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Biscuit (bread)

A biscuit in the United States and Canada, is a variety of small baked goods with a firm browned crust and a soft, crumbly interior. They are made with baking powder or baking soda as a chemical leavening agent rather than yeast, they developed from hardtack, first made from only flour and water, with first lard and baking powder being added. Biscuits, soda breads, cornbread, among others, are referred to collectively as "quick breads", to indicate that they do not need time to rise before baking. American English and British English use the same word to refer to two distinctly different modern foods. Early hard biscuits were derived from a storable version of bread; the word "biscuit" itself originates from the medieval Latin word'biscoctus', meaning "twice-cooked". The modern Italian baked goods known as biscotti most resemble the Medieval Latin item and cooking technique. In the Hispanic world a bizcocho refers to an array of differing baked goods depending on the country, from Spain and throughout Hispanic America.

In the Philippines, a biskotso, derived from a word used by the Spanish conquerors, refers to a type of garlic bread. The definitive explanation for the differences in the usage of "biscuit" in the English speaking world is provided by Elizabeth David in English Bread and Yeast Cookery, in the chapter "Yeast Buns and Small Tea Cakes" and section "Soft Biscuits", she writes, It is interesting that these soft biscuits are common to Scotland and Guernsey, that the term biscuit as applied to a soft product was retained in these places, in America, whereas in England it has died out. Early European settlers in the United States brought with them a simple, easy style of cooking, most based on ground wheat and warmed with gravy. Most were not wealthy men and women, so it was a source of cheap nutrition. A similar practice was popular once with the Royal Navy as hard, flour based biscuits would keep for long journeys at sea but would become so difficult to chew that they had to be softened up; these were first introduced in 1588 to the rations of ships and found their way into the New World by the 1700s at the latest.

The biscuit emerged as a distinct food type in the early 19th century, before the American Civil War. Cooks created a cheaply produced addition for their meals that required no yeast, expensive and difficult to store. With no leavening agents except the bitter-tasting pearlash available, beaten biscuits were laboriously beaten and folded to incorporate air into the dough which expanded when heated in the oven causing the biscuit to rise. In eating, the advantage of the biscuit over a slice of bread was that it was harder, hence kept its shape when wiping up gravy in the popular combination biscuits and gravy. In 1875, Alexander P. Ashbourne patented the first biscuit cutter, it consisted of a board to roll the biscuits out on, hinged to a metal plate with various biscuit cutter shapes mounted to it. Southern chefs may have had an advantage in creating biscuits. Northern American all-purpose flours grown in Ohio and Illinois, are made from the hard spring wheats that grow in the North's cold-winter climate.

Southern American bleached all-purpose flours grown in the Carolinas and Tennessee before national food distribution networks, are made from the soft winter wheat that grows in the warm Southern summer. This summer growth results in wheat that has less protein, more suited to the creation of quick breads, as well as cookies and muffins. Pre-shaped ready-to-bake biscuits can be purchased in supermarkets, in the form of small refrigerated cylindrical segments of dough encased in a cardboard can; these refrigerator biscuits were patented by Ballard and Ballard in 1931. American biscuits are always a savoury food item. Sugar is rare and not part of the traditional recipe, they are not, as illustrated above, never have been intended for consumption as a dessert or a sweet treat and are savory in nature. A typical recipe will include baking powder or baking soda, salt, shortening or butter, milk or buttermilk; the percentages of these ingredients vary as the recipe would pass orally from family to family and generation to generation, but unlike scones, no recipe for Southern biscuits includes nuts, raisins, or dried fruit and they are never served with clotted cream.

Biscuits can be prepared for baking in several ways. The dough can be rolled out flat and cut into rounds, which expand when baked into flaky-layered cylinders. If extra liquid is added, the dough's texture changes to resemble stiff pancake batter so that small spoonfuls can be dropped into the baking sheet to produce "drop biscuits", which are more amorphous in texture and shape. Large drop biscuits, because of their size and rough exterior texture, are sometimes referred to as "cat head biscuits". A common variation on basic biscuits is "cheese biscuits", made by adding grated Cheddar or American cheese to the basic recipe.. At other times, biscuits are consumed for breakfast, they are meant to be served warm with honey, or some fruit based jam. For dinner, they are a popular accompaniment to fried chicken, nearly all types of

Electronic music

Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.

