Henry Richard Yeoville Yardley Thomason was an architect in Birmingham, England. He was born in Edinburgh to a Birmingham family, Thomason set up his own practice in Birmingham 1853–54. Yeoville Thomason was a grandson of Sir Edward Thomason, a silversmith and medallist in Birmingham and he was a pupil of Charles Edge, and after qualifying as an architect he worked for the borough surveyor. He designed the Council House after winning a competition, as architect to Birmingham and District Banking Company he designed several bank buildings in the area. He died in 1901 and is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, Grade II listed 38 Benetts Hill, 1868–70, Grade II listed Highcroft Hospital, Main Building, Highcroft Road, Erdington. 1869, Grade II listed Birmingham Town and District Bank,63 Colmore Row, head Office to become part of Barclays Bank, facade remodelled by Peacock and Bewlay. Lewiss department store, Corporation Street,1886, Birminghams first iron and concrete building Acocks Green Chapel, Warwick Green, St Asaphs Church, Birmingham 1868 St John the Baptists church, Harborne Elsewhere, Public Hall, High Street, now the Public Library
The Sultanganj Buddha is a Gupta-Pala transitional period sculpture, the largest substantially complete copper Buddha figure known from the time. The statue is dated by archaeologists to between 500 and 700 AD and it is 2.3 m high and 1 m wide and weighs over 500 kg. It was found in the North Indian town of Sultanganj, Bhagalpur district and it is now held by Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, England. The Sultanganj Buddha was cast in pure, unrefined copper by the cire perdue, or lost wax and it stands with his right hand raised in abhayamudra, and his left hand is held downwards with palm outwards, said to indicate granting a favour. The end of the robe is held between the thumb and forefinger of this hand in the manner that is still practised by Theravadin monks. He describes finding the right foot of the Buddha ten feet under the surface, harris sent the statue to Birmingham, the cost of its transport to England being paid by Samuel Thornton, a Birmingham manufacturer of ironmongery. Thornton, himself a former mayor of Birmingham, offered it to the Borough Council for their proposed Art Museum in 1864, in Birmingham, a town that boasted a thousand trades, the Art Museum was intended to be an exemplar and inspiration for local metalworkers and other artisans.
Over the years, it has shown in a number of prominent locations throughout Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery. It was the donation to the collections and is BMAGs most treasured possession. Harriss report shows him with the Buddha and a number of smaller finds and they included two much smaller standing Buddhas in stone, one is now in the British Museum and the other in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. A stone Buddha head, from Sultanganj, is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum and it is now displayed in a new gallery that tells the story of the range of faiths that are practiced in Birmingham
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough of West Midlands, England lying on the River Rea, a small river that runs through Birmingham. It is the largest and most populous British city outside London, the city is in the West Midlands Built-up Area, the third most populous urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,440,986 at the 2011 census. Birminghams metropolitan area is the second most populous in the UK with a population of 3.8 million and this makes Birmingham the 8th most populous metropolitan area in Europe. By 1791 it was being hailed as the first manufacturing town in the world, perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz. The damage done to the infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition.
Today Birminghams economy is dominated by the service sector and its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121. 1bn, and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors, Birminghams sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League and lawn tennis both originating from the city. Its most successful football club Aston Villa has won seven league titles, people from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the citys nickname of Brum. This originates from the citys name, which may in turn have been derived from one of the citys earlier names. There is a distinctive Brummie accent and dialect, Birminghams early history is that of a remote and marginal area. The main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era, within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years, by 1700 Birminghams population had increased fifteenfold and the town was the fifth-largest in England and Wales. The importance of the manufacture of goods to Birminghams economy was recognised as early as 1538. Equally significant was the emerging role as a centre for the iron merchants who organised finance, supplied raw materials. The 18th century saw this tradition of free-thinking and collaboration blossom into the phenomenon now known as the Midlands Enlightenment
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Allen Edward Everitt
Allen Edward Everitt was an English architectural artist and illustrator. He was a leading artist in the Birmingham area between 1850 and 1880, and his work is a historical record of local buildings of that period. Everitt was born in Birmingham, the son of Edward Everitt, an art dealer, and grandson of Allen Everitt and his maternal grandfather was David Parkes, the Shropshire antiquarian. He showed a talent for art and received lessons from David Cox. His specialty was drawing old buildings and their interiors, taking Birmingham as a centre he made careful drawings of almost every spot in the Midlands of archaeological or historical interest. Between the ages of thirty and forty, he made painting tours of Belgium, after this, he devoted himself particularly to building interiors, his work being mainly carried out in watercolour. In 1857, Everitt joined the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, becoming, in 1858, honorary secretary and he taught drawing for many years at the Deaf and Dumb Institution in Church Road, Edgbaston, of which he was also, the secretary.
