Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO was a leading British fashion designer, best known for his work for the ladies of the Royal Family. Hartnell gained the Royal Warrant as Dressmaker to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in 1940. Hartnell is famous as the man who made London a viable twentieth century fashion centre during the inter-war years. Born to an upwardly mobile family in Streatham, in southwest London, his parents were publicans and owners of the Crown & Sceptre, at the top of Streatham Hill. Educated at Mill Hill School, Hartnell became an undergraduate at Magdalene College and read Modern Languages, his main interest lay in performing, designing productions for the university Footlights and he was noticed by the London press as the designer of a Footlights production which transferred to Daly's Theatre, London. He worked unsuccessfully for two London designers, including the celebrated Lucile, whom he sued for damages when several of his drawings appeared unattributed in her weekly fashion column in the London Daily Sketch.
In 1923 he opened his own business at 10 Bruton Street, with the financial help of his father and first business colleague, his sister Phyllis. The Doctor Who actor William Hartnell was his second cousin. Thanks to his Cambridge connections, Hartnell acquired a clientele of débutantes and their mothers intent on fashionable originality in dress design for a busy social life centred on the London Season. and was considered by some to be a good London alternative to Parisian or older London dress houses. The London press seized on the novelty of his gender. Although expressing the spirit of the Bright Young Things and Flappers, his designs overlaid the harder silhouettes with a fluid romanticism in detail and construction; this was most evident in Hartnell's predilection for evening and bridal gowns, gowns for court presentations, afternoon gowns for guests at society weddings. Hartnell's success ensured international press coverage and a flourishing trade with those no longer content with'safe' London clothes derived from Parisian designs.
Hartnell became popular with the younger stars of stage and screen, went on to dress such leading ladies as Gladys Cooper, Elsie Randolph, Gertrude Lawrence, Jessie Matthews, Merle Oberon, Evelyn Laye and Anna Neagle. Top French stars Alice Delysia and Mistinguett were impressed by the young Englishman's genius. Alarmed by the lack of sales, Phyllis insisted that Norman cease his pre-occupation with the design of evening clothes and he create practical day clothes, he achieved a subtlety and ingenuity with British woollens scarcely imagined in London dressmaking, yet successfully demonstrated in Paris by Coco Chanel, who showed a keen interest in his 1927 and 1929 collections when shown in Paris. Hartnell emulated his British predecessor and hero Charles Frederick Worth by taking his designs to the heart of world fashion. Hartnell specialised in expensive and lavish embroidery as an integral part of his most expensive clothes, creating the luxurious and exclusive effect which justified the high prices.
They were created to deflect the ready-to wear copyists. The Hartnell in-house embroidery workroom was the largest in London couture and continued until his death producing the embroidered Christmas cards for clients and press during quiet August days, a practical form of publicity at which Hartnell was always adept; the originality and intricacy of Hartnell embroideries were described in the press in reports of the original wedding dresses he designed for prominent young women during the 1920s and 1930s, a natural extension of his designs for them as débutantes, when many wore his innovative evening dresses and day clothes. By 1934 Hartnell's success had outgrown his premises and he moved over the road to a large Mayfair town house provided with floors of work-rooms at the rear to Bruton Mews; the first floor salon was the height of modernity, like his clothes and the glass and mirror-lined Art Moderne space was designed by the innovative young architect Gerald Lacoste. The interiors of the large late 18th-century town house are now protected as one of the finest examples of art-moderne pre-war commercial design in the UK.
The timeless quality of Lacoste's designs was the perfect background for each new season of Hartnell designs, created for aristocratic British women of all ages and worn by most of the famous theatre and film stars of their day, including Vivien Leigh, Gertrude Lawrence, Merle Oberon, Ann Todd, Evelyn Laye, Anna Neagle and trans-Atlantic stars such as Marlene Dietrich, Elizabeth Taylor and Linda Christian. At the same time, Hartnell moved into the new building, he acquired a week-end retreat, Lovel Dene, a Queen Anne cottage in Windsor Forest, Berkshire; this was extensively re-modelled for him by Lacoste. London life was based in The Tower House, Park Village West Regent's Park re-modelled and furnished with a fashionable mixture of Regency and modern furniture. In 1935 Hartnell received the momentous first royal commands, inaugurating four decades of his worldwide fame and success in providing clothes for the ladies of the British Royal Family. Lady Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott, the future Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, a daughter of the Duke of Buccleuch, approached Hartnell to design her dress and those of her bridesmaids for her marriage to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, third son of King George V.
Two bridesmaids were Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret, daughters of the Duke and Duchess of York. Both George V and Queen Mary approved the desig
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, is a member of the British royal family. Alexandra was born during the reign of King George VI to his brother and sister-in-law, Prince George, Duke of Kent, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, she is a first cousin of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, since her mother was a first cousin of the queen’s husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, she is his first cousin once removed. Alexandra is the widow of businessman Sir Angus Ogilvy, to whom she was married from 1963 until his death in 2004; as of 14 December 2018, she is 52nd in the line of succession to the British throne. Princess Alexandra was born on 25 December 1936 at London, her parents were Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, a daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. She was named after Queen Alexandra, she received the name Christabel because she was born on Christmas Day, like her aunt by marriage, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.
Her birth was the last to have the tradition of having the Home Secretary present to verify the birth of potential heirs to the throne. Secretary Sir John Simon was the last to do this; as a male-line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was styled as a British princess with the prefix Her Royal Highness. At the time of her birth, she was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her cousins Elizabeth and Margaret, her uncle the Duke of Gloucester, her father the Duke of Kent, her elder brother Prince Edward, she was born two weeks after the abdication of her uncle King Edward VIII. The Princess was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace, on 9 February 1937, her godparents were: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Of her godparents, only the King and Queen and Lord Athlone were present. Princess Alexandra spent most of her childhood at her family's country house, Coppins, in Buckinghamshire, she lived with Queen Mary, the widow of George V, during World War II at Badminton.
Her father was killed in an aeroplane crash near Caithness, Scotland on 25 August 1942 while serving in the Royal Air Force. Princess Alexandra has the distinction of being the first British princess to have attended a boarding school, Heathfield School near Ascot, she studied in Paris. She was trained at Great Ormond Street Hospital, she was a bridesmaid at the 1946 wedding of Captain Lord Brabourne and The Hon. Patricia Mountbatten; the following year, she served as bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousins, the then-Princess Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh, on 20 November 1947. The Queen is Princess Alexandra's paternal first cousin, she was a bridesmaid at the 1962 wedding of Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and her second cousin, Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark. On 24 April 1963, she married the Hon. Angus James Bruce Ogilvy, the second son of the 12th Earl of Airlie and Lady Alexandra Coke, at Westminster Abbey. Ogilvy presented Alexandra with an engagement ring made of a cabochon sapphire set in gold and surrounded by diamonds on both sides.
The wedding ceremony was attended by the royal family and was broadcast worldwide on television, watched by an estimated 200 million people. The bride wore a wedding gown of Valenciennes lace, with matching veil and train, designed by John Cavanagh with the City of London diamond fringe tiara, she made her way with the Duke of Kent, from Kensington Palace to the church. The bridesmaids included Princess Anne and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria, the best man was Peregrine Fairfax; the Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey conducted the service. Angus Ogilvy declined the Queen's offer to be created an earl upon marriage, so their children carry no titles. Angus Ogilvy was knighted in 1988 being sworn of the Privy Council in 1997. Princess Alexandra and Sir Angus had two children and Marina, four grandchildren: James Robert Bruce Ogilvy and has issue:Flora Alexandra Ogilvy Alexander Charles Ogilvy Marina Victoria Alexandra Ogilvy, married on 2 February 1990 at Richmond Park and divorced on 15 October 1997 Paul Julian Mowatt, a photographer.
Marina's first pregnancy, announced in late 1989, caused a controversy as the couple were not married. This resulted in a feud with her parents who suggested she either marry her companion or abort the child, they had two children: Zenouska May Mowatt Christian Alexander Mowatt Since the late 1950s, Princess Alexandra carried out an extensive programme of engagements in support of the Queen, both in
Duke of Gloucester
Duke of Gloucester is a British royal title conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. The first four creations were in the Peerage of England and the last in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the title was first conferred on Thomas of Woodstock, the thirteenth child of King Edward III. The title became extinct at his death, as it did upon the death of the duke of the second creation, Humphrey of Lancaster, fourth son of King Henry IV; the title was next conferred on Richard, brother to King Edward IV. When Richard himself became king, the dukedom merged into the crown. After Richard's death, the title was considered ominous, since the first three such dukes had all died without issue to inherit their titles; the title was not awarded for over 150 years: the next to receive the dukedom was the son of King Charles I, Henry Stuart, upon whose death the title again became extinct. Prince William, son of the future Queen Anne, was styled "Duke of Gloucester" for his whole life, but was never formally created duke.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, was styled "Duke of Gloucester" from 1718–1726, but was created Duke of Edinburgh rather than of Gloucester. There was next a creation of a double dukedom for the brother of King George III, Prince William Henry, his proper title becoming "Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh"; the fifth and most recent creation was for the Prince Henry, son of King George V. Upon Prince Henry's death, the dukedom was inherited by his son Prince Richard, who still holds the title; the heir to the title is Alexander Windsor, styled Earl of Ulster. The next in the line of succession is the Earl of Ulster's son Xan Windsor, known by his grandfather's third title of Lord Culloden; the royal dukedom will devolve into an ordinary one. Therefore, he will be styled as His Grace The Duke of Gloucester. List of dukedoms by reign Earl of Gloucester Duke of Gloucester Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gloucester and Dukes of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 128–129
Charles, Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history, he is the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958. Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George Queen Elizabeth, he was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William —later to become Duke of Cambridge—and Prince Harry —later to become Duke of Sussex. In 1996, the couple divorced following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties.
Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, Charles married long-time partner Camilla Parker Bowles; as Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of the Queen and the Commonwealth realms. Charles founded The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, is a patron, president and a member of over 400 other charities and organisations; as an environmentalist, he raises awareness of organic farming and climate change which has earned him awards and recognition from environmental groups. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and his views on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings have received considerable attention from British architects and design critics. Since 1993, Charles has worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his preferences, he is an author and co-author of a number of books. Charles was born at Buckingham Palace in London during the reign of his maternal grandfather George VI on 14 November 1948, at 9:14 pm, the first child of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
He was baptised in the palace's Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. The death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 made Charles her heir apparent; as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953; as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, making him the first heir apparent to be educated in that manner. On 7 November 1956, Charles commenced classes in west London, he did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.
Charles attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, from 1958, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland, beginning classes there in April 1962. Though he described Gordonstoun, noted for its rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts", Charles subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities, it taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated". He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse. In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy, he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.
On his early education, Charles remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but, only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces. In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, where he read anthropology and history. During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term, he graduated from Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts on 23 June 1970, the first heir apparent to earn a university degree. On 2 August 1975, he was awarded a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge, in accordance with the university's practice. Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958, though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle, he took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970, he made his maiden speech at a debate in June 1974, becoming the first royal to speak in the Lords since his great-great-grandfather Edward VII speaking as Prince of Wales, in 1884.
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, is a member of the British royal family. He is the third child and second son of Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne, he holds the rank of commander and the honorary rank of Vice Admiral in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active-duty helicopter pilot and instructor and as the captain of a warship. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation. In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; as well as carrying out various official engagements, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011. Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, he was baptised in the Palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.
He is the namesake of his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, who died 16 years before he was born. Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch since the birth in 1857 of Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice; as with his older siblings, Andrew was looked after by a governess, responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire. In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had attended before him. While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Canada, he left Gordonstoun in July two years with A-Levels in English, history and political science. He instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth; the Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year. In December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan.
During March and April 1979, the prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During 1980 he took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course. After passing out from Dartmouth, the prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter. After being awarded his wings, he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, conducted operational flying training until 1982, he joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible. The Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina, were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War.
Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands. Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict; the Queen, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship. Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation and search and air rescue, he witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor. At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home; the Argentine military government planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982.
Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. Commander Nigel Ward's memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as "an excellent pilot and a promising officer."Following his return from the Falklands War and until his marriage to Sarah Ferguson, Prince Andrew dated actress Koo Stark. In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp. Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986, including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2, he undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland.
He served on HMS Edinburgh as an Office
Meghan, Duchess of Sussex
Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, is a retired American actress who became a member of the British royal family upon her marriage to Prince Harry. Markle was born and raised in Los Angeles and has a mixed ethnic heritage. During her studies at Northwestern University, she began playing small roles in American television series and films. From 2011 to 2017, she played Rachel Zane on the American legal drama series Suits. An outspoken feminist, Markle has addressed issues of gender inequality, her lifestyle website The Tig featured a column profiling influential women, she represented international charity organizations in the 2010s and received recognition for her fashion and style, releasing a line of clothing in 2016. From 2011 until their divorce in 2013, Markle was married to producer Trevor Engelson. In 2017, she announced her engagement to Prince Harry, grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, moved to London, she retired from acting, closed her social media accounts, started undertaking public engagements as part of the British royal family.
She became the Duchess of Sussex upon her marriage to Prince Harry in May 2018. Rachel Meghan Markle was born on August 1981, in Los Angeles, California, her mother, Doria Ragland, is a former social worker and yoga instructor living in View Park–Windsor Hills, California. Markle has described having a close friendship with her mother, her father, Thomas Markle Sr. who lives in Rosarito, Mexico, is a retired television director of photography and lighting director, whose profession resulted in his young daughter visiting the set of Married...with Children. Markle's parents divorced, she has two older paternal half-siblings, Samantha Markle and Thomas Markle Jr. from whom she is estranged. Describing her heritage in a 2015 essay for Elle, Markle stated: "My dad is Caucasian and my mom is African American. I'm half black and half white... While my mixed heritage may have created a grey area surrounding my self-identification, keeping me with a foot on both sides of the fence, I have come to embrace that.
To say who I am, to share where I'm from, to voice my pride in being a strong, confident mixed-race woman."Markle grew up in Hollywood. She was educated beginning at age two at the Hollywood Little Red Schoolhouse. At age 11, her successful campaign to get Procter & Gamble to change a national television commercial she viewed as sexist was profiled by Linda Ellerbee on Nick News. Though she was raised as a Protestant, Markle attended Immaculate Heart High School, an all-girl Catholic private school in Los Angeles, she attended Northwestern University, where she joined Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority and participated in community service and charity projects. She served an internship at the American embassy in Buenos Aires and studied for a semester in Madrid, Spain. Markle received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern's School of Communication in 2003, with a double major in theater and international studies. Early in her career, Markle worked as a freelance calligrapher to support herself between acting jobs.
Her first on-screen appearance was a small role as a nurse in an episode of the daytime soap opera General Hospital. Markle had small guest roles on the television shows Century City, The War at Home, CSI: NY, she took on several contract acting and modeling jobs, including a stint as a "briefcase girl" on the US game show Deal or No Deal. She appeared in Fox's series Fringe as Junior Agent Amy Jessup in the first two episodes of its second season. Markle had some difficulty getting roles early in her career. In 2015, she wrote: "Being'ethnically ambiguous', as I was pegged in the industry, meant I could audition for any role... Sadly, it didn't matter: I wasn't black enough for the black roles and I wasn't white enough for the white ones, leaving me somewhere in the middle as the ethnic chameleon who couldn't book a job."Markle appeared in two 2010 films, Get Him to the Greek and Remember Me, one 2011 film, Horrible Bosses. She was paid $187,000 for her role in Remember Me and $171,429 for her role in the short film The Candidate.
She appeared in episodes of Cuts. In July 2011, Markle joined the cast of the USA Network show Suits, her character, Rachel Zane, began as a paralegal and became an attorney. She completed work on the seventh season in late 2017. According to a critique in The Irish Times, Markle "actively re-positioned" her character from ingénue to "the show's moral conscience" and gave viewers the unique portrayal of a daughter, whose African-American father is in a position to help her career and advance her "desire to crack both racial and gender glass ceilings". While working on Suits, Markle lived for nine months each year in a rented house in the Seaton Village neighborhood of Toronto. Fortune magazine estimated that Markle was paid $50,000 per episode, amounting to an annual salary of about $450,000. In 2014, Markle founded the lifestyle website The Tig, where she wrote about food, fashion and travel, profiled inspirational women; as the website grew, Markle brought in experts such as dieticians, make-up artists, fitness and yoga instructors.
The website's audience consisted of the fans of Markle and Suits. Markle reinforced The Tig's messages of self-love and spirituality on social media, reaching 3 million followers on Instagram, 800,000 on Facebook, 350,000 on Twitter, she closed The Tig in April 2017, taking all of its articles offline, deleted her social media accounts in January 2018. It was estimated that, as a lifestyle blogger, Markle earned about $80,000 annually from endor