A pom-pom – spelled pom-pon, pompom or pompon – is a decorative ball or tuft of fibrous material. The term may refer to large tufts used by cheerleaders, or a small, tighter ball attached to the top of a hat known as a bobble or toorie. Pom-poms may come in many colors and varieties and are made from a wide array of materials, including wool, paper, thread and feathers. Pom-poms are shaken by cheerleaders, pom or dance teams, sports fans during spectator sports. Webster's Third New International Dictionary gives the spelling as "pompon." The New Oxford American Dictionary gives the spelling as "pom-pom." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language gives the spelling as "pompom" or "pompon." Webster's New World College Dictionary gives the spelling as "pompom."Pom-pom is derived from the French word pompon, which refers to a small decorative ball made of fabric or feathers. It means an "ornamental round tuft" and refers to its use on a hat, or an "ornamental tuft. Cheerleaders use pom-poms at sports events for six reasons: to attract the attention of the spectators to accentuate movements to add "sparkle" to a cheer, chant, or dance routine to distract the opposing team to spell out team's name or "go" to use semaphore Most pom-poms are used in pairs, but this may vary with the particular requirements of the choreography of a dance or cheer.
Cheerleading pom-poms come in a variety of shapes, colors, color combinations, sizes. Shiny metallic pom-poms have become popular in recent years. Pom-poms are waved by sports fans at college and high school sports events in the United States, light-weight faux pom-poms in team colors are sometimes given or sold to spectators at such events. Many schools and universities have dance teams in addition to their cheerleading groups; the dance teams may use pom-poms but many high school dance teams are now referred to as "Poms" squads. These squads are similar to drill teams, but have several routines that they use pom-poms. Pom-poms have come to be included in dance competitions in the United States. In many states, "Pom" or "Open Pom" is considered its own style of dance during competitions. For this style dancers use pom-poms and moves that are choreographed to include pom-poms, but incorporate hip-hop and jazz choreography as well; when judging a routine in the Pom or Open Pom category, judges look for clean, sharp movements and complete synchronization of the team.
These dances use different colored pom-poms and outfits to convey a theme and the dance team will create pictures from their pom-poms that relate to this theme. In Australia, the term "flogger" is sometimes used rather than "pom-pom". Floggers are large, heavy pom-poms in the team's colours, they sometimes require more than one person to lift them, they are waved about when a goal is scored. Floggers are an important part of Australian rules football culture and cheer-squads. Small pom-poms may be used to adorn hats, fringed dresses, other kinds of clothing. Pom-poms form a conspicuous part of the uniform of French naval personnel, being sewn onto the crown of their round cap. Belgian sailors wear a light blue version. Traditional Italian wedding shoes have small pom-poms. Roman Catholic clergy wear the biretta; the colour of its pom-pom denotes the wearer's rank. Priests wear a black biretta with a black pom. Protonotaries and domestic prelates have a scarlet pom on their black birettas, Papal Chamberlains wear a Roman purple pom on their black birettas.
Bishops and archbishops wear a Roman purple biretta with matching pom. The scarlet birettas of the cardinals have no pom, only a red loop. There is no papal biretta; some religious orders and congregations have unique birettas, such as the Norbertines who wear a white biretta with a white pom. Some St. Francis fathers wear a brown biretta with a black pom. Other orders may wear a black biretta with a white, green, or blue pom, or the black biretta of the secular priesthood. In reference to Scottish Highland dress and Scottish military uniforms, the small pom-pom on the crown of such hats as the Balmoral, the Glengarry, the Tam o' Shanter is called a "toorie." The toorie is made of yarn and is traditionally red on both Balmorals and Glengarries. It has evolved into the smaller pom-pom found on older-style golf caps and the button atop baseball caps. Scots refer to any such hat decoration as a toorie, irrespective of the headgear. Pom-poms are sometimes used as children's toys, they are a common feature at the ends of the handlebars of children's bicycles.
They are used in children's artistic crafts to add texture and color
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy. An altar server attends to supporting tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying, ringing the altar bell, among other things. A young male altar server is called an altar boy, whereas a young female altar server is called an altar girl. While the function of altar server is associated with children, it can be and is carried out by people of any age or dignity."Mass should not be celebrated without a minister, or at least one of the faithful, except for a just and reasonable cause." As in other churches, altar servers are sometimes called acolytes in the Latin Church. Pope Benedict XVI spoke of Saint Tarcisius as "presumably an acolyte, that is, an altar server". However, within the Latin Church, the term "acolyte" is used in a more restricted sense specified as "instituted acolyte", to mean an adult man who has received the instituted ministry of that name. Acolytes in this narrower sense are not preparing for ordination as deacons and priests.
