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Birdwings are butterflies in the swallowtail family, that belong to the genera Trogonoptera and Ornithoptera. Most recent authorities recognise 36 species, this is debated, some authorities include additional genera. Birdwings are named for their exceptional size, angular wings, birdlike flight, they are found across tropical Asia and archipelagic Southeast Asia, Australasia. Included among the birdwings are some of the largest butterflies in the world: the largest, Queen Alexandra's birdwing. Another well-known species is Rajah Brooke's birdwing, a attractive species named after Sir James Brooke, the first White Rajah of 19th-century Sarawak. Due to their size and brightly coloured males, they are popular among collectors of butterflies, but all birdwings are now listed by CITES, thereby limiting international trade. Troides prattorum × Troides oblongomaculatus bouruensis — Troides mixtum Ornithoptera rothschildi × Ornithoptera priamus poseidon — Ornithoptera akakeae Ornithoptera victoriae × Ornithoptera priamus urvillianus — Ornithoptera allotei After mating, females begin to seek appropriate host plants.

The female lays her spherical eggs under the tips of the vine's leaves, one egg per leaf. The caterpillars are voracious eaters but move little. If starved due to overcrowding, the caterpillars may resort to cannibalism. Fleshy spine-like tubercles line the caterpillars' backs, their bodies are dark red to brown and velvety black; some species have tubercles of contrasting colours red, or pale "saddle" markings. Like other members of their family, birdwing caterpillars possess a retractable organ behind their heads called an osmeterium. Shaped like the forked tongue of a snake, the osmeterium excretes a fetid terpene-based compound and is deployed when the caterpillar is provoked; the caterpillars are unappealing to most predators due to their toxicity: the vines which the caterpillars feed upon contain aristolochic acid, a poisonous compound known to be carcinogenic in rats. The feeding caterpillars incorporate and concentrate the aristolochic acid into their tissues, where the poison will persist through metamorphosis and into adulthood.

Birdwing chrysalids are camouflaged to look like twig. Before pupating, the caterpillars may wander considerable distances from their host plants. In O. alexandrae, it takes about four months to get from egg to adult. Barring predation, this species can survive up to three months as an adult. Birdwings inhabit rainforests and adults are glimpsed along the forest periphery, they feed upon—and are important long-range pollinators of—nectar-bearing flowers of the forest canopy, as well as terrestrial flowers, such as lantana. They are strong seek sunlit spots in which to bask. Breeding behaviour varies little between species. Birdwings are typified by large size, showy colouration, slender, lanceolate forewings. With few exceptions, the hindwings lack tails. Sexual dimorphism is strong in Ornithoptera species only, where males are black combined with bright iridescent green, orange, or yellow while the larger and less colourful females are overall black or dark brownish with white, pale brown, or yellow markings.

Males and females of most Troides birdwings are similar and have jet black to brown dorsal forewings with the veins bordered in grey to creamy white. At least one of these darkly-coloured species possesses thermoreceptors on the anal veins of the wings and on the antennal clubs; the antennal receptors of the clubs—which possess hygroreceptors that measure atmospheric humidity—are known as sensilla basiconica. The thermoreceptors are sensitive to sudden increases in temperature; the colours of most species are pigmentary. This "grazing iridescence" is brought about through diffraction of light by the wings' steeply-set, multilayered rib-like scales; such limited-view iridescence was only known from one other species, the riodinid Ancyluris meliboeus. In A. meliboeus, the iridescence is produced by ridge-lamellar scales and features a wider range of colours. The close evolutionary relationship between Troides and Ornithoptera butterflies is well demonstrated by the fact that commercial breeders have produced numerous hybrids between the two.

The final and smallest genus is Trogonoptera with just two species. They resemble each being overall black with iridescent green markings and a red head. Females are duller than males. Birdwings are f

The Unsinkable Molly Brown (musical)

The Unsinkable Molly Brown is a 1960 musical with music and lyrics by Meredith Willson and book by Richard Morris. The plot is a fictionalized account of the life of Margaret Brown, who survived the sinking of the RMS Titanic, her wealthy miner-husband. A musical film version titled The Unsinkable Molly Brown, with screenplay by Helen Deutsch, was released in 1964; the original Broadway production opened at the Winter Garden Theatre on November 3, 1960 and closed on February 10, 1962 after 532 performances and 1 preview. It was choreographed by Peter Gennaro; the opening cast included Tammy Grimes, Harve Presnell, Jack Harrold. Grimes won the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical. Grimes appeared in the US national tour in 1962, including Los Angeles and San Francisco in April and June 1962, respectively. Presnell reprised his stage role for the 1964 film titled The Unsinkable Molly Brown starring Debbie Reynolds; the two starred in a 1989-1990 national tour. The first West End production, with Abi Finley and Sean Pol McGreevy in the leading roles, opened in May 2009.

A reading of Molly Brown, the first of the revised versions by Dick Scanlan, took place in Denver at the Denver Center Theatre Company's Colorado New Play Summit in February 2009. The show was directed by Kathleen Marshall and starred Kerry O'Malley as Molly, Marc Kudisch as James Joseph "J. J." Brown, William Parry as Horace Tabor, Linda Mugelston as Polly Pry. The story was revised "to use more elements from the real-life story" of Molly Brown. A reading of the musical was held in May 2010; the show was directed/choreographed by Kathleen Marshall, music supervision by Michael Rafter, with Sutton Foster as Molly and Craig Bierko as J. J. Brown; this reading had only Molly and J. J. as characters, cutting out all others. Another reading of the musical by Scanlan was staged in December 2011; the creative team was the same as in May 2010, it starred Foster and Kudisch again, Teal Wicks, Francis Jue and Zachary James, among others. About half the score is from the original musical and "the rest of the ‘new’ score is made up of songs from the late Willson's catalog."Opening September 12, 2014, a full production of the Dick Scanlan revisioning was produced at the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, running through October 26.

The production featured Burke Moses. The plotline differed from the original production, opening with Molly in the Titanic lifeboat, flashing back to follow her life from her first visit to Leadville; the production received favorable reviews from local reviewers and a notice in the New York Times, "A New Crew Salvages Old Molly Brown."The revised Scanlan version opened on February 8, 2020 Off-Broadway at the Abrons Arts Center, presented by the Transport Group and directed and choreographed by Kathleen Marshall. Beth Malone and David Aron Damane star; the following plot is that of the original 1960 Broadway production In the early 1900s, feisty tomboy Molly Tobin wrestles with her three younger brothers and tells them and her father that she wants to learn to read and write and to find a rich husband. Molly makes her way to the Saddle Rock saloon in Leadville and applies for a job. On the way to Leadville, Colorado she meets J. J. "Leadville" Johnny Brown, who promises to give her whatever she wants.

After they marry, Johnny sells a claim and provides Molly with the money she wants, enough to enter the high social life in Denver. Molly and Johnny, now dressed in gaudy finery, are made fun of by the Denver society people she wants to impress, they travel to Europe, against Johnny's better instincts; the couple, Molly, are welcomed and accepted by European royalty, but the attentions of Prince DeLong towards Molly upset Johnny and he returns to Leadville alone. Molly realizes that Johnny is her true love, she sails for home on the RMS Titanic; as the Titanic sinks and the tragedy unfolds, Molly survives in one of the lifeboats. She is reunited with Johnny, who has built Molly her own "castle," a beautiful home in the Rocky Mountains; the song "I Ain't Down Yet" became a popular standard. Musicians who recorded it included Dinah Shore in 1961, Lester Lanin and his Orchestra in 1962, John Gary in 1966; the tune was adapted as the theme for the children's TV show Wonderama, in which children in the audience waved their raised arms back and forth in time to the music during the opening credits.

