Swedish–Novgorodian Wars were a series of conflicts in the 12th and 13th centuries between the Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden over control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital to the Hanseatic League and part of the Varangian-Byzantine trade route. The Swedish attacks against Orthodox Russians had religious overtones, but before the 14th century there is no knowledge of official crusade bulls issued by the pope. Scandinavians maintained other links with Novgorod from the Viking Age onwards. Merchants from Gotland operated both the St. Olof church in Novgorod. Scandinavians carried out isolated raids on Novgorod. Eiríkr Hákonarson raided Ladoga in 997, his brother Sveinn Hákonarson followed suit in 1015. After the marriage of Yaroslav I to Ingegerd of Sweden in 1019, Ladoga became a jarldom in the orbit of Kievan Rus, it was ruled by the alleged father of King Stenkil of Sweden. Dynastic marriages took place between Russian and Scandinavian royal families - for example, in the 1090s Stenkil's granddaughter Christina married Mstislav of Novgorod, upon whose death in 1132 Novgorod seceded from Kievan Rus.
The major turning point into more permanent conflict between Sweden and Novgorod arrived with Sweden's firmer organization into the Catholic Church in the 12th century and papal involvement in crusades against lands controlled by the Orthodox Church. The 12th century is poorly documented in Sweden, Russian documents are fragmented. From the surviving sources, however, it seems evident that the newly founded republic and Sweden drifted into hostilities that could not be permanently settled again. According to the First Novgorod Chronicle, the Swedish troops attacked the Novgorod merchants somewhere in the Baltic Sea region and killed 150 Novgorodians in 1142, it is the first known case of hostilities between Novgorod. In 1164, a strong Swedish fleet approached Ladoga but was soundly defeated with most of its ships captured by Novgorod. According to Swedish sources, the Novgorodians and their Karelian allies launched pirate raids against mainland Sweden during the 12th century. During one of such raid, they brought to Novgorod the doors of the Sigtuna cathedral as loot.
In the eyes of the northern crusaders, such actions justified war against Novgorod, although Novgorodian sources do not mention these events. Swedish sources refer to the attackers of Sigtuna as "heathens". Swedish sources document that Jon jarl spent nine years fighting against Novgorodians and Ingrians at the end of the 12th century; these expeditions are not documented in Russian sources. After a long pause in open hostilities, Swedes purportedly undertook an attack against Novgorod in 1240; the only source of information on the attack is a Novgorodian chronicle. Soon after their fleet entered the mouth of the Neva River, the Swedes were roundly defeated in the Battle of the Neva by a young prince, Alexander of Novgorod, who would be given the epithet "Nevsky" to memorialize this victory. From on, Sweden moved its interest to Finland, its troops did not return to Neva before the end of the 13th century, when it had gained somekind of hold of Western Finland. Earlier, Swedes had tried to establish a bridgehead in Estonia, in vain.
Apart from Ladoga, Novgorodian interests clashed with Sweden's in Finland, a country which Russian forces sacked on numerous occasions from the 11th century onward. The raid in the winter of 1226-1227 led to heavy losses on the Finnish side. A Finnish retaliatory raid against Ladoga in 1228 ended in defeat, contributing to the Finns' subjugation by the Catholic Swedes during the Second Swedish Crusade in 1249. Seven years the Novgorodians devastated Swedish Finland again. In 1293 the Swedes built the fortress of Viborg there; this expedition has traditionally been dubbed as the Third Swedish Crusade. Seven years they founded the fortress of Landskrona in the mouth of the Neva, on the river Okhta, ruined the Novgorod settlements on the Neva; that year, the Novgorod troops retaliated by destroying Landskrona. In the early 14th century, military tensions escalated and the two powers were continually at war. In 1311, the Novgorodians devastated central Finland, where the Swedes had built a new castle.
In response, a Swedish fleet set that trade emporium on fire. Three years the Karelians' discontent with Novgorod's rule broke out into the open, as they killed Russian governors and sought help in Sweden. After several months of hostilities, Karelia submitted to Novgorod's authority again. In 1318 Novgorod attacked Turku in southwestern Finland, burning the city and the cathedral as well as the episcopal castle in Kuusisto Castle. Four years they besieged Viborg and founded Oreshek, an important fortress dominating the entrance to Lake Ladoga; the first treaty concluded by the parties to the conflict was the Treaty of Nöteborg, followed by the Treaty of Novgorod between Novgorod and Norway in 1326. The treaties were expected to bring "eternal peace" to the region, but turned out to provide only a temporary palliative; as early as 1328, Sweden was encouraging settlers to take over the northern coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, defined by the treaty as Novgorod's possession. When Karelians rebelled against Novgorod in 1337, King Magnus Eriksson sent his troops in their support, managing to occupy Korela Fortress.
Next year, Novgorod besieged Viborg but an armistice was soon agreed upon. After ten years of peace, the king felt ready to renew hostilities and demanded the Novgorodians to recognise the pope's authority. According to the Novgorodian First and
Valdemar, King of Sweden
Valdemar was King of Sweden from 1250–1275. Valdemar was the son of the Swedish princess Ingeborg Eriksdotter and Birger Jarl, from the House of Bjelbo. During the first sixteen years of his reign, it was Birger Jarl, the real ruler. Birger Jarl had in fact been the de facto ruler of Sweden from 1248, before the reign of Valdemar, under Eric XI. Valdemar's mother was a daughter of Eric Richeza of Denmark; when King Eric XI died in 1250, Valdemar was elected king. After the coming of age of Valdemar in 1257, Birger Jarl held a grip over the country. After Birger's death in 1266 Valdemar came into conflict with his younger brother Magnus Birgersson, Duke of Södermanland, who wanted the throne for himself. In 1260, Valdemar married Sophia, the eldest daughter of King Eric IV of Denmark and Jutta of Saxony. Valdemar had a relationship with his sister-in-law Jutta. In 1272, Jutta became Valdemar's mistress; the affair resulted in a child born in 1273. The following year, Jutta was placed in a convent and Valdemar was forced to make a pilgrimage to Rome to ask for the absolution of the Pope.
Valdemar was deposed by his younger brother, Magnus after the Battle of Hova in Tiveden June 14, 1275. Magnus was supported by his brother, Eric Birgersson, Duke of Småland, King Eric V of Denmark, who provided Danish soldiers. Magnus was elected King Magnus III of Sweden at the Stones of Mora. In 1277, Sophia returned to Denmark. In 1277, Valdemar managed to regain provinces in Gothenland in the southern part of the kingdom and was called the Duke of Götaland. However, Magnus regained them about 1278. In 1288 Valdemar was imprisoned by King Magnus in Nyköping Castle and lived with mistresses in his comfortable prison. Valdemar married Sofia of Denmark in 1260 and they separated in 1277, they had six children: Ingeborg Valdemarsdotter of Countess of Holstein. Erik Valdemarsson of Sweden Marina Valdemarsdotter of Sweden. Adolfsson, Mats När borgarna brann - svenska uppror Larsson, Mats G. Götarnas Riken: Upptäcktsfärder Till Sveriges Enande ISBN 978-91-7486-641-4 Kyhlberg, Ola Gånget ut min hand Schück, Herman Kyrka och rike - från folkungatid till vasatid
MS Birger Jarl
MS Birger Jarl is a cruise ship owned by Ånedin Linjen, operated on services between Stockholm and Helsinki, Turku and most Mariehamn on the Åland Islands. She was built in 1953 as a passenger liner at Finnboda shipyard in Nacka, Sweden as SS Birger Jarl for Rederi AB Svea. In 1973 she was was renamed SS Bore Nord and converted into a ferry. In 1978 she was renamed SS Baltic Star. In 1982 the ship's original steam engines were replaced by diesel engines. In 1989 the engines were again replaced by new diesels. In 2002 the ship reverted to the name Birger Jarl. SS Birger Jarl was ordered by Rederi AB Svea from Finnboda shipyard in Nacka, where the keel of the ship was laid on 16 November 1951, she was named after the 13th-century Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. Her maiden voyage was made on 9 June 1953 to Helsinki, after which she started regular services between Stockholm - Helsinki and Stockholm - Turku. SS Birger Jarl is one of the so-called Olympia ships, built to upgrade the ferry traffic for the Helsinki 1952 Summer Olympics.