They are authorized to carry out some functions, in particular that of cleansing the Eucharistic vessels, that are not entrusted to ordinary servers. Those who are to be ordained to the diaconate must be instituted as acolytes at least six months previously; this ministry was long classified in the Latin Church as a minor order, as by the Council of Trent. The General Instruction of the Roman Missal, which does not use the term "server" and instead speaks of altar servers generically among "other ministers", treats in detail of the functions of the "acolyte" specifying "instituted acolyte"; the 1983 Code of Canon Law altered the juridical situation: without distinguishing between male and female, it declared: "Lay persons can fulfill the function of lector in liturgical actions by temporary designation. All lay persons can perform the functions of commentator or cantor, or other functions, according to the norm of law." On 30 June 1992, the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts issued an authentic interpretation of that canon declaring that service of the altar is one the "other functions" open to lay persons in general, without distinguishing between male and female.
In reference to this authentic interpretation, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments sent on 15 March 1994 a circular letter to presidents of episcopal conferences, clarifying that the canon in question is only of permissive character. It does not require the use of female altar servers, it is thus for each diocesan bishop to decide whether to allow them in his diocese.. A document, from 2001, states that if a bishop permits female altar servers, the priest in charge of a church in that diocese is not obliged to recruit them, since nobody, male or female, has a right to become an altar server; the document states that "it will always be appropriate to follow the noble tradition of having boys serve at the altar". As priests in charge of churches are not obliged to avail of a diocesan bishop's permission in this matter, those belonging to traditionalist Catholic groups such as the FSSP and the Institute of Christ the King and some other priests do not. In the absence of instituted acolytes, some of their functions at Mass may be carried out by altar servers.
Servers hold liturgical books for the priest when he is not at the altar and is proclaiming the presidential prayers with outstretched hands. They bring and hold such things as books, the lavabo water and towel, vessels to hold the consecrated bread, microphones. Entrance: The entrance procession is led by a thurifer with burning incense and a cross-bearer carrying a processional cross, flanked on either side by another server bearing a lighted candle. Proclamation of the Gospel: If incense is used, a server presents to the priest at the Alleluia or other pre-Gospel chant the thurible and the incense that he puts in the thurible and blesses, servers, who may carry the thurible and lighted candles, precede to the ambo the deacon or priest who there proclaims the Gospel. Preparation of the Gifts: One or more servers assist in arranging on the altar the corporal, the purificator, the chalice, the pall, the Missal, leaving it to the deacon to take care of the sacred vessels. If, as is appropriate, the bread and wine for the Mass are presented by the faithful, servers assist the priest or deacon who receives these and other gifts and carry the bread and wine to the priest, placing other gifts in a place distinct from the altar.
They present the cruets of water for the priest or deacon to pour some into the chalice. If incense is used, a server presents the thurible and incense to the priest, who incenses the offerings, the cross and the altar, after which the deacon or a server incenses the priest and the people; when the priest washes his hands standing at the side of the altar, a server pours the water over them. Consecration: An altar server rings a bell shortly before the consecration at the epiclesis. In accordance with local custom, a server rings the bell when, after the consecrations of the bread and wine, the priest shows the Host and the Chalice. If incense is used, a server incenses the consecrated host and the chalice while these are being shown to the people. Sign of Peace: The priest or deacon may give the sign of peace to servers, while remaining within the sanctuary. Distribution of Holy Communion: In some places it is customary for servers to assist at the distribution of Holy Communion by
Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings tertiary education, worn by those who have obtained a university degree, or hold a status that entitles them to assume them. It is known as academical dress, subfusc and, in the United States, as academic regalia. Contemporarily, it is seen only at graduation ceremonies, but academic dress was, to a lesser degree in many ancient universities still is, worn daily. Today, the ensembles are distinctive in some way to each institution, consist of a gown with a separate hood, a cap. Academic dress is worn by members of certain learned societies and institutions as official dress; the academic dress found in most universities in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United States is derived from that of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, a development of academic and clerical dress common throughout the medieval universities of Europe. Formal or sober clothing is worn beneath the gown so, for example, men would wear a dark suit with a white shirt and a tie, or clerical clothing, military or civil uniform, or national dress, women would wear equivalent attire.
Some older universities Oxford and Cambridge, have a prescribed set of dress to be worn under the gown. Although some universities are relaxed about what people wear under their gowns, it is considered bad form to be in casual wear or the like during graduation ceremonies, a number of universities may bar finishing students from joining the procession or the ceremony itself if not appropriately dressed. In the Commonwealth, gowns are worn open, while in the United States, it has become common for gowns to close at the front, as did the original roba. In general, the materials used for academic dress are influenced by the climate where the academic institution is located, or the climate where the graduate will be wearing the costume. In either case, the American Council of Education allows for the comfort of the wearer, concedes that lighter materials be used in tropical climates, heavier materials elsewhere. In addition, it acknowledges cotton poplin, rayon, or silk as appropriate; the materials used for academic dress vary and range from the economical to the expensive.