The Unsinkable Molly Brown at the Internet Broadway Database Plot synopsis and other details at The Unsinkable Molly Brown at the Music Theatre International website Internet Off-Broadway Database

Maurice Obstfeld

Maurice Moses "Maury" Obstfeld is a professor of economics at the University of California and Chief Economist at the International Monetary Fund. He is well known for his work in international economics, he is among the most influential economists in the world according to IDEAS/RePEc. He graduated from University of Pennsylvania summa cum laude, Cambridge and MIT, where received his Ph. D. in 1979. Director of the Center for International and Development Economic Research, he joined Berkeley in 1989 as a professor, following appointments at Columbia and the University of Pennsylvania. He was a visiting professor at Harvard between 1989 and 1991. Obstfeld serves as honorary advisor to the Bank of Japan's Institute of Monetary and Economic Studies. Among Obstfeld's honors are the Carroll Round Keynote Lecture, Woodward Lecture, Bernhard Harms Prize and Lecture in 2004. Obstfeld is the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he is active as a research Fellow of CEPR, a research associate at NBER, an International Research Fellow at the Kiel Institute for the World Economy.

As of February 1st, 2019, Obstfeld is a nonresident senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. On June 3, 2014, the White House announced that Obstfeld would join the Council of Economic Advisers as lead macroeconomist. On July 20, 2015, Christine Lagarde, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, announced her intention to appoint Obstfeld as Economic Counsellor and Director of the IMF’s Research Department. Obstfeld succeeds Olivier Blanchard, he began his work at the Fund on September 8, 2015. "Too Much Focus on the Yuan?",October 2010 "Lenders of Last Resort and Global Liquidity: Rethinking the System," Development Outreach, December 2009 Globalization and Macroeconomics, Fall 2000. Money, Capital Mobility, Trade: Essays in Honor of Robert Mundell, with Guillermo Calvo and Rudi Dornbusch. International Economics: Theory and Policy, with Paul Krugman and Marc Melitz Foundations of International Macroeconomics, with Kenneth Rogoff. Maurice Obstfeld/Site Maurice Obstfeld-Biographical Information-International Monetary Fund Professional page Curriculum Vitae


TooLAME is a free software MPEG-1 Layer II audio encoder written by Mike Cheng. While there are many MP2 encoders, TooLAME is well-known and used for its high audio quality, it is directly succeeded by the TwoLAME code fork. The name TooLAME is a play on LAME and Layer II. After leaving leadership of the LAME project, Mike Cheng decided to redirect his efforts towards the MP2 format; this was in part due to concern with looming legal threats to those distributing software for the widespread MP3 format, due to patents held by Fraunhofer and Thomson, while use of MP2 audio was unrestricted. For more, see: LAME legal issues; the first release of TooLAME was November 7, 1998. He based his work on mpegaudio.tar. In October 1999, he started over from scratch, instead basing TooLAME on the more capable ISO Dist10 reference implementation, substantial code from LAME, he aimed for improved encoding performance. Achieving high performance, "About 4 times faster than ISO code."TooLAME was a standalone audio encoder, accepting PCM files in RAW/AIFF/WAV format.

However, in the final TooLAME release from Cheng, support for use as a library was included. Cheng resisted the addition of features like libsndfile integration for support of a much wider variety of input formats. Nicholas Humfrey made significant modifications to tooLAME, released it publicly. At Mike Cheng's request he renamed it to TwoLAME to avoid confusion. TooLAME utilizes the tuned psychoacoustic model developed for LAME, but applied to MP2 audio encoding, instead. Includes a rather complex used, poorly supported variable bitrate mode. Frame CRCs, Broadcast Wave Format output was added for Digital Audio Broadcasting use. MJPEGTools documentation recommends the use of TooLAME instead of their included mp2enc. MPlayer/Mencoder includes support for TooLAME audio encoding. TwoLAME: Mainly code clean-up, API change, performance improvements: MCTooLAME: TooLAME fork with MPEG Multichannel 5.1-channel surround sound encoding: Windows DLLs: Toolame-DAB: Integration with the open-source Digital Audio Broadcasting toolchain ODR-mmbTools: MPEG-1 Layer II MP3 LAME MPEG-1 Digital Audio Broadcasting TooLAME on