During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.

In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.

At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.

They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.

Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp

Wahid Khalil Baroud

An alleged member of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Wahid Khalil Baroud was arrested in Mississauga, Ontario in 1994 after it was claimed that he served as a bodyguard to Yasser Arafat. In 1991, Baroud took his wife and three children to Greece, before flying into Pearson International Airport with forged Egyptian passports, applying for Canadian residency; the family, which would grow with the births in Canada of two more children, claimed to be Israeli, but Baroud acknowledged his time in Fatah, noting that he had never been involved in any terrorism. He claimed to be defecting because he refused to follow an order to travel to Saudi Arabia's border with Iraqi-controlled Kuwait, where some allege he had been ordered to be killed by the PLO authorities, he stated that, as a Palestinian, he refused to be a party to another occupying power like Saddam Hussein. He was held in detention for 41 days before it was determined he was not a threat, he was subsequently released. Three years after he ostensibly missed two immigration hearings which he claims to have never received notice of, a warrant was issued and he was declared a threat to national security under the auspice that he had served in Force 17 as a bodyguard to Arafat, was stationed in Syria, Lebanon and Greece and engaged in terrorism.

He was arrested on a security certificate signed by Immigration Minister Sergio Marchi and Solicitor General Herb Gray on June 6, 1994, but Federal Court of Canada judge Pierre Denault ruled that the government was wrong in suggesting it had evidence Baroud was involved in terrorism. Baroud argued that section 40.1 of the Immigration Act was unconstitutional and breached the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. When the courts upheld his deportation, he sought leave to appeal to the Supreme Court claiming that the Canadian Security Intelligence Service had tried to convince him to become an informant and turned against him when he refused, but was denied on June 15."Depressed and discouraged" at his long time spent in the Don Jail, Baroud agreed to voluntarily drop his appeals and allow himself to be removed from Canada and was subsequently moved to Toronto West Detention Centre. His wife and three eldest children were granted refugee status in Canada. Since he was a stateless Palestinian, there was no country to which he could be safely deported, his wife ended up acquiring an entry visa for him to Algeria, he was put on a plane towards Algeria through Switzerland on July 5, but returned to Canada a week after Algerian authorities refused to let him enter.

It was revealed that his Canadian escorts had taken him to Casablanca hoping to leave him in Morocco. In December 1995, his wife secured a 9-month visa for him to the Sudan, Canada put him on a plane towards the country - however, Sudan refused to accept him when they learned of the case, he was forced to live in airports for eight months. Some sources suggest. Baroud flew to Romania where he lived in the airport for a number of months before finding his way to Switzerland where he appealed to the Supreme Court for the right to remain, he settled in Belgium and he is welcomed as a Belgian citizen. Notes

Shapes (The X-Files)

"Shapes" is the nineteenth episode of the first season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files. It premiered on the Fox network on April 1, 1994. "Shapes" was written by Marilyn Osborn, directed by David Nutter. It featured guest appearances by Ty Miller and Donnelly Rhodes; the episode is a "Monster-of-the-Week" story, a stand-alone plot, unconnected to the series' wider mythology. "Shapes" earned a Nielsen household rating of 7.6, being watched by 7.2 million households in its initial broadcast. The show centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called X-Files. In this episode and Scully are called to Montana after a shooting on a farm near a Native American reservation. Investigating the case, the agents find that the dead man, those that he attacked, may be capable of shapeshifting into ferocious beasts—a phenomenon, documented in the first X-File. "Shapes" was written after executives at Fox had suggested that the series should feature a "more conventional" type of monster, producers James Wong and Glen Morgan began looking into Native American legends of the Manitou to form the basis of the episode's concept.

Much of the episode was filmed in Pitt Meadows, British Columbia. FBI agents Dana Scully and Fox Mulder travel to Browning, Montana to investigate the killing of a Native American man, Joseph Goodensnake, by local rancher Jim Parker; the killing appears to be motivated by a dispute over the ownership of a tract of land, although Parker claims that he fired on a monstrous animal rather than a human. Parker's son, bears scars that lend credence to the story. At the scene of the shooting, Scully reasons that at the short range from which Goodensnake was shot, it would have been impossible to mistake him for an animal. However, Mulder finds tracks leading to the area that appear to change from human to something more animal in nature. Scully finds a large section of shed human skin nearby, she believes that the Parkers knowingly killed Goodensnake, but knows that they could not have skinned him since no signs of such injury were found on the body. The investigation is complicated by the hostility Mulder and Scully face from the Native American population, stemming from their experience with the FBI during the 1973 Wounded Knee incident.

Goodensnake's sister Gwen is bitter that her neighbors are too frightened of native legends to confront his death. The local sheriff, Charles Tskany, permits Scully to make a cursory examination of Goodensnake's body but forbids a full autopsy, they discover that he had elongated canines, similar to those of an animal, bears long-healed scars similar to Lyle's. Mulder tells Scully of a similar incident in the area forty years, investigated by J. Edgar Hoover and became the FBI's first X-File case; as the agents watch Goodensnake's body being cremated in a traditional ceremony, Mulder shares with Scully his belief that the culprits in both the current case and Hoover's investigation are werewolves. Scully instead credits the belief to clinical lycanthropy. Jim Parker is subsequently ripped apart by an unseen animal outside his home, Lyle is found naked and unconscious a few hundred yards away. Ish, one of the elder men of the reservation, explains to Mulder the legend of the manitou, a creature which can possess and transform a man and can pass to a new host, through a bite, or upon the death of the original host.

Ish was too frightened to confront it. He says it happens every eight years to someone in the region, that it has been that long since the last sighting of a possible manitou. Mulder calls the medical examiner, who tells him that Scully has taken Lyle back to the ranch, Jim's blood type was found in Lyle's stomach. Mulder and Tskany hurry to the Parker ranch. After firing on the creature, which escapes unharmed, Mulder finds Scully hiding upstairs, they search for the creature, shot by Tskany as it lunges to attack them. Scully expresses disbelief on seeing Lyle’s body, believing they were attacked by a captive mountain lion; as the agents leave, they learn that Gwen has left town, while Ish cryptically warns Mulder, "See you in about, eight years...agent man". As Mulder and Scully drive away, a wolf is heard howling in the forest. "Shapes" was written after executives at Fox had suggested that the series should feature a "more conventional" type of monster, producers James Wong and Glen Morgan began looking into Native American legends of the Manitou to form the basis of the episode's concept, believing that "a horror show should be able to do these legends that have been around since the thirteen hundreds".

The episode made mention of the first X-File case to have been opened initiated by J. Edgar Hoover in 1946. "Shapes" marked the first time an episode of The X-Files had made use of Native American themes and folklore. Whilst this episode was a stand-alone'monster-of-the-week' story episodes beginning with the second season finale "Anasazi", would begin to incorporate Navajo cultural references into the show's overarching mythology. Guest star Michael Horse, who plays Sheriff Charles Tskany, is the third guest star of the series to have appeared alongside David Duchovny in Twin Peaks, after fellow alumni Claire Stansfield, who played the Jersey D

Everyone in Silico

Everyone in Silico is a 2002 post-cyberpunk novel written by Jim Munroe. It was promoted by Munroe's attempt to invoice corporations mentioned in the novel for product placement; the title is an intentional reference to an advertising campaign run by clothing retailer Gap, one of the companies Munroe sent invoices to. The novel was published by Munroe's own publishing company, No Media Kings, an e-book version is available under a Creative Commons license; the story is set in Vancouver, 2036. San Francisco was struck by an earthquake and a company called Self, somehow related to Microsoft, set up an AI system to replace the city, with a virtual environment called Frisco; the story in Vancouver as well as in Frisco. Reactions to Everyone in Silico were positive, with reviews comparing the work favourably to those of Bruce Sterling, Douglas Coupland and Philip K. Dick. Other reviewers were impressed with the humour and the level of detail presented of life in the novel's futuristic world, although some comment that the complexity of the plot made for a confusing read.

