Bishkek Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is the most administrative centre of the Chuy Region; the province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" to control local caravan routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Apollon Zimmermann destroyed the fortress. In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek", it lay within the General Governorship of its Semirechye Oblast. In 1925 the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was established in Russian Turkestan, promoting Pishpek to its capital. In 1926 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union renamed the city as Frunze, after the Bolshevik military leader Mikhail Frunze, born there. In 1936, the city of Frunze became the capital of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union.

In 1991 the Kyrgyz parliament changed the capital's name to "Bishkek". Bishkek is situated at an altitude of about 800 meters, just off the northern fringe of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range, an extension of the Tian Shan mountain range; these mountains rise to a height of 4,855 meters. North of the city, a fertile and undulating steppe extends far north into neighboring Kazakhstan; the Chui River drains most of the area. Bishkek is connected to the Turkestan-Siberia Railway by a spur line. Bishkek is a city of wide boulevards and marble-faced public buildings combined with numerous Soviet-style apartment blocks surrounding interior courtyards. There are thousands of smaller built houses outside the city centre. Streets follow a grid pattern, with most flanked on both sides by narrow irrigation channels, watering innumerable trees to provide shade in the hot summers. A caravan rest stop on one of the branches of the Silk Road through the Tian Shan range, the location was fortified in 1825 by the Uzbek khan of Kokhand with a mud fort.

In the last years of Kokhand rule, the Pishpek fortress was led by the Datka. In 1860, the fort was conquered and razed by the military forces of Colonel Zimmermann when Tsarist Russia annexed the area. Colonel Zimmermann rebuilt the town over the destroyed fort and put field Poruchik Titov as head of a new Russian garrison; the site was redeveloped from 1877 onward by the Russian government, which encouraged the settlement of Russian peasants by giving them fertile land to develop. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed "Frunze" after Mikhail Frunze, Lenin's close associate, born in Bishkek and played key roles during the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and during the Russian civil war of the early 1920s; the early 1990s were tumultuous. In June 1990, a state of emergency was declared following severe ethnic riots in southern Kyrgyzstan that threatened to spread to the capital; the city was renamed Bishkek on 5 February 1991 and Kyrgyzstan achieved independence that year during the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Before independence, the majority of Bishkek's population were ethnic Russians. In 2004, Russians made up 20% of the city's population, about 7–8% in 2011. Today, Bishkek is a modern city with many restaurants and cafes, with many second-hand European and Japanese cars and minibuses crowding its streets; however and sidewalks have fallen into disrepair since the 1990s. At the same time, Bishkek still preserves its former Soviet feel with Soviet-period buildings and gardens prevailing over newer structures. Bishkek is the country's financial center, with all of the country's 21 commercial banks headquartered there. During the Soviet era, the city was home to a large number of industrial plants, but most have been shut down since 1991 or now operate on a much-reduced scale. One of Bishkek's largest employment centers today is the Dordoy Bazaar open market, where many of the Chinese goods imported to CIS countries are sold. Though the city is young, the surrounding area has some sites of interest dating to prehistorical times.

There are sites from the Greco-Buddhist period, the period of Nestorian influence, the era of the Central Asian khanates, the Soviet period. The central part of the city is laid out on a rectangular grid plan; the city's main street is the east–west Chui Avenue, named after the region's main river. In the Soviet era, it was called Lenin Avenue. Along or near it are many of the most important government universities; these include the Academy of Sciences compound. The westernmost section of the avenue is known as Deng Xiaoping Avenue; the main north–south street is Yusup Abdrakhmanov Street, still referred to by its old name, Sovietskaya Street. Its northern and southern sections are called Yelebesov and Baityk Batyr Streets. Several major shopping centers are located along it, in the north it provides access to Dordoy Bazaar. Erkindik Boulevard runs from north to south, from the main railroad station south of Chui Avenue to the museum quarter and sculpture park just north of Chui Avenue, further north toward the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

In the past it was called Dzerzhinsky Boulevard, named after a Communist revolutionary, Felix Dzerzhinsky, its northern continuation is still called Dzerzhinsky Street. An important east–west street is Jibe

Reggie Johnson (basketball, born 1989)