Her two sister ships, SS Aallotar and SS Bore III, entered service before the Olympics, but SS Birger Jarl was only delivered the year after. Between 1973 and 1978 the ship sailed under the name SS Bore Nord and between 1978 and 2002 she was SS Baltic Star/MS Baltic Star. In 2002 she was given back her original name; the ship is a listed historic ship of Sweden. In 1973 the ship was owned by the Finnish ferry company Jakob Lines and was fitted with a ramp to load vehicles on the aft deck. In 1976 she was sold to Godby Shipping controlled by the Åland Islands Mikkola family, she was renamed Minisea, but the name was never painted on. In 1976 and -77 she was laid up in the Oslofjord as a hotel ship. In 1978 she was acquired by Caribbean Shipping Co Inc, Panama who changed her name to S/S Baltic Star. In 1978 she was renovated in Turku and a'skybar' and extra cabins were built on the aft deck. Since 1979 she has sailed on regular cruises between Stockholm and Mariehamn and sometimes on longer cruises in the Baltic Sea.
On 31 May 1979 she collided with the berth in Mariehamn. The berth was damaged and a few small boats sunk, she became stuck between the berth and the vintage sailing ship SS Pommern, damaged. After several hours the ships could be repaired. S/S Baltic Star departed for Stockholm one day late. In 1982 the steam engine was replaced by a MAN diesel of 2,900 hp. In 1988 the engine was replaced by a MAN diesel of 3,600 hp. Maximum speed increased to 16 knots. Ånedinlinjen has been using the Bookit reservations system for its reservations and ticket sales since 1997. In 2002 the ship sailed once again under the Swedish flag and under her original name, M/S Birger Jarl. Since June 2013 the Birger Jarl is permanently moored at the Ånedin Line terminal on Stockholm's Gamla Stan as a floating hostel Fakta om Fartyg Ånedinlinjen Birger Jarl Video Clips
Consolidation of Sweden
The consolidation of Sweden involved an extensive process during which the loosely organized social system consolidated under the power of the king. The actual age of the Swedish kingdom is unknown. For various reasons, scholars differ in defining early Sweden as either a country, state or kingdom. Unlike the histories of Denmark and Norway, there is no agreement on a reliable date for a unified Sweden. Historians judge differently the sources for the history of Sweden's consolidation; the earliest history blends with Norse mythology. Early primary sources are foreign. Based on the origins of the name of the kingdom as meaning, some historians have argued that Sweden was unified when the Swedes first solidified their control over the regions they were living in; the earliest date for this is based on a brief section in the Roman historian Tacitus discussing the Suiones tribe. This would imply that a Swedish kingdom would have existed in the first to second centuries AD. However, with the increased rigour of historical method advanced in 20th century historical research, in Sweden as elsewhere, historians such as Curt Weibull and his brother Lauritz maintained that these perspectives have become obsolete.
Modern historians noted that a millennium had passed between Tacitus and more in-depth and reliable documented accounts of Swedish history. The work of Birger Nerman, who argued that Sweden held a senior rank among the existing European states at the time represents a nationalist reaction to the academic historiography, with the latter taking a critical or cautious view of the value of old layers of sources of history if these documents and traditions are unsupported by any direct traces, any footprint of events and social or political conditions in the archaeological records, coinage etc. of the age in question. A common definition of Sweden is that it was formed when the Swedes and Geats were ruled by one king; the names Swedes and Geats are attested in the Old English poems Beowulf and Widsith and building on older legendary and folklore material collected in England. In both poems, an Ongentheow is named as the King of the Swedes, the Geats are mentioned as a separate people; these names of peoples living in present-day Sweden, the Anglo-Saxon references and now lost tales they were attached to must have travelled across the North Sea.
The first time the two peoples are documented to have had a common ruler is during the reign of Olof Skötkonung about AD 1000. Broadly speaking, Kings of Sweden, the nobility of the land, have seen Götaland and Svealand as important parts of the kingdom at least since the mid-13th century and, in some cases earlier. Rather than the unification of tribes under one king, others maintain that the process of consolidation was gradual. Nineteenth-century scholars saw the unification as a result of a series of wars based on evidence from the Norse sagas. For example, according to the Norwegian Historia Norwegiae and the Icelandic historian Snorri Sturlusson, a 7th-century king called Ingjald illråde burnt a number of subordinate kings to death inside his hall, thus abolishing the petty kingdoms in the consolidation of Sweden. To solve the problem of defining an early history of Sweden that coincides with reliable sources, a group of modern Swedish historians have contended that a real state could only exist, in the Middle Ages, if had the backing of Christianity and the clergy.