In 1870, the section of the Midlands Institute was formed. He was also, for a time, a member of the council of the Institute. In June 1880, he was appointed curator of the municipal Birmingham Free Art Gallery. Bunces History of old St. Martins, the church of Birmingham. In 1880, Everitt married Frances Hudson and he died on 11 June 1882, at Edgbaston, where he had lived most of his life, of congestion of the lungs. His very large collection of sketches has proved to be an historical record of buildings in the Birmingham area. Art of Birmingham Books featuring illustrations by Everitt, Alfred, a history of the Holtes of Aston etc. The baronial halls, and ancient picturesque edifices of England etc.1, History of Old St. Martins, Birmingham. A E Everitt Handsworth Views by Allen Edward Everitt 1 Painting by or after Allen Edward Everitt at the Art UK site A E Everitt on Artnet
David Cox (artist)
David Cox was an English landscape painter, one of the most important members of the Birmingham School of landscape artists and an early precursor of impressionism. He is considered one of the greatest English landscape painters, Cox was born on 29 April 1783 on Heath Mill Lane in Deritend, an industrial suburb of Birmingham. His father was a blacksmith and whitesmith about whom little is known, except that he supplied components such as bayonets, Coxs mother was the daughter of a farmer and miller from Small Heath to the east of Birmingham. Early biographers record that she had had an education than his father. In 1804 Cox was promised work by the theatre impresario Philip Astley and moved to London, taking lodgings in 16 Bridge Row, while living in London, Cox married his landlords daughter, Mary Agg and the couple moved to Dulwich in 1808. In 1805 he made his first of many trips to Wales, with Charles Barber, throughout his lifetime he made numerous sketching tours to the Home Counties, North Wales, Yorkshire and Devon.
Cox exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy from 1805 and his paintings never reached high prices, so he earned his living mainly as a drawing master. His first pupil, Colonel the Hon. H, windsor engaged him in 1808, Cox went on to acquire several other aristocratic and titled pupils. He went on to several books, Ackermanns New Drawing Book, A Series Of Progressive Lessons, Treatise on Landscape Painting. The ninth and last edition of his series Progressive Lessons, was published in 1845, by 1810 he was elected President of the Associated Artists in Water Colour. In 1812, following the demise of the Associated Artists, he was elected as associate of the Society of Painters in Water Colour and he was elected a Member of the Society in 1813, and exhibited there every year until his death. Soon after that he applied to an advertisement for a position as drawing master for Miss Crouchers School for Young Ladies in Hereford. Cox taught at the school in Widemarsh Street until 1819, his salary of £100 per year requiring only two days work per week, allowing time for painting and the taking of private pupils.
Between 1823 and 1826 he had Joseph Murray Ince as a pupil and he made his first trip to the Continent, to Belgium and the Netherlands in 1826 and subsequently moved to London the following year. He exhibited for the first time with the Birmingham Society of Artists in 1829, in 1839, two of Coxs watercolours were bought from the Old Water Colour Society exhibition by the Marquis of Conynha for Queen Victoria. It was this move that would enable the higher levels of freedom, in Harborne Cox established a steady routine – working in watercolour in the morning and oils in the afternoon. He would visit London every spring to attend the major exhibitions, followed by one or more sketching excursions, Cox showed regularly at the Birmingham Society of Arts and its successor, the Birmingham Society of Artists, becoming a member in 1842. Cox suffered a stroke on 12 June 1853 that temporarily paralysed him, by 1857 however, his eyesight had deteriorated
Royal Birmingham Society of Artists
It is both a registered charity, and a registered company. From this group was founded the Birmingham Academy of Arts in 1814, a gallery and set of offices for the Birmingham Society of Arts was built behind a fine neo-classical portico in New Street by architect Thomas Rickman in 1829. In 1868 the RBSA received its charter and adopted its current name. The RBSA was to become an influential body in the Victorian period, particularly within the Pre-Raphaelite. One of principal aims of the Society from its foundation had been to continue the educational activities pioneered by Lines. Initially this work was carried out by the society itself, but in 1843 the Birmingham School of Art was founded as a separate institution and this is now known as the RBSA Gallery, and was opened by Charles, Prince of Wales, on 12 April 2000. The two bronze plaques on its exterior, made in 1919, are the earliest known Birmingham works of William Bloye, the societys president, in 2014, the gallery celebrated its bicentenary since its first exhibition.
This was marked by an exhibition from the 8 October -15 November, called A Place For Art, many of the Societys presidents were notable artists. They include,1842 –1849, Sir Martin Archer Shee, PRA1850 –1865, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, PRA1866 –1878, Sir Francis Grant, PRA1879 –1880, Sir Frederick Leighton, PRA1881 –1882, Sir John Everett Millais, Bart. PRA1883 –1884, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, RA1885 –1886, Sir Edward Burne-Jones,1887 –1888, George Frederick Watts, RA1889 –1890, Sir Frederick Leighton, Bart. V. It runs a series of demonstrations, as well as adult and family friendly workshops, the Society has a permanent collection of over 600 works, including pieces by illustrious figures from its past such as David Cox and Edward Burne-Jones. Artists can apply to become Associates, subject to majority vote by existing members, active associates may apply to become members, again subject to a majority vote. Category and Associates of the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists The Making of Birmingham, Being a History of the Rise and Growth of the Midland Metropolis, Robert K.
Dent, Published by J. L
Council House, Birmingham
Birmingham City Council House in Birmingham, England, is the home of Birmingham City Council, and thus the seat of local government for the city. The first-floors exterior balcony is used by visiting dignitaries and victorious sports teams and it is located in Victoria Square in the city centre and is a Grade II* listed building. The Council House has its own postcode, B1 1BB, the side of the building, which faces Chamberlain Square, is the entrance and façade of the Museum and Art Gallery which is partly housed within the same building. The open space which is now Victoria Square was once occupied by Christ Church, the land on which the Council House and adjacent Museum and Art Gallery are located was purchased in 1853. This land consisted of Ann Street which was home to such as the Cabinet of Curiosities. The building had a tower topped with a flagpole. The top was castellated and the walls were whitewashed and adorned in advertisements, the last tenants of the building were the Suffield family, ancestors of J. R. R.
Tolkien. The land was earmarked for development, however constant financial difficulties put all development on hold until 1871 when the council agreed to build offices on the site. A design competition was established and the council received 29 entries, however a decision was delayed by further financial difficulties. The council was split over the Gothic entry by Martin & Chamberlain. Thomasons design was chosen however amendments to the art gallery entrance, the clock and tower are known locally as, Big Brum. Construction commenced on the building in 1874 when the first stone was laid by the mayor Joseph Chamberlain, the building was completed in 1879 and cost £163,000. A debate was held to decide upon the name of the building with the options being The Municipal Hall, the Council House was extended almost immediately, 1881–85. The architect was again Yeoville Thomason and this was a combined Art Gallery and the home of the corporations Gas Department whose budget subsidised the building as legislation limited the expenditure of ratepayers taxes on the arts.
Above the main entrance, which faces Victoria Square, is a mosaic by Salviati Burke, above that, the pediment shows Britannia receiving the manufacturers of Birmingham. The carved decoration on the entablature includes green men, on 9 August 1902, The Council House, along with the Town Hall, was illuminated in celebration of the coronation of King Edward VII. The Council House was extended a second time 1911-1919 by the building of a new block to the north and connected to it by an intricately designed archway. The archway or bridge resembles slightly The Bridge of Sighs in Venice. This contains much of the Museum and Art Gallery and, on its ground floor, many memorials are housed within the Council House
The Magazine of Art
The Magazine of Art was an illustrated monthly British journal devoted to the visual arts, published from May 1878 to July 1904 in London and New York City by Cassell, Galpin & Co. Its origins can be traced back to May 1851, when the House of Cassell started publication of a devoted to The Great Exhibition of that year. It evolved, in 1852, into The Illustrated Exhibitor and Magazine of Art and it changed name in February 1853 to The Illustrated Magazine of Art but never achieved great popularity and ceased publication in 1854. The magazine was revived for a while during the 1862 International Exhibition, the Magazine of Art itself started publication on 25 April 1878, the same year as the Exposition Universelle in Paris, and was edited initially by Arthur J. R. Trendell until 1880. Editorship passed in turn to Eric Robertson, William Ernest Henley, Sidney Galpin, within 3 years of starting publication, the magazine had become firmly established and now included art reviews. Artist Hubert Herkomer was persuaded to design a poster for the magazine depicted the goddess of art on the steps of a temple with the great masters of art looking on in approval.
No expense was spared in producing the journal which was regarded as the flag of the house and it sought to engage the interest of the art lover and art collector while retaining an independent critical voice. One of its most popular contributors was artist William W. Fenn who by had lost his sight, despite his blindness, he was able to contribute reviews with the help of his wife who took him around the galleries and gave him verbal information about the exhibits. W. E. Henley was responsible for revitalising the magazine and transforming it into a lively review of the arts that was influential in shaping the publics perception of. He introduced poetry to its pages, M. H. Spielmann was editor for 17 years from 1886–1904 and encouraged many well known artists, as well as leading art critic John Ruskin, to contribute articles. In 1888, a supplement was introduced called Royal Academy Pictures, The Magazine of Art failed to make sufficient returns to justify its continued existence and publication ceased in 1904, though Royal Academy Pictures continued until 1916.
The following volumes are available to online and download, The Magazine of Art Gift Book Illustrated, Comprising Volumes I & II. The Magazine of Art Volume 5, the Magazine of Art Volume 6. The Magazine of Art Volume 7, the Magazine of Art Volume 8. The Magazine of Art Volume 9, the Magazine of Art Volume 10. The Magazine of Art Volume 11, the Magazine of Art Volume 12. The Magazine of Art Volume 13, the Magazine of Art Volume 15. The Magazine of Art Volume 16, the Magazine of Art Volume 17
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan