Birth control known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, using birth control is called family planning; some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable. The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females, intrauterine devices, implantable birth control; this is followed by a number of hormone-based methods including oral pills, vaginal rings, injections. Less effective methods include physical barriers such as condoms and birth control sponges and fertility awareness methods; the least effective methods are spermicides and withdrawal by the male before ejaculation. Sterilization, while effective, is not reversible. Safe sex practices, such as with the use of male or female condoms, can help prevent sexually transmitted infections.
Other methods of birth control do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Emergency birth control can prevent pregnancy if taken within the 72 to 120 hours after unprotected sex; some argue not having sex is a form of birth control, but abstinence-only sex education may increase teenage pregnancies if offered without birth control education, due to non-compliance. In teenagers, pregnancies are at greater risk of poor outcomes. Comprehensive sex education and access to birth control decreases the rate of unwanted pregnancies in this age group. While all forms of birth control can be used by young people, long-acting reversible birth control such as implants, IUDs, or vaginal rings are more successful in reducing rates of teenage pregnancy. After the delivery of a child, a woman, not breastfeeding may become pregnant again after as few as four to six weeks; some methods of birth control can be started following the birth, while others require a delay of up to six months. In women who are breastfeeding, progestin-only methods are preferred over combined oral birth control pills.
In women who have reached menopause, it is recommended that birth control be continued for one year after the last period. About 222 million women who want to avoid pregnancy in developing countries are not using a modern birth control method. Birth control use in developing countries has decreased the number of deaths during or around the time of pregnancy by 40% and could prevent 70% if the full demand for birth control were met. By lengthening the time between pregnancies, birth control can improve adult women's delivery outcomes and the survival of their children. In the developing world women's earnings, assets and their children's schooling and health all improve with greater access to birth control. Birth control increases economic growth because of fewer dependent children, more women participating in the workforce, less use of scarce resources. Birth control methods include barrier methods, hormonal birth control, intrauterine devices and behavioral methods, they are used before or during sex while emergency contraceptives are effective for up to five days after sex.
Effectiveness is expressed as the percentage of women who become pregnant using a given method during the first year, sometimes as a lifetime failure rate among methods with high effectiveness, such as tubal ligation. The most effective methods are those that are long acting and do not require ongoing health care visits. Surgical sterilization, implantable hormones, intrauterine devices all have first-year failure rates of less than 1%. Hormonal contraceptive pills, patches or vaginal rings, the lactational amenorrhea method, if adhered to can have first-year failure rates of less than 1%. With typical use, first-year failure rates are high, at 9%, due to inconsistent use. Other methods such as condoms and spermicides have higher first-year failure rates with perfect usage; the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends long acting reversible birth control as first line for young individuals. While all methods of birth control have some potential adverse effects, the risk is less than that of pregnancy.
After stopping or removing many methods of birth control, including oral contraceptives, IUDs, implants and injections, the rate of pregnancy during the subsequent year is the same as for those who used no birth control. For individuals with specific health problems, certain forms of birth control may require further investigations. For women who are otherwise healthy, many methods of birth control should not require a medical exam—including birth control pills, injectable or implantable birth control, condoms. For example, a pelvic exam, breast exam, or blood test before starting birth control pills does not appear to affect outcomes. In 2009, the World Health Organization published a detailed list of medical eligibility criteria for each type of birth control. Hormonal contraception is available in a number of different forms, including oral pills, implants under the skin, patches, IUDs and a vaginal ring, they are available only for women, although hormonal contraceptives for men have been and are being clinically tested.
There are two types of oral birth control pills, the combined oral contraceptive pills and the progestogen-only pills. If either is taken during pregnancy, they do
Pedro Meyer is a well-known photographer based in Mexico. He is one of the pioneers of the digital revolution in contemporary photography, he was the founder and president of the Consejo Mexicano de Fotografía and organizer of the first three Latin American Photography Colloquiums. Besides his artistic photographic work, Meyer has been a teacher in various institutions, as well as the curator, editor and director of the photography ZoneZero website, which hosts the work of over a thousand photographers from all over the world, is visited by more than 500,000 people each month. More than 5.5 million people visited ZoneZero in one year making it one of the most visited sites for content on the web. Meyer has imparted more than a hundred lectures on the subject of photography and new technologies in festivals and academic institutions in Mexico, the United States, United Kingdom, Argentina, Spain and Sweden among others, he has been a guest artist in the University of Colorado at Boulder, Centro de Estudios Fotográficos in Vigo and The Arizona Western College in Yuma, Arizona.
He was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship in 1987, the Internazionale di Cultura Citta di Anghiari in 1985, in 1993 he received the National Endowment for the Arts in conjunction with Jonathan Green and the California Museum of Photography in Riverside. He has received numerous awards in Mexican Photography Biennales and the first grant destined to a Web project, awarded by the Rockefeller Foundation, he is the Founder and Chairman of the Pedro Meyer Foundation. In 2008 a retrospective exhibition named HERESIES opened in 100 museums worldwide during the week of October 6, 2008. In 1991 he published I Photograph to Remember, one of the first CD ROMs in the world to combine images and sound, he is the author of the books Tiempos de América, Espejo de Espinas, Los Cohetes duraron todo el día. His book Truths and Fictions: A journey of documentary photography to digital was made into a CD ROM by Voyager in 1995, his latest book titled The Real and the True, published by Peachpit Press, came out in 2005.
In 2007, his work and contribution to the field of photography was honored via a special Mentor issue of Nueva Luz photographic journal, guest edited by curator Elizabeth Ferrer. Pedro Meyer's Documentary Fictions, by Jonathan Green. Aperture 136, Summer 1994
Nepean-Carleton was a provincial electoral district in eastern Ontario, Canada. It elected one member to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1999 to 2014; the riding was represented in the Ontario legislature by Progressive Conservative John Baird since it became a provincial riding in 1999 until he resigned in 2005 to run in the 2006 federal election. PC candidate Lisa MacLeod won the provincial by-election to fill the vacancy, held on March 30, 2006. Following the 2018 election, the district was dissolved into Nepean, Orléans, Kanata—Carleton; the riding was created in 1999. It was made up of 62% of Nepean, 43% of Carleton and 11% of Ottawa–Rideau
The 2018–19 Portland State Vikings men's basketball team represented Portland State University during the 2018–19 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Vikings, led by second-year head coach Barret Peery, played their return home games at Viking Pavilion in Portland, Oregon after a one year renovation, as members of the Big Sky Conference, they finished the season 11 -- 9 in Big Sky play to finish in a three-way tie for fourth place. They lost in the quarterfinals of the Big Sky tournament to Weber State; the Vikings finished the 2017–18 season 20–14, 9–9 in Big Sky play to finish in a tie for sixth place. They defeated Sacramento State in the first round of the Big Sky Tournament before losing in the quarterfinals to Eastern Washington, they were invited to the CollegeInsider.com Tournament where, after a first round bye, lost in the second round to San Diego. 2018–19 Portland State Vikings women's basketball team
The Pevchesky Bridge known as the Choristers' Bridge or Yellow Bridge, is a single-span bridge across the Moika River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge is a part of the Palace Square; the length of the bridge is 21 metres, the width is 72 metres. It is the third-widest bridge in Saint Petersburg, after the Blue Kazansky Bridge. Before the February Revolution, the term "Choristers’ Bridge" was shorthand for the tsarist foreign ministry, just as the French foreign ministry is known as the Quai d'Orsay; the first wooden bridge on the site was designed by the French architect Auguste de Montferrand. The first pedestrians to cross the bridge were the troops marching to the parade celebrating the unveiling of the Alexander Column; the bridge got the name Yellow from the color of the railings, according to the tradition of color-coding the bridges crossing the Moika River. In 1837, Georg von Cancrin, an imperial minister of finance, proposed to replace the wooden bridge with a much wider cast iron structure.
According to legend, Emperor Nicholas I himself chose the location for the bridge. Across the river from the Winter Palace was located the house of Count Yury Alexandrovich Golovkin. Once, Golovkin was in such a hurry to meet the Emperor, that he stepped from the boat transporting him across the Moyka and nearly drowned. Thus, Nicholas stated to Golvkin that he located the bridge close to Golovkin's house, so as not to repeat the accident; the new bridge was designed by architects Vasily Stasov, Domenico Adamini, engineer E. A. Adam; the bridge was opened on 24 October 1840. The first user of the bridge was Nicholas I himself, who solemnly crossed the new bridge in his horse-drawn coach; the main decoration of the bridge are beautiful cast iron railings, with numerous frills, the main repeating elements being fan-like palmettos. The bridge got the name Pevchesky, because the Saint Petersburg Court Capella was accommodated nearby. In 1937, the rose-colored paving stones of the bridge were replaced by bitumen.
In 2004, the companies Lenmoststroy and Intarsiya undertook restoration works on the bridge. List of bridges in Saint Petersburg
First Soundscope: Mizu no Nai Hareta Umi e is the debut studio album by Japanese band Garnet Crow. It was released on January 2001 under Giza Studio; the album consist of six released singles. Two out of thirteen tracks, Kimi no Uchi ni Tsuku made Zutto Hashitte Yuku and Futari no Rocket were released in their indies album First Kaleidscope: Kimi no Uchi ni Tsuku made Zutto Hashitte Yuku with the small instrumental and arrangement change. Rhythm was supposed to release as fourth single, however due to unknown reason the release was canceled and was replaced with the release of single Sen Ijō no Kotoba wo Narabete mo. Natsu no Maboroshi received album mix under title secret arrange. A leading album track Mizu no Nai Hareta Umi e was released in Giza Studio's compilation album Giza Studio Masterpiece Blend 2001; this album was released on the same day as Nana Azuki's first poetry book 80,0. "First Soundscope: Mizu no Nai Hareta Umi e" made its chart debut on the official Oricon Albums Chart at #6 rank for first week with 51,830 sold copies.
It charted for 5 weeks and sold 87,150 copies. All tracks are composed by Yuri Nakamura, arranged by Hirohito Furui. Credits adapted from the CD booklet of First Soundscope: Mizu no Nai Hareta Umi he. Mysterious Eyes - opening theme for Anime television series Detective Conan Futari no Rocket - campaign theme song for MFTV Sen Ijō no Kotoba wo Narabete mo - commercial song for Dome Natsu no Maboroshi - ending theme for Anime television series Detective Conan flying - opening theme for PlayStation game Tales of Eternia