The same connection between Christianity and consolidation is used in other countries where written sources are less scarce, such as England or Harald Bluetooth's Denmark. The definition is based on the fact that English and German priests would have brought organizational and administrative skills needed for statehood; the process of consolidation would have required this important ideological shift. While an Iron Age Germanic king would claim the elective support of his people, the Norse gods, a crowned Christian king would claim that his rule was divinely inspired. According to this definition the unification should be completed in 1210 when Erik Knutsson was crowned by the church, or in 1247 when the last separatist rising was defeated at Sparrsätra. A major problem sometimes pointed out with that view is that it entails circular proof: we know next to nothing about how the authority of the ruler was envisaged in heathen times, while we know some more of the Christian ideology of kingship, the Christian kingdom would underline the break with the pagan past, but this does not allow the conclusion that there could have been no fixed and religiously connected ideas of the authority of the ruler in pre-Christian times.
Moreover, we have no solid testimonies fixing it as a fact that the king residing in Central Sweden was recognized as king in all of the area, called Sweden by the 13th century, when the mist clears. There may have existed local kings in Western Sweden though their names have not been preserved; that Sweden went through a process of consolidation in the early Middle Ages is agreed upon, but royal authority was contested all through the Middle Ages, sometimes even exercised. Gustaf Vasa determinedly strengthened the central power and mightily increased the authority and resources of the crown, his reign marked the beginning of the early modern Swedish state; the full and complete process of territorial consolidation behind natural borders (the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, woodla
St. Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history. Regarded as a key figure of medieval Rus', St. Alexander – the grandson of Vsevolod the Big Nest – rose to legendary status on account of his military victories over German and Swedish invaders while agreeing to pay tribute to the powerful Golden Horde, he was canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church by Metropolite Macarius in 1547. From Tales of the Life and Courage of the Pious and Great Prince Alexander found in the Second Pskovian Chronicle, circa 1260–1280, comes one of the first known references to the Great Prince: "By the will of God, prince Alexander was born from the charitable, people-loving, meek the Great Prince Yaroslav, his mother was Theodosia; as it was told by the prophet Isaiah:'Thus sayeth the Lord: I appoint the princes because they are sacred and I direct them.' "... He was taller than others and his voice reached the people as a trumpet, his face was like the face of Joseph, whom the Egyptian Pharaoh placed as next to the king after him of Egypt.
His power was a part of the power of Samson and God gave him the wisdom of Solomon... this Prince Alexander: he used to defeat but was never defeated..." Born in Pereslavl-Zalessky, St. Alexander was the second son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and of Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of the Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold. Alexander seemed to have no chance of claiming the throne of Vladimir. In 1236, the Novgorodians summoned him to become knyaz of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders. According to the Novgorod Chronicle written in the 14th century, the Swedish army had landed at the confluence of the rivers Izhora and Neva and his small army attacked the Swedes on 15 July 1240 and defeated them; the Neva battle of 1240 saved Novgorod from a full-scale invasion from the West. Because of this battle, 19-year-old Alexander gained the sobriquet "Nevsky"; this victory, coming just three years after the disastrous Mongol invasion of the Rus' lands of the North West, strengthened Alexander's political influence, but at the same time it worsened his relations with the boyars.
He would soon have to leave Novgorod because of this conflict. No non-Russian contemporary source mentions this supposed battle; the Chronicle identifies the alleged Swedish commander as "Spiridon" – while names after Saint Spyridon appear in both West and East, it is by far much more common in Orthodox lands than Scandinavia. Furthermore, Sweden had stood on the brink of war with Norway since the Norwegians' infamous Värmland expedition in 1225. Relations improved only after the Treaty of Lödöse in 1249, forged by the new Swedish strongman Birger Jarl. Before the treaty, Norway remained an ally of the Folkungs, giving them refuge and providing men and arms. In this situation, it seems unlikely that Sweden could have been able to organize a major expedition against Novgorod. Swedes are not known to have carried out any other military campaigns between 1222 and 1249, making the claims about their forceful appearance at the Neva with Norwegians as their allies in 1240 seem questionable. After the Germans and Estonians invaded Pskov, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander.
