Pigot's Directory was a major British directory started in 1814 by James Pigot. Pigot's Directories covered England and Wales in the period before official Civil Registration began and are a valuable source of information regarding all major professions, gentry, clergy and occupations including taverns and public houses and much more are listed. There are timetables of the coaches and carriers that served a town. Parishes are listed for each area with useful information including the number of inhabitants, a geographical description and the main trades and industries of the area or town. Commercial Directory for 1818-19-20. Manchester: James Pigot. 1818. Pigot & Co.'s metropolitan guide & book of reference to every street, lane, passage and public building, in the cities of London & Westminster, the borough of Southwark, their respective suburbs, London: J. Pigot & Co. 1824 Pigot & Co.'s National Commercial Directory for 1828-9. London: James Pigot. Pigot and Co.'s National Commercial Directory for the Whole of Scotland and of the Isle of Man...
Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, Sheffield and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, London: J. Pigot & Co. 1837 Bedfordshire 1839 Cambridgeshire 1839 Cambridgeshire 1830 Derbyshire 1835 Durham 1834 Essex 1839 Herefordshire 1835 Hertfordshire 1839 Huntingdonshire 1830 Huntingdonshire 1839 Kent 1839 Leicestershire 1835 Lincolnshire 1835 London 1839 Middlesex 1839 Monmouthshire 1835 Norfolk 1839 North Wales 1835 Northumberland 1828 Northumberland 1834 Nottinghamshire 1835 Rutlandshire 1835 Shropshire 1835 South Wales 1835 Staffordshire 1835 Suffolk 1830 Suffolk 1839 Surrey 1839 Sussex 1839 Sussex 1840 Warwickshire 1835 Worcestershire 1835 Historical Directories - England & Wales, UK: University of Leicester. Includes digitized Pigot's & Slater's directories for England & Wales, various dates Historical Directories - Scotland, UK: National Library of Scotland. Includes digitized Pigot's & Slater's directories for Scotland, various dates
Countries of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom comprises four countries: England and Wales and Northern Ireland. Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state, Northern Ireland and Wales have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution; the UK Parliament and British Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland and Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland. England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom, remains the responsibility of the UK Parliament centralised in London. England, Northern Ireland and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization list of countries.
However the ISO list of the subdivisions of the UK, compiled by British Standards and the UK's Office for National Statistics, uses "country" to describe England and Wales. Northern Ireland, in contrast, is described as a "province" in the same lists; each has separate national governing bodies for sports and compete separately in many international sporting competitions, including the Commonwealth Games. Northern Ireland forms joint All-Island sporting bodies with the Republic of Ireland for most sports, including rugby union; the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are dependencies of the Crown and are not part of the UK. The British overseas territories, remnants of the British Empire, are not part of the UK. From 1801, following the Acts of Union, until 1921 the whole island of Ireland was a country within the UK. Ireland was split into two separate jurisdictions in 1921: Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. Southern Ireland left the United Kingdom under the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922.
1 The UK Parliament makes all English legislation, whilst the London Assembly scrutinizes the Mayor of London.2 The UK Government, the Mayor of London and their Mayoral cabinet, Metro Mayors and combined authorities, the councils of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly exercise executive power in England.3 The former flag of Northern Ireland, the Ulster Banner, is still used in some sport-related contexts. *Gross value added. Figures for GVA do not include oil and gas revenues generated beyond the UK's territorial waters, in the country's continental shelf region. Various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland and Wales; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 annexed the legal system of Wales to England to create the single entity known for centuries as England, but officially renamed England and Wales. Wales was described as the "country", "principality", "dominion" of Wales. Outside Wales, England was not given a specific term; the Laws in Wales Acts have subsequently been repealed.
The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "part" of a united kingdom of Great Britain The Acts of Union 1800 use "part" in the same way to refer to England and Scotland. However, they use the word "country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland when describing trade between them The Government of Ireland Act 1920 described Great Britain, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland as "countries" in provisions relating to taxation; the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which repealed the Government of Ireland Act 1920, does not use any term to describe Northern Ireland. The Interpretation Act 1978 provides statutory definitions of the terms "England", "Wales" and the "United Kingdom", but neither that Act nor any other current statute defines "Scotland" or "Northern Ireland". Use of the first three terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act; the definitions in the 1978 Act are listed below: "England" means, "subject to any alteration of boundaries under Part IV of the Local Government Act 1972, the area consisting of the counties established by section 1 of that Act, Greater London and the Isles of Scilly."
This definition applies from 1 April 1974. "United Kingdom" means "Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This definition applies from 12 April 1927. "Wales" means the combined area of 13 historic counties, including Monmouthshire, re-formulated into 8 new counties under section 20 of the Local Government Act 1972, as enacted, but subject to any alteration made under section 73 of that Act. In 1996 these 8 new counties were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities. In the Scotland Act 1998 there is no delineation of Scotland, with the definition in section 126 providing that Scotland includes "so much of the internal waters and territorial sea of the United Kingdom as are adjacent to Scotland"; the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 refers to England, Scotland and Northern Ireland as "parts" of the United Kingdom in the following clause: "Each constituency shall be wholly in one of the four parts of the United Kingdom." The Royal Fine Art Commission's 1847 report on decorating the Palace of Westminster referred to "the nationality of the component parts of the United Kingdom" being represented by their four respective patron saints.
