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Birmingham Quran manuscript

The Birmingham Quran manuscript is a parchment on which two leaves of an early Quranic manuscript are written. In 2015 the manuscript, held by the University of Birmingham, was radiocarbon dated to between 568 and 645 CE, it is part of the Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern manuscripts, held by the university's Cadbury Research Library. The manuscript is written in ink on parchment, using an Arabic Hijazi script and is still legible; the leaves preserve parts of Surahs 18 to 20. It was on display at the University of Birmingham in 2015 and at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery until 5 August 2016; the Cadbury Research Library has carried out multispectral analysis of the manuscript and XRF analysis of the inks. The Mingana Collection, comprising over 3,000 documents, was compiled by Alphonse Mingana in the 1920s and was funded by Edward Cadbury, a philanthropist and businessman of the Birmingham-based chocolate-making Cadbury family; the two leaves have been recognized as belonging with the 16 leaves catalogued as BnF Arabe 328 in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, now bound with the Codex Parisino-petropolitanus, witness verses corresponding to a lacuna in that text.

The Birmingham leaves, now catalogued as Mingana 1572a, are folio size, are written on both sides in a generously-scaled and legible script. One two-page leaf contains verses 17–31 of Surah 18 while the other leaf the final eight verses 91–98 of Surah 19 and the first 40 verses of Surah 20, all in their present day sequence and conforming to the standard text; the two surviving leaves were separated in the original codex by a number of missing folios containing the intervening verses of surahs 18 and 19. There are no diacritical marks to indicate short vowels, but consonants are differentiated with oblique dashes; the text is laid out in the format, to become standard for complete Quran manuscripts, with chapter divisions indicated by a decorated line, verse endings by intertextual clustered dots. Although the Quran text witnessed in the two Birmingham leaves conforms to the standard text, their orthography differs, in respect of the writing of the silent alif. Early Arabic script tended to not write out the silent alif.

Subsequent ultraviolet testing of the leaves has confirmed no underwriting, excludes the possibility of there being a palimpsest. Alba Fedeli, studying items in the Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern Manuscripts for her PhD thesis Early Qur'ānic manuscripts, their text, the Alphonse Mingana papers held in the Department of Special Collections of the University of Birmingham, found the two leaves misidentified and bound with those of another seventh-century Quranic manuscript written in Hijazi script. Following an approach by the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy in 2013 to contribute a sample from Islamic Arabic 1572 to the Corpus Coranicum project to investigate textual history of the Quran, which coincided with Fedeli's research into the handwriting, the Cadbury Research Library arranged for the manuscript to be radiocarbon dated at the University of Oxford's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, they determined the radiocarbon date of the parchment to be 1465±21 years BP, which corresponds with 95.4% confidence to the calendar years CE 568–645 when calibrated.

The proposed radiocarbon date for the manuscript is significant, as the Islamic prophet Muhammad lived from c. 570 to 632. According to Sunni Muslim tradition it was Abu Bakr, the first caliph, who compiled The Quran, Uthman who canonized the standard version of Quran since accepted and used by all Muslims worldwide. In the University announcement, Muhammad Isa Waley, Lead Curator for Persian and Turkish Manuscripts at the British Library, said: The Muslim community was not wealthy enough to stockpile animal skins for decades, to produce a complete Mushaf, or copy, of the Holy Qur’an required a great many of them; the carbon dating evidence indicates that Birmingham's Cadbury Research Library is home to some precious survivors that – in view of the Suras included – would once have been at the centre of a Mushaf from that period. And it seems to leave open the possibility that the Uthmanic redaction took place earlier than had been thought – or conceivably, that these folios predate that process.

In any case, this – along with the sheer beauty of the content and the clear Hijazi script – is news to rejoice Muslim hearts. David Thomas, professor of Christianity and Islam at the University of Birmingham said: The tests carried out on the parchment of the Birmingham folios yield the strong probability that the animal from which it was taken was alive during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad or shortly afterwards; this means that the parts of the Qur’an that are written on this parchment can, with a degree of confidence, be dated to less than two decades after Muhammad’s death. These portions must have been in a form, close to the form of the Qur’an read today, supporting the view that the text has undergone little or no alteration and that it can be dated to a point close to the time it was believed to be revealed. Saud al-Sarhan, Director of Center for Research and Islamic Studies in Riyadh, has been more sceptical, questioning whether the parchment might have been reused as a palimpsest, noting that the writing had chapter separators and dotted verse endings – features in Arabic scripts which are believed not to have been introduced to the Qur'an until later.

Saud's criticisms have been backed by a number of Saudi-based experts i

Echigo-Nakazato Station

Echigo-Nakazato Station is a railway station on the Jōetsu Line in the town of Yuzawa, Minamiuonuma District, Niigata Prefecture, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Echigo-Nakazato Station is a station on the Jōetsu Line, is located 87.4 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Takasaki. The station has one side platform connected by a footbridge; the station is unattended. Echigo-Nakazato Station opened on 1 September 1931. A new station building was completed in 1980. Upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, it came under the control of JR East. Echigo-Nakazato Ski Resort List of railway stations in Japan JR East station information

Amboy Crater

Amboy Crater is an extinct cinder cone volcano that rises above a 70-square-kilometer lava field in the eastern Mojave Desert of southern California, within Mojave Trails National Monument. It is about 75 miles equidistant from Barstow to the west and Needles to the east, 1.5 miles south of historic U. S. Route 66, near the town of Amboy in San Bernardino County. In 1973, Amboy Crater was designated the Amboy Crater National Natural Landmark; the crater's location is 2.5 miles southwest of the town of Amboy and the Route 66-National Trails Highway. The Bullion Mountains are to the west, the Bristol Mountains to the northeast; this cinder cone is estimated to be 79,000 years old and was formed in layers of vesicular pahoehoe during the Pleistocene geological period. The interior has a lava lake. Lava flows as old as Amboy Crater; the most recent eruption was 10,000 years ago. The crater is 944 ft above about 250 ft above the surrounding basalt lava plains; the scenic and solitary Amboy Crater was a popular sight and stop for travelers on U.

S. Route 66 in California before the opening of Interstate 40 in 1973. Other than a stretch of U. S. Route 66 in New Mexico, Amboy Crater is one of just a few extinct volcanoes along the entire route, so generations of U. S. Route 66 travelers from the 1920s through the 1960s could boast that they had climbed a real volcano. Visits decreased after Interstate 40 opened, but have increased in recent years with the nearby Mitchell Caverns, Mojave National Preserve, renewed historical tourism interest in "old Route 66"; the Federal Bureau of Land Management recommends using the Western Cone Trail to reach the volcano peak's rim, a steep and rocky hiking trail. The trailhead is at the Amboy Crater day-use parking area, which provides shaded and open picnic tables and public restrooms. Regular desert precautions apply here: being alert for rattlesnakes and old military explosives, having a hat, sturdy shoes, abundant drinking water. Educational and organized groups are advised to contact the BLM before heading out to Amboy Crater.

Amboy Crater was used as a location in the 1959 movie Journey to the Center of the Earth. Fires were set inside the crater to simulate a volcanic eruption. Amboy Crater was featured in the Viceland network show Abandoned, Season 1, episode 6: "Route 66"; the desert around Amboy Crater was featured on the cover art of the 2008 Rush album Snakes & Arrows Live. Lavic Lake volcanic field Pisgah Crater Cima Dome & Volcanic Field National Natural Landmark Mojave National Preserve Providence Mountains State Recreation Area Roy's Motel and Café Media related to Amboy Crater at Wikimedia Commons Amboy Crater National Natural Landmark at the Bureau of Land Management website BLM: Amboy Crater

United Daily News

United Daily News is a newspaper published in Taiwan in Traditional Chinese. It is considered to support the Pan-Blue Coalition in its editorials. UDN was founded in 1951 by Wang Tiwu as a merger of three newspapers, Popular Daily and the Economic Times; the three newspapers formally merged in 1953. In terms of political orientation, the United Daily News is regarded as taking an editorial line that supports the Pan-blue Coalition. Before Taiwan democratized, it was an opponent of political reform, it is the third biggest newspaper in Taiwan, ranking after the Apple Daily. UDN was and to some extent still is a place to publish literature in the Lianhe Fukan literary supplement. In terms of editorial style and standards, UDN is one of the most literary of Taiwan's newspapers. Once praised for its high standards, UDN has faced stiff competition in recent years, resulting in lowered readership and less money available for proof-reading. UDN has spawned a group of newspapers, including UDN evening edition and UDN international edition, including an American edition published with the Chinese-American audience in mind.

UDN has published The New York Times International Weekly on Mondays since 2004, changed to Tuesdays on. This 8-page supplement features a selection of English language articles from The New York Times; the publisher is owned by Wang Tiwu's daughter, Shaw-Lan Wang. General editors over the years, installed on September 16, the anniversary of UDN's founding.: Guan Jiemin 1951- Liu Changping 1953- Ma Keren 1964- Wang Jipu 1971- Zhang Zuojin 1975- Zhao Yuming 1981- Liu Guorui 1984- Huang Nian 1988- Hu Litai 1990- Zhang Yidong 1993- Shuang Guoning 1996- Huang Sujuan 2001- Lo Kuo-Chun 2008- You Mei-Yue 2012- Hsiao Heng-Chien 2016- Media of Taiwan De-Westernizing Media Studies, by Myung-Jin Park, James Curran, Routledge, 2000