In the United States, most Bachelor and master's degree candidates are only presented the "souvenir" version of regalia by their institutions or authorized vendor, which are intended for few wearings and are comparatively inexpensive. For some doctoral graduates, commencement will be the only time they wear academic regalia, so they rent their gowns instead of buying them; these rented gowns are made of inexpensive polyester or other man-made synthetic fibre. In Britain, rented gowns are always polyester while Russell cord, silk, or artificial silk gowns are only available when bought. Undergraduate gowns are made from cotton or cotton and polyester mix and are inexpensive to encourage students to own them. People who choose to buy their dress may opt for finer fabrics, such as poplin, percale, wool, broadcloth, Russell cord, or corded/ribbed material. For silk, there are a range of types including artificial silk/rayon, taffeta, alpaca, true silk, shot silk, or a mixture. Pure Ottoman silk is used except for official gowns, as it is expensive.
Some gowns may be trimmed with gimp lace, buttons, or other forms of decoration. In the past, fur has been used to line certain hoods. In the past, sheepskin was used. Most now use imitation fur, instead because of cost and animal rights concerns; some robe makers use fur if the customer requests and pays for it, as some feel that the quality and feel of artificial fur has yet to match that of real fur. Doctor's robes use wool flannel, superfine cloth, damask, or brocade, are brightly coloured to distinguish them from lower degrees, they tend to be the most expensive because they must be dyed in a specific colour and/or be trimmed in coloured silks. Many doctoral gowns have a special undress version so adding to the cost of a full set. A full set may cost about US$360 for cheap materials to as much as $5800 for high-quality materials. Ex-hire gowns are available for purchase at cheaper prices, though the quality may be lower. Many institutions whose dress includes gowns of varying lengths prescribe the appropriate length of each gown with reference to parts of the wearer's body.
As such, suppliers of academic dress produce gowns in many different sizes to fit persons of different heights. In Canada, academic regalia are worn by university officials, faculty and honoured guests during Graduation exercises, installations of their presiding officers, special convocations, such as the inauguration of newly endowed professorial chairs and inductions to some of the honour and professional societies with university chapters. Academic regalia ty
The Channel Islands are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, the largest of the islands, they are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. The Crown dependencies are not members of the European Union, they have a total population of about 164,541, the bailiwicks' capitals, Saint Helier and Saint Peter Port, have populations of 33,500 and 18,207, respectively. The total area of the islands is 198 km2. "Channel Islands" is a geographical term, not a political unit. The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century; each has its own independent laws and representative bodies. Any institution common to both is the exception rather than the rule; the Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey and Sark – each with its own legislature.
Although there are a few pan-island institutions, these tend to be established structurally as equal projects between Guernsey and Jersey. Otherwise, entities proclaiming membership of both Guernsey and Jersey might in fact be from one bailiwick only, for instance the Channel Islands Securities Exchange is in Saint Peter Port; the term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830 first by the Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. The term refers only the archipelago to the west of the Cotentin Peninsula; the Isle of Wight, for example, is not a "Channel Island". The two major islands are Guernsey, they make up 92 % of the area. The permanently inhabited islands of the Channel Islands and their population and area are: Jersey 100,080 Guernsey 63,026 Alderney 2,000 Sark 600 Herm 60 Jethou 3 Brecqhou There are several uninhabited islets. Four are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey: The Minquiers Écréhous Les Dirouilles Les Pierres de Lecq These lie off Alderney: Burhou Casquets Ortac RenonquetThese lie off Guernsey: Caquorobert Crevichon Grande Amfroque Les Houmets Lihou The names of the larger islands in the archipelago in general have the -ey suffix, whilst those of the smaller ones have the -hou suffix.
These are believed to be from holmr. The Chausey Islands south of Jersey are not included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but are described in English as'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction, they were linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, not part of the British Isles or of the Channel Islands in a political sense. They are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville. While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders visit them as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. In official Jersey French, the islands are called'Îles de la Manche', while in France, the term'Îles Anglo-normandes' is used to refer to the British'Channel Islands' in contrast to other islands in the Channel. Chausey is referred to as an'Île normande'.'Îles Normandes' and'Archipel Normand' have historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole.