In spring of 1241 he returned from exile, gathered an army, drove out the invaders. Alexander and his men faced the Livonian heavy cavalry led by the bishop of Dorpat; the Rus' force met the enemy on the ice of Lake Peipus and defeated the German knights and the Estonian infantry during the Battle of the Ice on 5 April 1242. Alexander's victory marked a significant event in the history of Russia. Foot soldiers of Novgorod had surrounded and defeated an army of knights, mounted on horseback and clad in thick armour. Nevsky's great victory against the Livonian Order involved only a few knights killed rather than the hundreds claimed by the Russian chroniclers. After the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia's Northwest, he sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, they signed a first peace treaty between Russia and Norway in 1251. Alexander led his army to Finland and routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. Nevsky proved to be a far-sighted politician.
He dismissed the Roman Curia’s attempts to cause war between Russia and the Golden Horde, because he understood the uselessness of such war with the Tatars at a time when they were still a powerful force. Historians seem to be unsure about Alexander's behavior, he may have thought that Catholicism presented a more tangible threat to Russian national identity than paying a tribute to the Khan, who had little interest in Slav religion and culture. It is argued that he intentionally kept the North Slav principalities and city states as vassals to the Mongols in order to preserve his own status and counted on the befriended Horde in case someone challenged his authority. Alexander tried to strengthen his authority at the expense of the boyars and at the same time suppress any anti-Mongol uprisings in the country
Duke Erik Birgersson was a Swedish duke. His father was Birger Jarl, Jarl of Sweden and de facto ruler of Sweden from 1250–66, his mother was Ingeborg of Sweden, daughter of King Eric X of Sweden and sister of King Eric XI of Sweden. In the conflict between his elder brothers and Magnus, he sided with Magnus; when Magnus had won and been proclaimed king in 1275, he made Duke of Småland. Erik died shortly thereafter and was buried at Varnhem Abbey together with his father and his father’s second wife. According to the Magnúss saga lagabœtis, Erik called himself "Eirek allz-ekki" because he had no title. Only when Magnus III became king did Erik change his title and call himself "Duke"; when Birger Jarl's grave in Varnhem Abbey was opened and examined in May 2002, osteologist Torbjörn Ahlström from Lund University confirmed that the tomb contained the remains of three people – Birger Jarl, his second wife Matilda of Holstein, Erik. His father's skeleton shows that he was about 172 cm long, while Erik was a few inches longer but with a much thinner build.
His muscular attachments were poorly developed. In the vertebrae and sternum there were some signs of pathological changes, he would have been 25 years old when he died in 1275. Rolf Pipping, Kommentar till Erikskrönikan. Http://www.nordicacademicpress.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Erikskronikanextramaterial.pdf
Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden
Ingeborg Eriksdotter was a Swedish princess and duchess, daughter of King Eric X of Sweden, eldest sibling of King Eric XI of Sweden, wife of Birger Jarl, mother of King Valdemar I of Sweden. Ingeborg was born the eldest daughter of his wife, Richeza of Denmark, she lived her youth in exile in Denmark, after her brother had been deposed by his guardian and regent in 1229. Ingeborg Eriksdotter's marital engagement took place in about 1234 in connection of her brother Eric XI resuming the Swedish throne from the'usurper' Canute II of Sweden, to have the mighty House of Bjellbo as their allies. Princess Ingeborg bore a vast number of children to her husband dux Birger Jarl. In 1250, her brother died without heirs and her eldest son Valdemar was chosen to succeed Eric on the throne. Ingeborg thereby became the King's Mother and first lady of the royal court. Ingeborg is recorded to have inherited her brother Eric's private property upon his death, as his only living sibling. In her forties, she continued to give birth to children, her death is believed to have occurred because of childbirth complications giving birth to twins.
The following children survived to adulthood: Rikissa Birgersdotter, born 1238, married first in 1251 Haakon Haakonsson the Young, co-king of Norway, second Henry I, Prince of Werle Valdemar Birgersson, born c 1238, King of Sweden 1250–1275, lord of parts of Gothenland until 1278 Christina Birgersdotter, married several times, one of her husbands was Lord Sigge Guttormsson Magnus Birgersson, born 1240, Duke King of Sweden 1275-90 probably: Catherine of Sweden, born 1245, married Siegfried, Count of Anhalt Eric Birgersson, born 1250, Duke probably: Ingeborg of Sweden, born circa 1254, died 30 June 1302, married John I of Saxony, Duke of Lauenburg in 1270 Benedict, Duke of Finland, born 1254, Bishop of Linköping Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476 Lars O. Lagerqvist. "Sverige och dess regenter under 1.000 år". Albert Bonniers Förlag AB. ISBN 91-0-075007-7