Munroe, Jim. "Free E-book Released". JimMunroe.net. Jim Munroe

Mary Burger

Mary Burger is an American professional two-time World Barrel Racing Champion. In 2016, at 68 years old, Burger became the oldest person to win a World Championship in either the Women's Professional Rodeo Association or the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association, setting a new record, she broke the existing record set by Ike Rude of 59 years old in steer roping set back in 1953. She broke the record set by Mary Walker in 2012 at 53 years old in the WPRA. In 2016, she became the third WPRA barrel racer to wear the No. 1 back number at the National Finals Rodeo. She set a new record for season earnings, she set a new record by becoming the oldest WPRA qualifier to the NFR at 68 years, her horses, Mo and Fred, whom she used to win her titles with, she trained in barrel racing herself. In 2017, she was inducted into Hall of Fame. Mary Burger was born Mary Lichtle in Decatur, Indiana, on August 18, 1948. Burger is one of three boys born to the Lichtles, she grew up riding horses. As a young girl, she was diagnosed with Legg -- Calvé -- Perthes a rare childhood hip disorder.

Her condition made walking difficult. As a result, her father bought her a pony, she took to riding agilely, she attended every 4-H horse show near her home. After she outgrew 4-H shows, she competed, she mastered this sport. During this time, she married her husband Kerry Burger, an esteemed farrier, they have two sons and Joey. In the 1980s, the family moved to Oklahoma. Through training horses, she encountered some winners on the futurity horse race circuit. Soon, she was competing in amateur rodeos, she first started competing professionally in barrel racing in 1984. As an amateur, Burger competed in the AQHA in barrel racing, won World Champion in 1974, 1985, 1986, 1995, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, she competed in pole bending, won one World Champion title in 1974. Burger turned professional by joining the WPRA in 1985. Barrel racing is sanctioned by the WPRA, while other rodeo events are sanctioned by the PRCA; the barrel racing events, take place at PRCA rodeos, alongside events such as bull riding and tie-down roping.

All of the championship rodeo events are held together except steer roping which has its own finals event, the National Finals Steer Roping, at the National Finals Rodeo held at the Thomas & Mack Center, in Las Vegas, Nevada in December. When Burger and her daughter-in-law, P. J. qualified together for the NFR in 2009, they became the first mother-in-law and daughter-in-law duo to achieve that feat. Although Burger turned professional in 1985, she only went to rodeos in her local area until the early 2000s. In fact, in 1987, she won her regional RAM National Circuit Finals Rodeo and became the Prairie Circuit Finals champion. Burger went to quite a few rodeos in 2005, but only regional ones, it was in the year 2006. She won her first world champion title that year, she achieved this after placing in 9 of 10 rounds at the NFR. Her third qualification to the NFR brought Burger her first World Barrel Racing Championship, she and her horse, placed in nine out of ten rounds. She finished the year with total earnings of $189,185, $78,588 of those earnings was won at the NFR.

Burger won the Tulsa State Fair Rodeo, Oklahoma. In 2007, an injury to her horse, about seven months after her 2006 world title kept her from defending it, they competed at rodeos at Reno, Nevada, St. Paul and Molalla, earning $22,126 and qualifying Burger for her second NFR. In Las Vegas, the pair hit two barrels in the first two rounds, they ended the season fifth in the average. She finished the year ranked 30th in the World Standings with earnings of $26,144. In 2008 Burger finished ranked seventh in the World Standings with earnings of $116,518, she won a total of $30,018 in NFR earnings. She placed in 3 out of 10 rounds at the NFR, she won in her local circuit, the RNCFR Prairie Circuit Finals Champion, the RNCFR Average title. She won the Longford Rodeo, Kansas, she was the co-champion at the Angelina County Benefit Rodeo in Lufkin, Texas. In the 2009 season, she entered the NFR ranked third in the World Standings, but finished fourth with earnings of $156,153, she placed in three of the ten rounds.

She won in the RNCFR Prairie Circuit Finals Champion and the RNCFR Average title. She won the Longford Rodeo, Kansas.