Tentacolino known as In Search of the Titanic, is a 2004 North Korean-Italian animated film. It is a sequel to the 1999 Italian animated film. Inside a bathysphere, Don Juan and their dog Smile, have begun exploring the ocean's depths in search of the sunken wreck of the Titanic. A shark named Ice Teeth sinks it; the occupants find themselves in the lost city of Atlantis. The expedition members undergo a procedure. Meanwhile and Top Connors are approached by other mice and attend a secret meeting where they learn about a plot to steal the elixir of life. Ronnie and Top Connors alert Don Smile to the plot; the king of Atlantis decides to substitute the elixir with ordinary water. The mice present it to their leader. After drinking it, the leader is tied to heavy stones and dropped into a deep pit filled with water which drowns him. Infuriated, he demands the other mice be imprisoned forever; as a reward for their honesty, the king of Atlantis assists in Titanic's recovery, enlisting the assistance of Tentacles, the giant, friendly octopus.

The king transports Titanic to the bay of a secret island. Jane Alexander – Elizabeth Anna Mazzotti – Ronnie Francis Pardeilhan – Don Juan Gregory Snegoff – Smile Rodolfo Bianchi – King Fabio Boccanera – Don Juan Paolo Buglioni – Ice Stefano Crescentini – Top Connors Oliviero Dinelli – Tentacolino Luigi Ferraro – Mouse Pirate Christian Iansante – Baron von Tilt Beatrice Margiotti – Queen of Atlantis / Sea Amazon #2 Stefano Mondini – Smile Fabrizio Vidale – Cutter Tentacolino on IMDb

Bruce Cale

Bruce Cale is an Australian jazz double-bassist and composer. Cale began studying music at age nine, worked professionally in Sydney from 1958, he worked with Bryce Rohde from 1962–65 moved to England, where he played with Tubby Hayes and worked in John Stevens's Spontaneous Music Ensemble. After obtaining a scholarship, he attended the Berklee College of Music starting in 1966 and remained in the U. S. until 1977, where he played with Ernie Watts and John Handy among others. While in Los Angeles in 1974, he composed the piece Iron Cross for the woodwinds and percussion of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra. Upon his return to Sydney in 1977 he led a small ensemble with a shifting lineup which included, at times, Roger Frampton, Bob Bertles, Dale Barlow, Charlie Munro, Phil Treloar, Alan Turnbull and Tony Buck as sidemen, he led his own Bruce Cale Orchestra through the 1980s. In 1981 he studied for a period in the U. S. with George Russell, premiered a double bass concerto, performing as the soloist with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra.

He concentrated on composing from 1988–95 returned to jazz in the latter half of the 1990s. BRUCE CALE DISCOGRAPHY Bryce Rohde Quartet Corners 1963 CBS Clarence “Big” Miller & Bryce Rohde Quartet Big ‘n Bryce 1964 CBS Bryce Rohde Just Bryce 1965 CBS Tubby Hayes Night & Day 1966 Candid Spontaneous Music Ensemble Challenge 1966 Eyemark Prince Lasha Ensemble Insight 1966 Columbia Zitro Zitro 1967 ESP John Handy Projections 1968 Columbia Charlie Monroe Orchestra Countdown 1969 Columbia Essra Mohawk ″I Have Been Here Before″ Primordial Lovers 1969 Reprise Contraband Time & Space 1971 Epic Gravity Adjuster Expansions Band One 1973 Paradigm Bryce Rohde Trio Turn Right At NSW 1976 Nocturne Bruce Cale Quartet At The Opera House 1979 44 Bruce Cale Quartet Live At The Adelaide Festival 1980 Tall Poppies Bruce Cale Quartet On Fire 1980 Tall Poppies Bruce Cale Orchestra A Century Of Steps 1981 Larrikin Bruce Cale Orchestra Live At The Basement Volume 1 1987 Vista Records Bruce Cale Orchestra Live At The Basement Volume 2 1987 Modern Records Bruce Cale ″Cullenbenbong″ Harmonia 1989 ABC Jazz Bryce Rohde Quartet More Spring 1990 MBS Bruce Cale Orchestra Live At The Basement 1994 Vista Records Bryce Rohde ″Windows Of Arquez" Bodgie Dada 1995 EMI Guy Le Claire & Bruce Cale Standard Time 1996 Time For Jazz Bryce Rohde Duo Always Come Back Here 2001 Music In The Vines Rick Farbach Trio 2001 Private pressing Sue Bond In The Moment 2002 Self published Bruce Cale Orchestral Works 2006 Tall Poppies Roger T. Dean, "Bruce Cale".

The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Bruce Johnson, "Bruce Cale"; the Oxford Companion to Australian Jazz p. 127