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Birmingham Blitz

The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing by the Nazi German Luftwaffe of the city of Birmingham and surrounding towns in central England, beginning on 9 August 1940 and ending on 23 April 1943. It is considered a fraction of the greater Blitz, part of the Battle of Britain. Situated in the Midlands, England's most populous British city outside London, is an important industrial and manufacturing location. Around 1,852 tons of bombs were dropped on Birmingham, making it the third most bombed city in the United Kingdom in the Second World War, behind only London and Liverpool. There was significant bombing of towns in the neighbouring Black Country in Dudley and West Bromwich, where there were hundreds of casualties; as with most provincial cities bombed during the Blitz, reports of the bombing were kept low key. Wartime censorship meant that Birmingham was not mentioned by name in contemporary news reports about the bombing, being referred to instead as a "Midland Town"; this was done in order to keep the Germans from knowing the outcome of their raids.

Overall, there were 365 air raid alerts, 77 actual air raids on Birmingham, eight of which were classified as major. Official figures state that 5,129 high explosive bombs and 48 parachute mines landed on the city, along with many thousands of incendiary bombs. Of the high explosive bombs, around one fifth failed to detonate and one third of the parachute mines were left suspended after the parachute cords became caught in various obstacles such as trees. In total, 2,241 people were killed, 3,010 injured. A further 3,682 sustained lesser injuries. 12,391 houses, 302 factories and 239 other buildings were destroyed, with many more damaged. The first air raid on the city took place on 9 August 1940, carried out by a single aircraft which dropped its bombs on Erdington. One person was killed, six injured. On 13 August the aircraft factory in Castle Bromwich. Eleven bombs hit the main target causing significant damage. 7 people were killed, 41 injured. The first raid on the city centre occurred on 25/26 August, 25 people were killed in the raid, the roof and interior of the old Market Hall in the Bull Ring was destroyed after being set ablaze by incendiary bombs.

Regular small raids followed over August, September and early November. The city centre was badly hit between 25–30 October. Among the buildings hit were Birmingham University, the Art Gallery and the Town Hall; the roof of the Council House was damaged by fire, on the 29th, St Philip's Cathedral suffered serious fire damage after being hit by an incendiary. In November 1940, a series of heavy air raids on Birmingham took place. Between the 19th and 28th of that month around 800 people were killed and 2,345 injured, with 20,000 civilians made homeless. On the first evening of the bombing, just five days after the devastating attack on nearby Coventry, the first major air raid was launched against Birmingham, when around 440 bombers attacked the city, killing 450 people and badly injuring 540. Around 400 tonnes of high explosives were dropped during the raid, including 18 parachute mines; the raid turned out to be the most severe attack on Birmingham in the course of the war. A number of factories were badly damaged in the raid, including the Lucas GEC works.

The Birmingham Small Arms Company factory was badly damaged, causing loss of production and trapping hundreds of workers. 53 employees were killed, 89 were injured, 30 of them and rifle production was halted for three months. A member of the Home Guard and one of the company's electricians were awarded the George Medal for their bravery in helping the trapped workers; the following night 200 bombers returned for another heavy raid, dropping 118 tonnes of explosives and 9,500 incendiaries, causing widespread damage. The main bus depot in Hockley was among the buildings hit, damaging 100 vehicles. A third consecutive major raid followed on 21/22 November. During this eleven-hour raid, large numbers of incendiaries were dropped, starting over 600 fires; the water supply system was badly damaged by bombs, causing three-fifths of the city to lose mains water supply. Supporting fire brigades from across the country were drafted in to help, the fires were brought under control. Birmingham's water supply remained in a critical state, only one-fifth of the normal quantity would have been available if there had been another raid, leading the Regional Commissioner to comment "Birmingham will burn down if the Luftwaffe comes again tonight."

However, there wasn't another raid that night, this gave engineers time to repair the water mains. Around 60 bombers attacked Birmingham on 4 December; the Witton tram depot was badly damaged in this raid. One week on the night of 11 December another major raid involving 278 bombers was launched against the city; this was the longest raid of the Blitz lasting for 13 hours. Apart from explosives, around 25,000 incendiaries were dropped during the raid, causing widespread fires in both residential and industrial areas. 263 people were killed and 243 badly injured. All but the fine tower and classical west portico of St Thomas' Church on Bath Row was destroyed in the raid, its ruins now form part of St. Thomas' Peace Garden, a public park designated as a monument to peace and a memorial to all those killed in armed conflict. Further heavy raids followed on 11 March 135 bombers attacked the city. On 9 and 10 April, Birmingham was subjected to two heavy raids. In the first of these, 235 bombers dropped 280 tonnes of explosives and 40,000 incendiaries, concentrated

Sylvia La Torre

Sylvia La Torre, known as "The Queen of Kundiman", is a Filipina singer and radio star. La Torre is the daughter of Filipino artist Leonora Reyes and director Olive La Torre, her granddaughter is Anna Maria Perez de Tagle. A coloratura soprano, she graduated from the University of Santo Tomas' Conservatory of Music with a degree in Music major in Voice and minor in Piano, she began singing in 1938 at the age of five. She started performing in theater during World War II. In 1948, she joined the Manila Grand Opera House, her first song release was "Si Petite Mon Amour" under the Bataan Records label in 1950. She moved to Villar Records, she was known as "The Queen of Kundiman" in the 1960s. She began to make films in 1941, moving to Sampaguita Pictures, the studio her father worked at as a director, she now lives in Los Angeles. 1941 - Ang Maestra 1949 - Biro ng Tadhana 1952 - Buhay Pilipino 1952 - Ulila ng Bataan 1952 - Gorio at Tekla 1953 - Munting Koronel 1953 - Ang Asawa Kong Americana 1958 - My Little Kuwan 1959 - Puro Utos, Puro Utos 1959 - Nukso ng Nukso 1960 - Yantok Mindoro 1961 - "Oh Sendang" 1962 - Tang-taran-tang 1963 - Sakay and Moy 1974 - Oh Maggie Oh 1978 - Chimoy at Chimay 1987 - Jack & Jill 1988 - One Two Bato Three Four Bapor 1989 - M&M, the Incredible Twins 1993 - Ligaw-ligawan Kasal-kasalan Bahay-bahayan 1997 - Biyudo Si Daddy, Biyuda Si Mommy Akala'y Totoo Ako Ay Iyo - 1959 Ako'y Kampupot - 1954 Ako'y Lumuluha Ako'y Nagmamahal - 1961 Alak - 1965 Alembong - 1958 Alibambang Aling Kutsero - 1956 Anak ni Waray - 1959 Ano Ba - 1959 Ang Giliw Na Ibig Ko - 1960 Ang Dalagang Nayon Ang Hirap kay' Inday Ang Kasing-Kasing ko Ang Langit ko'y Ikaw Ang Paglalaba Ano ba Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran - 1955 Arimunding-Munding - 1953 Asahan mo Atik Awat na Adyang - 1961 Ay Anong Saklap - 1960 Ay Kalisud - 1954 Babalik ka rin Bahala na - 1956 Bahay-Kubo - 1966 Bakit mo ako Pinaluha Banahaw Basang Sisiw Basta't Mahal Kita - 1959 Batanguena - 1954 Binatang Kapampangan Bingwit ng Pag-ibig Binibiro Lamang Kita Biru-Biruan Bituing Marikit - 1952 Buhay sa Nayon Bulaklak at Paru-Paro - 1954 Carinosa Chimoy at Chimay - 1973 Dadaldal-Daldal Dahil Sa Polka - 1965 Dahil sa Iyo Dahil sa Polka Dalaga't Binata Dankasi'y Tuwist ka ng Tuwist - 1963 Di Magtataksil Di Mahahadlangan Easy ka lang Padre - 1956 Etcetera...

Etcetera... Etcetera... - 1966 Ewan Ko Ba - 1962 Fiesta - 1960 Galawgaw - 1955 Ginintuang Ani - 1954 Gintong Silahis - 1954 Golpe de Gulat - 1967 Granada - 1968 Habang May Buhay - 1965 Halikan mo ako Darling - 1959 Halina't Magsaya Handang Matodas Hanee-Hanee Hanggang Langit Hanggang sa Mag-Umaga Hijo de Familia Hindi Basta-basta - 1956 Hindi na Nagbalik Hirap ng Umibig Huwag Ka Sanang Pikon - 1962 Ibong Sawi - 1953 Ikaw Ikaw Kasi - 1956 Ikinalulungkot ko Ilang-Ilang - 1954 Inday Palalayasin kita Irog kay Sarap Irog ko Irog ng Buhay Irogm Nasaan ang Pag-ibig Isang Aral - 1967 Iyung-Iyo Jukebox Rock Kalesa - 1959 Kasalanan ba ang Umibig Kasing Bango ng Pagsinta - 1954 Katakataka Katimbang ng Buhay Katuwaan Kikisay-Kisay Kulasisi - 1954 Kumare, Kumpadre 1952 Kung Akoy Iibig Kung Kita'y Kapiling Kung Nagsasayaw Laba-Laba-Laba Lalake at Lamok Larawan ng Pagsinta Lawiswis Kawayan - 1954 Lihim Kitang Iniibig Luha Luha sa Hatinggabi Luha sa Kalipay - 1954 Maalaala Mo Kaya Mabuti Pa Madaling Araw Magkatuwaan - 1966 Magsaya ka't Ngumiti - 1967 Magsayawan Magtiis ka Darling Mahal na Mahal kita Malaking Hirap Maligayang Araw Mamang Kartero Manalig ka Mang Teban Masaganang Kabukiran - 1954 May Araw ka Rin Mutya ng Pasig - 1952 Nagnakaw ng Halik - 1959 Nakakabum - 1969 Naman, Naman - 1970 Nangangarap Nasaan Nasaan Ang Aking Puso - 1968 Nasaan ang Sumpa Mo Nasaan Ka Irog - 1952 No Money, No Honey - 1956 No Touch, Filipino Kostum O.

A. One, Three Paglingap - 1953 Paglubog ng Araw Pahiwatig - 1952 Pakiusap - 1952 Pakwan - 1959 Pamaypay ng Maynila - 1954 Pampahimbing - 1959 Pandanggo sa Pag-ibig Pandangguhan - 1954 Parti-Lain - 1961 Paru-Paro sa Bulaklak Peks Man Phone Pal - 1958 Please Lang - 1960 Pintasan - 1964 Pook na Kaakit-akit Probinsyano - 1959 Puting Teksas - 1961 Sa Bukid Sa Duyan ng Pagmamahal Sa Kabukiran - 1954 Sa Libis ng Nayon Sa Pagpatak ng Ulan Salawahan Sampaguita Singsing Sino Man ang Nagsabi - 1965 Sosayting Dukha Taguan - 1966 Talusaling Polka - 1964 Tampal - 1969 Tampuhan Taradyin Pot Pot Tayo'y Mamasko Tingnan Natin Tinikling - 1963 Tirana Biya Tugtugan - 1969 Tsimoy at Tsimay with Bobby Gonzales Tunay na Ligaya Twit Twit Twit - 1963 Walang Kuarta Waray-Waray - 1954 La Torre at the Internet Movie Database website La Torre at

Kyle, Ayrshire

Kyle is a former comital district of Scotland which stretched across parts of modern-day East Ayrshire and South Ayrshire. It is said to be named after Coel Hen, a king of the Britons, reputedly killed in battle in this area and is said to be buried in a cairn near Mauchline; the area was bordered by the historical districts of Cunninghame to the north, Clydesdale to the east and by Carrick to the south. The Firth of Clyde lies to the west. Kyle was the central of the three districts in the sheriffdom of Ayr, divided by its three primary rivers all running in a westward direction to flow into the firth of Clyde; the River Irvine formed the northern boundary of Kyle with Cunninghame. Additionally, Kyle itself was sub-divided into two parts. To the north of the River Ayr was "Kyle Stewart", lands held by the FitzAlans since the 12th century. To the south was "Kyle Regis" or "King's Kyle", lands retained by the monarch under royal authority from the royal castle at Ayr. Kyle was combined with Cunninghame and Carrick into the county of the Shire of Ayr during reorganisation due to Local Government Act 1889.

From 1975 to 1996 Kyle and Carrick was the name of a local government district in Strathclyde region, although the larger part of historic Kyle formed Cumnock and Doon Valley district. In 1996 Kyle and Carrick renamed South Ayrshire. In local government the area of Kyle makes up a council ward, bordering the council wards of Troon, it has 3 local councillors belonging to the Conservative Party, the Scottish National Party and the Labour Party. The area of Kyle includes the villages of Annbank, Tarbolton, Monkton and Dundonald as well as a number of smaller surrounding settlements such as Craigie, St Quivox and Loans; the area encompasses the northern portion of South Ayrshire excluding Troon and Ayr. It is bounded by the northern and eastern borders of the South Ayrshire Council area, which border North and East Ayrshire respectively; the southern border of the area follows the River Ayr between Ayr and the administrative border between South Ayrshire and East Ayrshire. At Dalblair near Cumnock, at the confluence of Guelt and Glenmuirshaw Waters, lie the ruins of the once impressive 15th century Kyle Castle.

Map of Kyle Map of Kyle Gazetteer for Scotland entry for Kyle This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne


Bijaći is a village in Croatia, 5 km northeast of Trogir, at the contact point between the Trogir part and the Lower Kaštela part of the Velo field. It was first mentioned in two old Croatian documents from AD 852 and AD 892. At the locality of Stombrate are the remains of an early Croatian church of St. Martha, mentioned in 1197, it is a three-nave structure with an angular apse and a bell tower on the front, built on the remains of an early Christian three-nave basilica. The remains of other structures, as well as the late antique and early Croatian cemetery have been discovered close to the ruins. Numerous fragments of pleter from the 9th and the 10th centuries have been found as well. Interesting are the parts of the altar partition and beams, the reconstructed quadrilateral ciborium with part of an inscription. Six stone lintels have been found in the vicinity of the church, they belonged to the buildings of the ducal palace. Biaći was one of better equipped occasional residences of the Croatian national rulers.

The church of St. Martha was destroyed during Turkish invasions. Srednjovjekovna arheologija II

The Switch (beverage)

The Switch Beverage Company is a beverage company based in Darien, Connecticut. They are well known for their carbonated fruit juices with no artificial additives or high fructose corn syrup. Switch is available at many stores as well as over 3,000 schools around the United States. Switch is well known in school vending machines for containing a complete day's worth of Vitamin C. Though popular, the number of stores that sell Switch are scarce. According to SPINscan, The Switch is among the fastest growing single-serve beverages in the United States. Mike Gilbert, founder of The Switch developed a theory about ‘carbonated juices.’ Gilbert claimed to drink orange juice to compensate for the lost nutrients at work. He claimed that orange juice was too bland, therefore he experimented and added carbonated water, he soon teamed up with the visionary Bill Hargis to launch the new soft-drink. The Switch comes in 8 flavors: Apple, Black Cherry, Watermelon Strawberry, Orange Tangerine, Fruit Punch, Kiwi Berry, Lemon Lime.

Eight varieties come in 8fl cans and Five come in 8fl bottles. All flavors contain 100% percent juice, 100% Vitamin C and no artificial colors The Switch motto is: "100% of what you want and 0% of what you don't".8 ounces of "The Switch" contains 120 calories and 28 grams of sugar. As a comparison, 8 ounces of Coca-Cola contains 100 calories and 26 grams of sugar This comparison, 8 ounces of Coca-Cola omitted 26 grams of sugar are "added". High fructose sugar. Official Website Inc Magazine profile

A Little Night Music (The Americans)

"A Little Night Music" is the fourth episode of the second season of the American television drama series The Americans, the 17th overall episode of the series. It aired on FX in the United States on March 19, 2014. Claudia gives the Jennings two assignments — one to capture Anton Baklanov, a defector from the Soviet Union whose research is key to helping the US develop stealth technology, another to get close to Andrew Larrick, the primary suspect in the Connors' murders. Philip monitors Baklanov, while Elizabeth must use naval recruit Brad Mullen to get information about Larrick. After meeting him at a music store, she gains Mullen's sympathy with a fake story about being raped by Larrick at a bar and how the rape was covered up by the military, she manipulates Mullen into offering to get her the files on Larrick, Mullen fears being caught obtaining the files. When the Jennings attempt to abduct Baklanov, they are attacked by two assailants - after a fight, one drives off with Baklanov in the trunk and the other is captured.

Meanwhile, fallout from Vladimir Kosygin's death may affect Agent Gaad's job. Paige's new friend Kelly takes her to a church function causing Philip and Elizabeth to be dismayed by Paige's new signs of Christian faith; the episode was directed by Lodge Kerrigan. The A. V. Club gave the episode a'B+'; the episode was watched by 1.39 million viewers. "A Little Night Music" at FX "A Little Night Music" on IMDb "A Little Night Music" at