"Regions": For purposes of NUTS 1 co
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John Wesley was an English cleric and evangelist, a leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism. The societies he founded became the dominant form of the independent Methodist movement that continues to present. Educated at Charterhouse and Christ Church, Wesley was elected a fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford in 1726 and ordained as an Anglican priest two years later, he led the "Holy Club", a society formed for the purpose of study and the pursuit of a devout Christian life. After an unsuccessful ministry of two years at Savannah in the Georgia Colony, Wesley returned to London and joined a religious society led by Moravian Christians. On 24 May 1738 he experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he subsequently left the Moravians. A key step in the development of Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to travel and preach outdoors. In contrast to Whitefield's Calvinism, Wesley embraced Arminian doctrines.
Moving across Great Britain and Ireland, he helped form and organise small Christian groups that developed intensive and personal accountability and religious instruction. Under Wesley's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social issues of the day, including prison reform and the abolition of slavery. Although he was not a systematic theologian, Wesley argued for the notion of Christian perfection and against Calvinism—and, in particular, against its doctrine of predestination, he held that, in this life, Christians could achieve a state where the love of God "reigned supreme in their hearts", giving them outward holiness. His evangelicalism grounded in sacramental theology, maintained that means of grace were the manner by which God sanctifies and transforms the believer, encouraging people to experience Jesus Christ personally, his teachings are collectively known as Wesleyanism. Throughout his life, Wesley remained within the established Church of England, insisting that the Methodist movement lay well within its tradition.
In his early ministry, Wesley was barred from preaching in many parish churches and the Methodists were persecuted. In 2002, he was placed at number 50 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. John Wesley was born in 1703 in Epworth, 23 miles north-west of Lincoln, as the fifteenth child of Samuel Wesley and his wife Susanna Wesley. Samuel Wesley was a graduate of the University of Oxford and a poet who, from 1696, was rector of Epworth, he married Susanna, the twenty-fifth child of Samuel Annesley, a dissenting minister, in 1689. She bore nineteen children, of which nine lived beyond infancy, she and Samuel Wesley had become members of the Church of England as young adults. As in many families at the time, Wesley's parents gave their children their early education; each child, including the girls, was taught to read as soon as they could talk. They were expected to become proficient in Latin and Greek and to have learned major portions of the New Testament by heart. Susanna Wesley examined each child before evening prayers.
The children were not allowed to eat between meals and were interviewed singly by their mother one evening each week for the purpose of intensive spiritual instruction. In 1714, at age 11, Wesley was sent to the Charterhouse School in London, where he lived the studious, methodical and, for a while, religious life in which he had been trained at home. Apart from his disciplined upbringing, a rectory fire which occurred on 9 February 1708, when Wesley was five years old, left an indelible impression; some time after 11:00 pm, the rectory roof caught on fire. Sparks falling on the children's beds and cries of "fire" from the street roused the Wesleys who managed to shepherd all their children out of the house except for John, left stranded on an upper floor. With stairs aflame and the roof about to collapse, Wesley was lifted out of a window by a parishioner standing on another man's shoulders. Wesley used the phrase, "a brand plucked out of the fire", quoting Zechariah 3:2, to describe the incident.
This childhood deliverance subsequently became part of the Wesley legend, attesting to his special destiny and extraordinary work. In June 1720, Wesley entered Oxford. In 1724, he decided to pursue a Master of Arts degree, he was ordained a deacon on 25 September 1725—holy orders being a necessary step toward becoming a fellow and tutor at the university. In the year of his ordination he read Thomas à Kempis and Jeremy Taylor, showed his interest in mysticism, began to seek the religious truths which underlay the great revival of the 18th century; the reading of William Law's Christian Perfection and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life gave him, he said, a more sublime view of the law of God. He pursued a rigidly methodical and abstemious life, studied the Scriptures, performed his religious duties diligently, depriving himself so that he would have alms to give, he began to seek after holiness of life. In March 1726, Wesley was unanimously elected a fellow of Oxford; this carried with it the right to a room at regular salary.
While continuing his s
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t
Yorkshire and the Humber (European Parliament constituency)
Yorkshire and the Humber is a constituency of the European Parliament. It elects six Members of the European Parliament using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation; the constituency corresponds to the Yorkshire and the Humber region of the United Kingdom, comprising the ceremonial counties of South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, East Riding of Yorkshire and parts of North Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. It was formed as a result of the European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999, replacing a number of single-member constituencies; these were Humberside, North Yorkshire, Yorkshire South, Yorkshire South West, Yorkshire West, parts of Cleveland and Richmond and Lincolnshire and Humberside South. 1Diana Wallis resigned in January 2012.2Timothy Kirkhope was appointed to the House of Lords in 2016 and as a result was required to resign. Elected candidates are shown in bold. Brackets indicate. Biographies of Y&H candidates 2009 at Micandidate Breakdown of 2009 election results by council areas "Your MEPs: Yorkshire and the Humber".
European Parliament Information Office in the United Kingdom. Includes photos, contact information, links to EU website profiles