Reginald Johnson is an American basketball player who last played for the Rain or Shine Elasto Painters of the Philippine Basketball Association. Standing at 6 ft 10 in and weighing 290 lb, Johnson plays at center, he played college basketball for the Miami Hurricanes. In October 2014, Johnson signed with SPM Shoeters Den Bosch of the DBL. In November 2015, he signed with the Malaysian team Westports Malaysia Dragons of the ASEAN Basketball League. In June 2016, Johnson returned to Southeast Asia, this time to Thailand to play for the Mono Vampire Basketball Club of the Thailand Basketball League. However, at early January 2018, Johnson left the club to return to the United States due to personal reasons, he was replaced by Maltese-Italian Samuel Deguara. In March 2018, Johnson signed with the Rain or Shine Elasto Painters of the Philippine Basketball Association as their import for the 2018 PBA Commissioner's Cup. DBL Profile Eurobasket profile DraftExpress profile

MG 15

The MG 15 was a German 7.92 mm machine gun designed as a hand manipulated defensive gun for combat aircraft during the early 1930s. By 1941 it found new uses with ground troops; the MG 15 was developed from the MG 30, designed by Rheinmetall using the locking system invented by Louis Stange in the mid to late 1920s. Though it shares the MG 15 designation with the earlier gun built by Bergmann, the MG 15nA has nothing in common with the World War II gun except the model number; the World War I gun used a tipping lock system while the WWII aircraft gun uses a rotating bolt/lockring. The World War II MG 15 was used in nearly all Luftwaffe aircraft with a flexible-mount defensive position, it was a modular design with various attachments that could be attached or removed. Operation was easy and the bolt remained in the cocked position after expending the 75 round double drum magazine, negating the need to re-cock once a fresh magazine was installed; the MG 15 fires from an open bolt, meaning that the bolt stays back when the gun is ready to fire, making it nearly impossible for "through the propeller" synchronized forward firing on a fuselage mount.

Pulling the trigger releases the bolt and allows it to go forward, stripping a round from the magazine. The bolt continues pushing the round into the chamber and locks up when the lockring rotates and locks the bolt and barrel extension together. At this point the trip lever releases the gun fires. Recoil pushes the barrel and bolt backwards until the lockring hits a cam that rotates it unlocking the bolt and barrel. Inertia carries the bolt backwards until the base of the fired case hits the ejector flinging the empty out of the receiver. If the trigger is held down the cycle will continue. If the trigger is released the bolt will remain in the rearward position; the 75 rounds of ammunition was evenly distributed in each side of the magazine with a central feed "tower" where the ammunition is fed to the bolt. Various methods were used to secure the magazines in the aircraft, while a carrier of 3 mags each was used on the ground. Ammunition was fed by a spring forced spiral double-drum containing 75 rounds total.

This combined with a firing rate of 1000+ rpm means it could empty the magazine in 4.5 seconds or less. Typical practice was to provide at least 10 reloads for each gun on the aircraft, not including the magazine on the gun. Starting in late 1940 the MG 15 was replaced by the Mauser 7.92 mm MG 81, MG 81Z, MG 131 13 mm machine guns, or MG 151/20 20 mm cannons. Many MG 15s were modified for infantry use. There are a number of pictures showing the guns, both aircraft and ground versions, with 25-round magazines from the MG 13, however the magazines are not compatible with the MG 15. Official numbers of conversions was about 17,648 by January 1, 1944, although additional conversions may have been done as well; the license-produced MG 15 was used in the Japanese aircraft as the Type 98 flexible-mounted machine gun and as the Type 1 in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Type 98 machine guns were used by the Communist forces during the Korean War. Calibre: 7.9 +/-.04 mm Cartridge: 7.92×57mm Mauser Round weight: 35.5 grams Muzzle velocity: 755 metres per second Rate of fire: 1000 rpm Length: 1,078 millimetres Barrel length: 600 millimetres Weight unloaded with gunsight and cartridge bag: 8.1 kg Weight loaded with gunsight and cartridge bag: 12.4 kg 75-round magazine unloaded: 2.27 kg 75-round magazine loaded: 4.24 kg Weight of the 2-part loader: 0.72 kg L.

Dv 110 Beschreibung und Bedienungsvorschrift für das M. G. 15, Manual for using MG 15 owned by contributor Hofbauer, M.. "Panzerfaust WW II German Infantry Anti-Tank Weapons Page 5: Machine Guns". Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. MG 15 in private collection, forum site Imperial Japanese Weapons Forgotten Weapons – The MG-15: A Flexible Aircraft Machine Gun Pushed into Infantry Service on YouTube