmentation, impact of introduced species and chains of extinction. Overkill happens whenever hunting occurs at rates greater than the reproductive capacity of the population is being exploited; the effects of this are noticed much more in slow growing populations such as many larger species of fish. When a portion of a wild population is hunted, an increased availability of resources is experienced increasing growth and reproduction as density dependent inhibition is lowered. Hunting, fishing and so on, has lowered the competition between members of a population. However, if this hunting continues at rate greater than the rate at which new members of the population can reach breeding age and produ
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so. Hunting wildlife or feral animals is most done by humans for food, recreation, to remove predators that can be dangerous to humans or domestic animals, or for trade. Lawful hunting is distinguished from poaching, the illegal killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species; the species that are hunted are referred to as game or prey and are mammals and birds. Hunting has long been a practice used to procure meat for human consumption; the meat from a healthy wild animal that has lived its life and on a natural diet of plants has a higher nutritional quality than that of a domestic animal, raised in an unnatural way. Hunting an animal for its meat can be seen as a more natural way to obtain animal protein since regulated hunting does not cause the same environmental issues as raising domestic animals for meat on factory farms. Hunting can be a means of pest control. Hunting advocates state that hunting can be a necessary component of modern wildlife management, for example, to help maintain a population of healthy animals within an environment's ecological carrying capacity when natural checks such as predators are absent or rare.
However, excessive hunting has heavily contributed to the endangerment and extinction of many animals. The pursuit and release, or capture for food of fish is called fishing, not categorised as a form of hunting, it is not considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to kill them, as in wildlife photography, birdwatching, or scientific research activities which involve tranquilizing or tagging of animals or birds. The practice of foraging or gathering materials from plants and mushrooms is considered separate from hunting. Skillful tracking and acquisition of an elusive target has caused the word hunt to be used in the vernacular as a metaphor, as in treasure hunting, "bargain hunting", "hunting down" corruption and waste. Animal rights activists argue that hunting is cruel and unethical; the word hunt serves as a verb. The noun has been dated to the early 12th century, "act of chasing game," from the verb hunt. Old English had huntung, huntoþ; the meaning of "a body of persons associated for the purpose of hunting with a pack of hounds" is first recorded in the 1570s.
Meaning "the act of searching for someone or something" is from about 1600. The verb, Old English huntian "to chase game" developed from hunta "hunter," is related to hentan "to seize," from Proto-Germanic huntojan, of uncertain origin; the general sense of "search diligently" is first recorded c. 1200. Hunting has a long history, it pre-dates the emergence of Homo sapiens and may predate genus Homo. The oldest undisputed evidence for hunting dates to the Early Pleistocene, consistent with the emergence and early dispersal of Homo erectus, about 1.7 million years ago. While it is undisputed that Homo erectus were hunters, the importance of this for the emergence of Homo erectus from its australopithecine ancestors, including the production of stone tools and the control of fire, is emphasised in the so-called "hunting hypothesis" and de-emphasised in scenarios that stress omnivory and social interaction. There is no direct evidence for hunting predating Homo erectus, in either Homo habilis or in Australopithecus.
The early hominid ancestors of humans were frugivores or omnivores, with a carnivore diet from scavenging rather than hunting. Evidence for australopithecine meat consumption was presented in the 1990s, it has often been assumed that at least occasional hunting behavior may have been present well before the emergence of Homo. This can be argued on the basis of comparison with chimpanzees, the closest extant relatives of humans, who engage in hunting, indicating that the behavioral trait may have been present in the Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor as early as 5 million years ago; the common chimpanzee engages in troop predation behaviour where bands of beta males are led by an alpha male. Bonobos have been observed to engage in group hunting, although more than Pan troglodytes subsisting on a frugivorous diet. Indirect evidence for Oldowan era hunting, by early Homo or late Australopithecus, has been presented in a 2009 study based on an Oldowan site in southwestern Kenya. Louis Binford criticised the idea that early humans were hunters.
On the basis of the analysis of the skeletal remains of the consumed animals, he concluded that hominids and early humans were scavengers, not hunters, Blumenschine proposed the idea of confrontational scavenging, which involves challenging and scaring off other predators after they have made a kill, which he suggests could have been the leading method of obtaining protein-rich meat by early humans. Stone spearheads dated as early as 500,000 years ago were found in South Africa. Wood does not preserve well and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees means that early humans used wooden spears as well five million years ago; the earliest dated find of surviving wooden hunting spears dates to the end of the Lower Paleolithic, just before 300,000 years ago. The Schöningen spears, found in 1976 in Germany, are
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds; the science of ornithology has a long history and studies on birds have helped develop several key concepts in evolution and ecology such as the definition of species, the process of speciation, learning, ecological niches, island biogeography and conservation. While early ornithology was principally concerned with descriptions and distributions of species, ornithologists today seek answers to specific questions using birds as models to test hypotheses or predictions based on theories. Most modern biological theories apply across taxonomic groups, the number of professional scientists who identify themselves as "ornithologists" has therefore declined. A wide range of tools and techniques is used in ornithology, both inside the laboratory and out in the field, innovations are made; the word "ornithology" comes from the late 16th-century Latin ornithologia meaning "bird science" from the Greek ὄρνις ornis and λόγος logos.
The history of ornithology reflects the trends in the history of biology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, including ecology, physiology and more molecular biology. Trends include the move from mere descriptions to the identification of patterns, thus towards elucidating the processes that produce these patterns. Humans have had an observational relationship with birds since prehistory, with some stone-age drawings being amongst the oldest indications of an interest in birds. Birds were important as food sources, bones of as many as 80 species have been found in excavations of early Stone Age settlements. Waterbird and seabird remains have been found in shell mounds on the island of Oronsay off the coast of Scotland. Cultures around the world have rich vocabularies related to birds. Traditional bird names are based on detailed knowledge of the behaviour, with many names being onomatopoeic, still in use. Traditional knowledge may involve the use of birds in folk medicine and knowledge of these practices are passed on through oral traditions.
Hunting of wild birds as well as their domestication would have required considerable knowledge of their habits. Poultry farming and falconry were practised from early times in many parts of the world. Artificial incubation of poultry was practised in China around 246 BC and around at least 400 BC in Egypt; the Egyptians made use of birds in their hieroglyphic scripts, many of which, though stylized, are still identifiable to species. Early written records provide valuable information on the past distributions of species. For instance, Xenophon records the abundance of the ostrich in Assyria. Other old writings such as the Vedas demonstrate the careful observation of avian life histories and include the earliest reference to the habit of brood parasitism by the Asian koel. Like writing, the early art of China, Japan and India demonstrate knowledge, with examples of scientifically accurate bird illustrations. Aristotle in 350 BC in his Historia Animalium noted the habit of bird migration, egg laying, lifespans, as well as compiling a list of 170 different bird species.
However, he introduced and propagated several myths, such as the idea that swallows hibernated in winter, although he noted that cranes migrated from the steppes of Scythia to the marshes at the headwaters of the Nile. The idea of swallow hibernation became so well established that as late as in 1878, Elliott Coues could list as many as 182 contemporary publications dealing with the hibernation of swallows and little published evidence to contradict the theory. Similar misconceptions existed regarding the breeding of barnacle geese, their nests had not been seen, they were believed to grow by transformations of goose barnacles, an idea that became prevalent from around the 11th century and noted by Bishop Giraldus Cambrensis in Topographia Hiberniae. Around 77 AD, Pliny the Elder described birds, in his Historia Naturalis; the earliest record of falconry comes from the reign of Sargon II in Assyria. Falconry is thought to have made its entry to Europe only after AD 400, brought in from the east after invasions by the Huns and Alans.
Starting from the eighth century, numerous Arabic works on the subject and general ornithology were written, as well as translations of the works of ancient writers from Greek and Syriac. In the 12th and 13th centuries and conquest had subjugated Islamic territories in southern Italy, central Spain, the Levant under European rule, for the first time translations into Latin of the great works of Arabic and Greek scholars were made with the help of Jewish and Muslim scholars in Toledo, which had fallen into Christian hands in 1085 and whose libraries had escaped destruction. Michael Scotus from Scotland made a Latin translation of Aristotle's work on animals from Arabic here around 1215, disseminated and was the first time in a millennium that this foundational text on zoology became available to Europeans. Falconry was popular in the Norman court in Sicily, a number of works on the subject were written in Palermo. Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen learned about an falconry during his youth in Sicily and built up a menagerie and sponsored translations of Arabic texts, among which the popular Arab
A shed is a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden or on an allotment, used for storage, hobbies, or as a workshop. Sheds vary in the complexity of their construction and their size, from small open-sided tin-roofed structures to large wood-framed sheds with shingled roofs and electrical outlets. Sheds used on farms or in industry can be large structures; the main types of shed construction are metal sheathing over a metal frame, plastic sheathing and frame, all-wood construction, vinyl-sided sheds built over a wooden frame. A culture of shed enthusiasts exists in several countries for people who enjoy building sheds and spending time in them for relaxation. In Australia and New Zealand there are magazines called The Shed, an association for shed hobbyists, a book entitled Men and Sheds. Depending on the region and type of use, a shed may be called an "outhouse", "outbuilding" or "shack"; the simplest and least-expensive sheds are available in kit form. These kits are designed for regular people to be able to assemble themselves using available tools.
Both shed kits and DIY plans are available for plastic sheds. Sheds are used to store home and garden tools and equipment such as lawn tractors, gardening supplies. In addition, sheds can be used to store items that are not suitable for indoor storage, such as petrol, pesticides, or herbicides. For homes with small gardens or modest storage needs, there are several types of small sheds; the sheds not only use less ground area but have a low profile less to obstruct the view or clash with the landscaping. These small sheds include corner sheds, which fit into a corner, vertical sheds, horizontal sheds, tool sheds; when a shed is used for tool storage and hooks are used to maximize the storage space. Gambrel-style roofed sheds, which resemble a Dutch-style barn, have a high sloping roofline which increases storage space in the "loft" area; some Gambrel-styles offer the advantage of reduced overall height. Another style of small shed is the saltbox-style shed. Many sheds have either a pent or apex roof shape.
A pent shed features a single roof section, angled downwards to let rainwater run off, with more headroom at the front than the back. This is a simple, practical design that will fit well next to a wall or fence, it is usually lower than the typical apex shed, so could be a better choice if there are any height restrictions. A pent shed may be attached to a wall. An apex shed. Two roof sections meet at a ridge in the middle, providing more headroom in the centre than at the sides; this type is regarded as a more attractive and traditional design, may be preferable if the shed is going to be visible from the house. A twist on the standard apex shape is the reverse apex shed. In this design, the door is set in a side wall instead of the front; the main advantage of the reverse apex design is that the door opens into the widest part of the shed instead of the narrowest, so it's easier to reach into all areas to retrieve or store equipment. Larger, more-expensive sheds are constructed of wood and include features found in house construction, such as windows, a shingled roof, electrical outlets.
Larger sheds provide more space for engaging in hobbies such as gardening, small engine repair, or tinkering. Some sheds have small porches or include furniture, which allows them to be used for relaxation purposes. In some cases and homeworkers in general who live in mild climates use small to medium-sized wooden garden sheds as outdoor offices. There is a growing industry in providing "off the peg" garden offices to cater for this demand in the UK but in the US. Shed owners can customize wooden sheds to match the features of the main house. A number of decorative options can be added to sheds, such as dormers, flowerboxes and weathervanes; as well, practical options can be added such as benches, ventilation systems, electric lighting. Sheds designed for gardening, called "potting sheds" feature windows or skylights for illumination, ventilation grilles, a potter's bench for mixing soil and re-potting plants. Garden sheds — The vast majority of sheds are garden sheds, including allotment sheds.
This class of sheds includes potting sheds and tool sheds. Most modern gardens are too small for more than a single shed, containing garden tools and lawn mowers. Bike sheds contain a framework on which bikes can be supported and locked and a roof to keep rain and/or snow off the bikes. Bike sheds range from little more than a supported roof to more-complex structures with walls and locking doors or gates; the color of a bikeshed is the topic of a well-known adage about the challenges of group work in organizational psychology. Boat sheds are lockable wooden sheds built near a body of water to store small private boats, bathing suits, life vests and related items. Boat sheds used. Wood sheds are sheds used for storage of large quantities of firewood. Woodsheds help protect fir
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science. It can be done with the naked eye, through a visual enhancement device like binoculars and telescopes, by listening for bird sounds, or by watching public webcams. Birdwatching involves a significant auditory component, as many bird species are more detected and identified by ear than by eye. Most birdwatchers pursue this activity for recreational or social reasons, unlike ornithologists, who engage in the study of birds using formal scientific methods; the first recorded use of the term birdwatcher was in 1891. The term birding was used for the practice of fowling or hunting with firearms as in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor: "She laments sir... her husband goes this morning a-birding." The terms birding and birdwatching are today used by some interchangeably, although some participants prefer birding because it includes the auditory aspects of enjoying birds.
In North America, many birders differentiate themselves from birdwatchers, the term birder is unfamiliar to most lay people. At the most basic level, the distinction is perceived as one of dedication or intensity, though this is a subjective differentiation. Self-described birders perceive themselves to be more versed in minutiae like identification, distribution, migration timing, habitat usage. Whereas these dedicated birders may travel in search of birds, birdwatchers have been described by some enthusiasts as having a more limited scope not venturing far from their own yards or local parks to view birds. Indeed, in 1969 a Birding Glossary appeared in Birding magazine which gave the following definitions: Birder; the acceptable term used to describe the person who pursues the hobby of birding. May be professional or amateur. Birding. A hobby in which individuals enjoy the challenge of bird study, listing, or other general activities involving bird life. Bird-watcher. A rather ambiguous term used to describe the person who watches birds for any reason at all, should not be used to refer to the serious birder.
Twitching is a British term used to mean "the pursuit of a located rare bird." In North America it is more called chasing, though the British usage is starting to catch on there among younger birders. The term twitcher, sometimes misapplied as a synonym for birder, is reserved for those who travel long distances to see a rare bird that would be ticked, or counted on a list; the term originated in the 1950s, when it was used for the nervous behaviour of Howard Medhurst, a British birdwatcher. Prior terms for those who chased rarities were tally-hunter, or tick-hunter; the main goal of twitching is to accumulate species on one's lists. Some birders engage in competition to accumulate the longest species list; the act of the pursuit itself is referred to a chase. A rare bird that stays put long enough for people to see it is chaseable. Twitching is developed in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden; the size of these countries makes it possible to travel throughout them and with relative ease.
The most popular twitches in the UK have drawn large crowds. Twitchers have developed their own vocabulary. For example, a twitcher who fails to see a rare bird has dipped out. Suppression is the act of concealing news of a rare bird from other twitchers. Many birders maintain a life list, that is, a list of all of the species they have seen in their life with details about the sighting such as date and location; the American Birding Association has specific rules about how a bird species may be documented and recorded in such a list if it is submitted to the ABA. Some birders "count" species they have identified audibly, while others only record species that they have identified visually; some maintain a country list, state list, county list, yard list, year list, or any combination of these. The early interest in observing birds for their aesthetic rather than utilitarian value is traced to the late 18th century in the works of Gilbert White, Thomas Bewick, George Montagu and John Clare; the study of birds and natural history in general became prevalent in Britain during the Victorian Era associated with collection and skins being the artifacts of interest.
Wealthy collectors made use of their contacts in the colonies to obtain specimens from around the world. It was only in the late 19th century that the call for bird protection began leading to the rising popularity of observations on living birds; the Audubon Society was started to protect birds from the growing trade in feathers in the United States while the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds began in Britain. The term "birdwatching" appeared for the first time as the title of a book "Bird Watching" by Edmund Selous in 1901. In North America, the identification of birds, once thought possible only by shooting was made possible by the emergence of optics and field identification guides; the earliest field guide in the US was Birds through an Opera Glass by Florence Bailey. Birding in North America was focused in the early and mid-20th century in the eastern seaboard region, was influenced by the works of Ludlow Griscom and Roger Tory Peterson. Bird Neighbors by N