World Police and Fire Games

The World Police and Fire Games is a biennial athletic event, open to active and retired law enforcement and fire service personnel throughout the world. The WPFG Federation is an arm of the California Police Athletic Federation, an American non-profit organization; the Games attract 10,000 entrants fewer than the Summer Olympic Games, exceeding the third position holder, the Commonwealth Games. In the early 2010s, The United Kingdom hosted all three events consecutively; the host city of the 2015 World Police and Fire Game was Fairfax County, Virginia, in the United States, with venues located around the Washington metropolitan area. In 2019 the host city is Chengdu in China. In 2021 the host city will be the Netherlands. In 2023 the host city will be Manitoba in Canada; the California Police Olympics were first held in 1967. The concept evolved over the years and led to the creation of the World Police & Fire Games Federation—a non-profit organization, run by the Californian Police Athletics Federation—in 1983.

Two years in 1985, the first World Police & Fire Games were held in San Jose, California, USA, with nearly 5,000 competitors. The largest WPFG games to date was held in New York, New York, USA with over 16,000 athletes in attendance, from 59 nations; the most successful and best organised was in Belfast, Northern Ireland in 2013. It was described, by the President of the World Police and Fire Games Federation, Mike Graham, as "the friendliest and best Games ever"; the Montreal Firefighters Association called for a boycott of the 2017 Games, which were held in their own city, in protest against forced changes to their collective agreements and pension funds by the City of Montreal and the Quebec provincial government. Labor unions representing over 100,000 firefighters and civil servants joined Montreal's firefighters in the boycott. World Firefighters Games World Military Games WPFG Chengdu Guide. Chengdu Guide for The World Police and Fire Games 2019 WPFG 2019 Official Website. Chengdu, China 2019 World Police and Fire Games official website WPFG 2017 Official Website.

Los Angeles 2017 Fire Games official website WPFG 2015 official website. Fairfax 2015 World Police and Fire Games official website WPFG 2013 official website. World Police and Fire Games 2013 Belfast official website WPFG 2009 Photo Galleries. California Police Athletic Federation official website California Police Athletic Federation official website United States Police and Fire Championships. CPAF official website

ECAC 2 Tournament

ECAC 2 began holding a conference tournament for the 1965–66 season with four teams invited to participate. After 5 teams left in 1971 to form ECAC 3 the league's membership had risen from 15 to 24 teams in the interim and the championship was expanded to eight. By 1977–78 ECAC 2 has 32 member schools and rather than institute a single 16-team tournament the league decided to hold one 8-team tournament for each of its two divisions; this was done to guarantee the two tournament champions automatic bids to the NCAA Tournament which began play the same year. Some schools, either had policies that barred them from appearing in national tournaments or were ineligible to appear in a Division II tournament due to being a Division I or Division III school; this arrangement held for 6 years before the entire Division II level of college hockey collapsed after 1983–84 and ECAC 2 was formally split into two separate conferences the following season. Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period Note: * denotes overtime period NEHC Men's Tournament ECAC West Men's Tournament "Army West Point hockey 2018-19 Record Book".

Army Black Knights. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Babson Men's Ice Hockey Conference Tournament Results". Babson Beavers. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Bowdoin College Men's Hockey History". Bowdoin Polar Bears. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Elmira Men's Hockey 2016-17 Media Guide". Elmira Soaring Eagles. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "All-Time Results". Hamilton Continentals. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Holy Cross Crusaders Record Book". Holy Cross Crusaders. Retrieved November 29, 2018. "UMass Hockey 2008-09 History". UMass Minutemen. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "UMass Lowell History and Records". UMass Lowell River Hawks. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Year-By-Year Records". Merrimack Warriors. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Middlebury College Men's Hockey History". Middlebury Panthers. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Norwich men's hockey 2011-12 Yearbook". Norwich Cadets. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Oswego Men's Ice Hockey Game-by-Game Results". Oswego Lakers. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Plattsburgh Men's Ice Hockey Year-by-Year Results".

Plattsburgh Cardinals. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "RIT Tigers Men's Ice Hockey 2011-12 Media Guide". RIT Tigers. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Saint Anselm Hockey Record Book". Saint Anselm Hawks. Retrieved November 28, 2018. "Vermont men's hockey 2017-18 Yearbook". Vermont Catamounts. Retrieved November 28, 2018