The large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, some islands such as Burhou, the Écréhous, the Minquiers have been designated Ramsar sites. The waters around the islands include the following: The Swinge The Little Swinge La Déroute Le Raz Blanchard, or Race of Alderney The Great Russel The Little Russel Souachehouais Le Gouliot La Percée The highest point in the islands is Les Platons in Jersey at 143 metres above sea level; the lowest point is the English Channel. The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe; the islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period. The numerous dolmens and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at La Hougue Bie in Jersey or the statue menhirs of Guernsey.
Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders; the Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri and is included in the Peutinger Table The traditional Latin na
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
The Roman Missal is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Before the high Middle Ages, several books were used at Mass: a Sacramentary with the prayers, one or more books for the Scriptural readings, one or more books for the antiphons and other chants. Manuscripts came into being that incorporated parts of more than one of these books, leading to versions that were complete in themselves; such a book was referred to as a Missale Plenum. In 1223 Saint Francis of Assisi instructed his friars to adopt the form, in use at the Papal Court, they adapted this missal further to the needs of their itinerant apostolate. Pope Gregory IX considered, but did not put into effect, the idea of extending this missal, as revised by the Franciscans, to the whole Western Church, its use spread throughout Europe after the invention of the printing press. Printing favoured the spread of other liturgical texts of less certain orthodoxy.
The Council of Trent recognized. The first printed Missale Romanum, containing the Ordo Missalis secundum consuetudinem Curiae Romanae, was produced in Milan in 1474. A whole century passed before the appearance of an edition published by order of the Holy See. During that interval, the 1474 Milanese edition was followed by at least 14 other editions: 10 printed in Venice, 3 in Paris, 1 in Lyon. For lack of a controlling authority, these editions differ, sometimes seriously. Annotations in the hand of Cardinal Gugliemo Sirleto in a copy of the 1494 Venetian edition show that it was used for drawing up the 1570 official edition of Pope Pius V. In substance, this 1494 text is identical with that of the 1474 Milanese edition. Implementing the decision of the Council of Trent, Pope Pius V promulgated, in the Apostolic Constitution Quo primum of 14 July 1570, an edition of the Roman Missal, to be in obligatory use throughout the Latin Church except where there was a traditional liturgical rite that could be proved to be of at least two centuries’ antiquity.
Some corrections to Pope Pius V's text proved necessary, Pope Clement VIII replaced it with a new typical edition of the Roman Missal on 7 July 1604. A further revised typical edition was promulgated by Pope Urban VIII on 2 September 1634. Beginning in the late seventeenth century and neighbouring areas saw a flurry of independent missals published by bishops influenced by Jansenism and Gallicanism; this ended when Bishop Pierre-Louis Parisis of Langres and Abbot Guéranger initiated in the nineteenth century a campaign to return to the Roman Missal. Pope Leo XIII took the opportunity to issue in 1884 a new typical edition that took account of all the changes introduced since the time of Pope Urban VIII. Pope Pius X undertook a revision of the Roman Missal, published and declared typical by his successor Pope Benedict XV on 25 July 1920. Though Pope Pius X's revision made few corrections and additions to the text of the prayers in the Roman Missal, there were major changes in the rubrics, changes which were not incorporated in the section entitled "Rubricae generales", but were instead printed as an additional section under the heading "Additiones et variationes in rubricis Missalis."
In contrast, the revision by Pope Pius XII, though limited to the liturgy of only five days of the Church's year, was much bolder, requiring changes to canon law, which until had prescribed that, with the exception of Midnight Mass for Christmas, Mass should not begin more than one hour before dawn or than one hour after midday. In the part of the Missal thus revised, he anticipated some of the changes affecting all days of the year after the Second Vatican Council; these novelties included the first official introduction of the vernacular language into the liturgy for renewal of baptismal promises within the Easter Vigil celebration. Pope Pius XII issued no new typical edition of the Roman Missal, but authorized printers to replace the earlier texts for Palm Sunday, Holy Thursday, Good Friday, the Easter Vigil with those that he began to introduce in 1951 and that he made universally obligatory in 1955; the Pope removed from the Vigil of Pentecost the series of six Old Testament readings, with their accompanying Tracts and Collects, but these continued to be printed until 1962.
Acceding to the wishes of many of the bishops, Pope Pius XII judged it expedient to reduce the rubrics of the missal to a simpler form, a simplification enacted by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites of 23 March 1955. The changes this made in the General Roman Calendar are indicated in General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII. In the following year, 1956, while preparatory studies were being conducted for a general liturgical reform, Pope Pius XII surveyed the opinions of the bishops on the liturgical improvement of the Roman breviary. After duly weighing the answers of the bishops, he judged that it was time to attack the problem of a general and systematic revision of the rubrics of the breviary and missal; this question he referred to the special committee of experts appointed to study the general liturgical reform. His successor, Pope John XXIII, issued a new typical edition of the Roman Missal in 1962; this incorporated th
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa