House of Kamehameha
The House of Kamehameha, or the Kamehameha dynasty, was the reigning Royal Family of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795 and ending with the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874. The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the House of Kalakaua; the origins of the House of Kamehameha can be traced back to Kalaniʻōpuʻu and Keōua. Kalaniʻōpuʻu's father was Kalaninuiʻīamamao and Keōua's father was Kalanikeʻeaumoku, both sons of Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku, they shared Kamakaʻīmoku. Both brothers served the ruling King of Hawaiʻi island. Hawaiian genealogy notes that Keōua may not have been Kamehameha's biological father, that Kahekili II might have been the figure's real father. Regardless, Kamehameha I's descent from Keawe remains intact through his mother, Kekuʻiapoiwa II, a granddaughter of Keawe. Keōua is recognized by official genealogies; the traditional mele chant of Keaka, wife of Alapainui, indicates that Kamehameha I was born in the month of ikuwā or around November.
Alapai had given the child, Kamehameha to his wife Keaka and her sister Hākau to care for after the ruler discovered the boy had lived. Samuel Kamakau, in his newspaper article writes "It was during the time of the warfare among the chiefs of Hawaii which followed the death of Keawe, chief over the whole island that Kamehameha I was born". However, his general dating has been challenged. Abraham Fornander writes in his publication, "An Account of the Polynesian Race: Its Origins and Migrations": "when Kamehameha died in 1819 he was past eighty years old, his birth would thus fall between 1736 and 1740 nearer the former than the latter". "A brief history of the Hawaiian people" By William De Witt Alexander lists the birth date in the Chronological Table of Events of Hawaiian History" as 1736. He would be named Paiea but would take the name Kamehameha, meaning "The lonely one" or "The one, set apart". Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the young Kamehameha's uncle, would raise him after his father's death. Kalaniʻōpuʻu ruled Hawaiʻi.
He had a number of priests. When word reached the ruler that chiefs were planning to murder the boy, he told Kamehameha: "My child, I have heard the secret complaints of the chiefs and their mutterings that they will take you and kill you soon. While I am alive they are afraid, but when I die they will kill you. I advise you to go back to Kohala." "I have left you the god. In 1778 Captain James Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands and returned in 1779; when his ship, Resolution broke a foremast as they were leaving, he was forced to turn back and return to Kealakekua Bay. A fight and theft of blacksmith tools led to a situation on shore where a Hawaiian canoe was confiscated after the tools were recovered. Tensions were high with the Hawaiian population and one of Cook's small boats was taken. In retaliation, Cook decided to kidnap King Kalaniʻōpuʻu; as he was being led away from his royal enclosure, his favorite wife, Kānekapōlei began to shout to the townspeople to get their attention. Two chiefs, Kalaimanokahoowaha and a royal attendant named Nuaa, saw her pleading as the King was being led away with his two sons following.
As they reached the beach Kanaina, Kānekapōlei and Nuaa were able to convince Kalaniʻōpuʻu to stop and he sat where he stood. The crowd began to become aggressive and a rock was thrown and hit Cook, he took out his sword and struck Kanaina broadside without injury, but the chief reacted and seized Cook and held him in his grip when the king's attendant, Nuaa stabbed him from behind. Before the remains of Cook were returned, the bones of the man were boiled down to strip off the flesh given to chiefs. Kamehameha received Captain Cook's hair. After Kalaniʻōpuʻu's death, Kīwalaʻō would take his father's place as first born and rule the island while Kamehameha would have religious authority. A number of chiefs supported Kamehameha and war soon broke out to overthrow Kīwalaʻō. After a number of battles the king was killed and envoys sent for the last two brothers to meet with Kamehameha. Keōua and Kaōleiokū arrived in separate canoes. Keōua came to shore first where a fight broke out and he and all aboard were killed.
Before the same could happen to the second canoe, Kamehameha intervened. By 1795, Kamehameha would conquer all but one of the islands. For his first royal residence, the new King built the first western-style structure built in the Hawaiian Islands, known as the "Brick Palace"; the king commissioned the structure to be built at Keawa'iki point in Maui. Two foreign, ex-convicts from Australia's Botany Bay penal colony built the home, it was begun in 1798 and was completed after 4 years in 1802. The house was intended for Kaʻahumanu, but she refused to live in the structure and resided instead in a traditional Hawaiian-styled home only feet away. Kamehameha I held two the most high regard. Keōpūolani was the highest ranking aliʻi of her time and mother to his sons and Kauikeaouli. Kaʻahumanu was his favorite. Kamehameha I died in 1819 and his son, Liholiho would become the next king. After Kamehameha I's death, his first born son Liholiho left Kailua for a week and returned to be crowned king. At the lavish ceremony attended by commoners and nobles of the kingdom he approached the circle of chiefs, as Kaʻahumanu, the central figure in the group and Dowager Queen, spoke: "Hear me O Divine one, for I make known to you the will of your father.
Behold these chiefs and the men of your father, these your guns, this your land, but you an
Bernice Pauahi Bishop
Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop, born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was an aliʻi of the Royal Family of the Kingdom of Hawaii and a well known philanthropist. At her death, her estate was the largest private landownership in the Hawaiian Islands, comprising 9% of Hawaii's total area; the revenues from these lands are used to operate the Kamehameha Schools, which were established in 1887 according to Pauahi's will. Pauahi was married to philanthropist Charles Reed Bishop. Pauahi was born in Honolulu on December 19, 1831, in ʻAikupika the grass hut compound of her father, Abner Kuhoʻoheiheipahu Pākī. Pākī was an aliʻi from the island of Molokaʻi, son of Aliʻi Kalani-hele-maiiluna, who descended from the aliʻi nui of the island of Maui, her mother was Laura Kōnia, the younger daughter of Ke Aliʻi Pauli Kaʻōleiokū, by his second wife, Kahailiopua Luahine. Kaʻōleiokū was the son of Kānekapōlei, wife of Kalaniʻōpuʻu and Kamehameha I, Luahine was descended from Kalaimanokahoʻowaha who had greeted Captain Cook in 1778.
Pauahi was named for her aunt, Queen Pauahi, a widow of King Kamehameha II, given the Christian name of Bernice. In a surviving mele hānau for Pauahi, the names Kalaninuiʻīamamao and Keaweikekahialiʻiokamoku are referenced and considered the main links to the Kamehamehas as Kalaninuiʻīamamao was the father of Kalaniʻōpuʻu and "stepfather" of Keōua, Kamehameha I's father while Keaweikekahialiʻiokamoku was the common ancestor of both men. Pauahi's birth chant does not mention Kamehameha I himself, she was adopted at birth by Princess Kīnaʻu, but was returned to her parents in 1838 when Kīnaʻu gave birth to her daughter, Victoria Kamāmalu. Kīnaʻu died of mumps in 1839. Pauahi began attending the Chiefs' Children's School that same year and remained there until 1846, her teachers were Mrs. Cooke. Pauahi enjoyed horseback riding and swimming, she liked music and the outdoors, she dressed like any fashionable New London woman of the time. It had been planned from childhood that Pauahi, born into Hawaiian royalty, would marry her hānai brother Prince Lot Kapuāiwa.
Pauahi married businessman Charles Reed Bishop May 1850, despite the objections of her parents. Per her request few people attended her wedding. One of the few witnesses was her cousin; the couple had no children of their own. They adopted a son named Keolaokalani Davis from Pauahi's cousin Ruth Keʻelikōlani in 1862, against the wish of Ruth's husband, but the infant died at the age of six months. In 1883, they offered to adopt William Kaiheekai Taylor, the infant son of Pauahi's distant cousin Lydia Keōmailani Crowningburg and Wray Taylor; the Taylors refused to give up their first-born son but instead offered to give one of their twin daughters to the Bishops, but they decided not to accept the second offer. The child, William Edward Bishop Kaiheekai Taylor was one of the first students at the Kamehameha's Preparatory Department and would serve as the kahu of the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii at ʻMauna Ala from 1947 until his death in 1956. Pauahi was eligible to be a named heir. Prince Lot Kapuāiwa ruled as Kamehameha V and offered Pauahi the throne on his deathbed in 1872.
But, taken aback, she replied, "No, no, not me. I don't need it." The king pressed on. But she again spurned the throne: no, do not think of me. There are others." The king died an hour later. Pauahi's refusal to accept the crown allowed the Lunalilo to become the first elected monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom. On October 16, 1884, at the age of 52, Pauahi died of breast cancer at Honolulu, she is interred in the Kamehameha Crypt at Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii at Mauna ʻAla on Oʻahu. By the time of her death in 1884, her estate consisted of 485,563 acres of land across the Hawaiian Islands which she had either purchased or inherited from her parents Pākī and Kōnia, from her aunt ʻAkahi, from her cousin Keʻelikōlani and other relatives; these lands were incorporated after Pauahi's death into the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estates, which funds the Kamehameha Schools to the present day. Bishop wished that a portion of her estate be used "to erect and maintain in the Hawaiian Islands two schools...one for boys and one girls, to be known as, called the Kamehameha Schools."
She directed her five trustees to invest her estate at their discretion and use the annual income to operate the schools. When she wrote her will, only 44,000 Hawaiians were alive. After Bishop's death in 1884, her husband Charles Reed Bishop started work in carrying out her will; the original Kamehameha School for Boys was established in 1887. The girls' school was established in 1894 on a nearby campus. By 1955, the schools moved to a 600-acre location in the heights above Kapālama; some time Kamehameha Schools established two more campuses on outer-islands: Pukalani and the Kamehameha Schools Hawaii Campus in Keaʻau on the island of Hawaii. Charles Reed Bishop founded the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in 1889 as another memorial to Pauahi, on the grounds of the original boys school, she was named a woman hero by The My Hero Project. Her will caused three major controversies. In 1992, a clause that all Kamehameha Schools teachers must be Protestant was challenged as illegal religious discrimination in employment
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It is an unincorporated part of and the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu; the city is the main gateway to a major portal into the United States. The city is a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture and traditions. Honolulu is the most remote city of its size in the world and is the westernmost and southernmost major U. S. city. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area referred to as "City of Honolulu" as a census county division. Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands and of the Pacific Ocean; the population of the Honolulu census designated place was 359,870 as of the 2017 population estimate, while the Honolulu CCD was 390,738 and the population of the consolidated city and county was 953,207. Honolulu means "sheltered harbor" or "calm port".
The old name is Kou, a district encompassing the area from Nuʻuanu Avenue to Alakea Street and from Hotel Street to Queen Street, the heart of the present downtown district. The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian Islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan near the city on December 7, 1941; as of 2015, Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, was ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U. S, it is the most populated Oceanian city outside Australasia and ranks second to Auckland as the most-populous city in Polynesia. Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts; these indicate. However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804, his court relocated in 1809 to. The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812. In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.
More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia. In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu, he and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu. Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands. An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi.
Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms; the UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Urban Honolulu Census-designated place has a total area of 68.4 square miles. 60.5 square miles of it is land, 7.9 square miles of it is water. Honolulu is the most remote major city in the world; the closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena Lighthouse in California, at 2,045 nautical miles. However, islands off the Mexican coast, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are closer to Honolulu than the mainland. Downtown Honolulu is the financial and governmental center of Hawaiʻi.
On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaiʻi. The tallest building is the 438-foot tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets; the downtown campus of Hawaiʻi Pacific University is located there. The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown, it is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street – home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District, which includes the former Hotel Street Vice District; the Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaiʻi's state government, incorporating the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale, State Library, the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings. Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopmen
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Armstrong Wells Sperry was an American writer and illustrator of children's literature. His books include historical fiction and biography set on sailing ships, stories of boys from Polynesia and indigenous American cultures, he is best known for his 1941 Newbery Medal-winning book Call It Courage. Born the third and youngest son of a businessman in New Haven, Sperry attended Stamford Preparatory School from 1908 to 1915, his older brother, invented the sole of the Sperry Top-Sider. He attended the Art Students League of New York from 1915 to 1918, where he studied with F. Luis Mora and George Bellows, he studied at the Yale School of Art in the fall of 1918 until drafted into the United States Navy at the end of World War I. Inspired by reading the work of Herman Melville, Robert Louis Stevenson, Jack London as a boy, Frederick O'Brien's White Shadows in the South Seas in 1919, he traveled around the South Pacific from October 1920 to May 1921, spending time on Tahiti, Bora Bora, New Zealand, the Fiji Islands, Hawaii.
In December 1921, one of his paintings of the South Seas were exhibited at the Art Centre, NYC. In the summer of 1922, Sperry was introduced to Kenneth Emory, an ethnologist at the Bishop Museum, Honolulu, by his foster sister, Anne Kinnear, he spent the spring of 1923 studying at the Académie Colarossi in Paris, continued to enroll at the Art Students League during the 1920s and early 1930s. From September 1924 to May 1925, he was employed as an assistant to Kenneth Emory on board the Kaimiloa, a yacht owned by Medford Kellum, sailing from Hawaii to Fanning Island, Christmas Island, Malden Island, Penrhyn Island, Bora Bora, Raiatea on scientific research, although continuing to paint, exhibiting his work in Honolulu. Before sailing to San Francisco in June 1925 Returning to New York, he married Margaret Robertson, a medical doctor and daughter of San Francisco bookseller and publisher A. M. Robertson, in 1930, he worked in an advertising agency, "drawing vacuum cleaners, milk bottles, Campbell's Soup, etc." as an illustrator of pulp romances and magazines, writing south sea yarns for magazines, illustrating books and dust jackets, including the first edition of Tarzan and the Lost Empire by Edgar Rice Burroughs in 1929 and the first of several books he would illustrate by Helen Follet, Magic Portholes in 1932.
Sperry's first book, One Day with Manu, a colorfully illustrated tale of everyday life in Bora Bora, appeared in 1933. Critic Joan McGrath, cautions modern readers to take his depictions of other cultures in context, stating, "His early work, such as the tales of Manu and Tuktu, are unlikely to be found in library collections of today, in an era rendered more sensitive to the feelings of minority cultures and racial pride than in the 1930s. Coloured as they were by the prevailing attitudes of his day, Sperry's ethnological works for young readers would by critics of today be stigmatized as condescending in their approach: it is all too easy to lose the historical perspective that would credit him with enlightenment and objectivity, given their date of publication." Sperry's great-grandfather was a brave sea captain, inspiring his love of the ocean and his book All Sail Set about the clipper ship Flying Cloud, which won him a Newbery Honor Book award in 1936. Although settled in New Canaan, Connecticut, in 1934, Sperry and his family lived Santa Fe, New Mexico for a year, inspiring several books, including Wagons Westward: The Story of the Old Trail to Santa Fe in 1936 and Little Eagle, a Navaho Boy in 1938.
On February 13, 1940 Call It Courage was published by The MacMillan Company, the story about a young boy on the island of Hikueru in Polynesia written and illustrated by Sperry. He was awarded the Newbery Medal for 1940 on June 20, 1941 in Cambridge, Massachusetts by the Children's Library Section of the American Library Association. At his acceptance of the Medal, he said, "I had been afraid that in Call It Courage, the concept of spiritual courage might be too adult for children, but the reception of this book has reaffirmed a belief I have long held: that children have imagination enough to grasp any idea, respond to it, if it is put to them and without a patronizing pat on the head."Sperry purchased a farm in Thetford Center, Vermont in the late 1930s, moved to Hanover, New Hampshire at the beginning of World War II. In 1944, he won the New York Herald Tribune Children's Spring Book Festival Award for Storm Canvas, a story of a boy on the U. S. frigate Thunderbolt in 1814, in 1949, he won the Boys' Clubs of America Junior Book Award for the 1947 publication of The Rain Forest.
Although established as a writer, Sperry continued to illustrate dustjackets for other well-known authors of young adult fiction of his era, including Howard Pease, Agnes D. Hewes, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Florence C. Means, Hildegarde Hawthorne, as well as illustrating various basal readers for the Ginn Co. In 1951, he illustrated an adaptation by Allen Chaffee of Longfellow's Story of Hiawatha. In 1942, he published his only novel for No Brighter Glory, about the Astor family. In addition to Call It Courage, in print continuously since first published in 1940 and translated into dozens of languages, All Sail Set and Wagons Westward were reissued in 1986 and 2001 by David R. Godine, John Paul Jones, Fighting Sailor was reissued in 2006 as John Paul Jones, The Pirate Patriot by Sterling Point Books. Call It Courage ISBN 978-1-4169-5368-5 All Sail Set ISBN 978-0-87923-523-9 Wagons Westward ISBN 978-1-56792-128-1 John Paul Jones, The Pirate Patriot ISBN 978-1-4027-3615-5 Armstrong Sperry Papers in the de Grummond Children's Literature Collection — with biographical n
Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi under one government. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian Islands became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Kingdom of Hawai‘i voluntarily and without bloodshed or war. Two major dynastic families ruled the House of Kalākaua; the Kingdom won recognition from major European powers. The United States became its chief trading partner; the U. S. watched over the Kingdom. Hawaii was forced to adopt a new constitution in 1887 when King Kalākaua was threatened with violence by the Honolulu Rifles, a white, anti-monarchist militia, to sign it. Queen Liliʻuokalani, who succeeded Kalākaua in 1891, tried to abrogate the 1887 constitution and promulgate a new constitution, but was overthrown in 1893 at the hands of the Committee of Safety, a group of residents consisting of Hawaiian subjects and foreign nationals of American and German descent. Hawaii became a republic until the United States annexed it using The Newlands Resolution, a joint resolution passed on July 4, 1898, by the United States Congress creating the Territory of Hawaii.
In ancient Hawaii, society was divided into multiple classes. At the top of the class system was the aliʻi class with each islands ruled by a separate aliʻi nui. All of these rulers were believed to come from a hereditary line descended from the first Polynesian, who would become the earth mother goddess of the Hawaiian religion. Captain James Cook was the first European to encounter the Hawaiian Islands, on his fourth voyage, he was killed in a dispute over the taking of a longboat. Three years the Island of Hawaii was passed to Kalaniʻōpuʻu's son, Kīwalaʻō, while religious authority was passed to the ruler's nephew, Kamehameha. A series of battles, lasting 15 years, was led by the warrior chief; the Kingdom of Hawaii was established with the help of western weapons and advisors, such as John Young and Isaac Davis. Although successful in attacking both Oʻahu and Maui, he failed to secure a victory in Kauaʻi, his effort hampered by a storm and a plague that decimated his army. Kauaʻi's chief swore allegiance to Kamehameha.
The unification ended the ancient Hawaiian society, transforming it into an independent constitutional monarchy crafted in the traditions and manner of European monarchs. From 1810 to 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was ruled by two major dynastic families: the House of Kamehameha and the Kalākaua Dynasty. Five members of the Kamehameha family led the government styled as Kamehameha. Lunalilo was a member of the House of Kamehameha through his mother. Liholiho and Kauikeaouli were direct sons of Kamehameha the Great. During Liholiho's and Kauikeaouli's reigns, the primary wife of Kamehameha the Great, Queen Kaʻahumanu, ruled as Queen Regent and Kuhina Nui, or Prime Minister. Economic and demographic factors in the 19th century reshaped the islands, their consolidation into one unified political entity led to international trade. Under Kamehameha, sandalwood was exported to China; that led to the introduction of trade throughout the islands. Following Kamehameha's death the succession was overseen by his principal wife, Ka'ahumanu, designated as regent over the new king, a minor.
Queen Ka'ahumanu eliminated various prohibitions governing women's behavior. They included women eating bananas, she overturned the old religion as the Christian missionaries arrived in the islands. The main contribution of the missionaries was to develop a written Hawaiian language; that led to high levels of literacy in Hawaii, above 90 percent in the latter half of the 19th century. The development of writing aided in the consolidation of government. Written constitutions enumerating the power and duties of the King were developed. In 1848, the Great Māhele was promulgated by the king, it instituted formal property rights to the land. It followed the customary control of the land prior to this declaration. Ninety-eight percent of the land was assigned to chiefs or nobles. Two percent went to the commoners. No land could be only transferred to lineal descendant land manager. For the natives, contact with the outer world represented demographic disaster, as a series of unfamiliar diseases such as smallpox decimated the natives.
The Hawaiian population of natives fell from 128,000 in 1778 to 71,000 in 1853 and kept declining to 24,000 in 1920. Most lived in remote villages. American missionaries converted most of the natives to Christianity; the missionaries and their children became a powerful elite into the mid-19th century. They provided the chief advisors and cabinet members of the kings and dominated the professional and merchant class in the cities; the elites promoted the sugar industry. American capital set up a series of plantations after 1850. Few natives were willing to work on the sugar plantations and so recruiters fanned out across Asia and Europe; as a result, between 1850 and 1900 some 200,000 contract laborers from China, the Philippines and elsewhere came to Hawaii under fixed term contracts. Most returned home on schedule. By 1908 about 180,000 Japanese workers had arrived. No more were allowed in; the Hawaiian army and navy developed from the warriors of Kona under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810.
The army and navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms including helmets made of natural materials and loincl
Honolulu Harbor called Kulolia and Ke Awa O Kou, is the principal seaport of Honolulu and the State of Hawaiʻi in the United States. It is from Honolulu Harbor, that the City & County of Honolulu was developed and urbanized, in an outward fashion, over the course of the modern history of the island of Oahu, it includes Matson, Inc. harbors on Sand Island. Honolulu Harbor is administered by the Hawaiʻi State Department of Transportation Harbors Division. Honolulu Harbor handles over 11 million tons of cargo annually; the services that the harbor provides are crucial as Hawaiʻi imports over eighty percent of its required goods. Archaeological surveys show that the area around Honolulu Harbor was bustling with human activity prior to 1100; the first European vessel to enter Honolulu Harbor was a long-boat from the British merchant ship King George. The boat rowed into the harbor on December 12, 1786, commanded by a Mr. Hayward and piloted by Towanooha, servant of a friendly Hawaiian priest. In 1794, Butterworth, a British ship commanded by Captain William Brown, entered the harbor by "warping" in.
The crew dubbed it "Brown's Harbor" to their captain's dismay. Captain Brown insisted that the harbor be called "Fair Haven", synonymous with the Hawaiian name Honolulu. In 1850, Kamehameha III declared Honolulu to be the official capital of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. With the proclamation came a series of investments to further develop the harbor to accommodate more vessels. Honolulu Harbor became the chief port of call for the trans-Pacific sandalwood and whaling industries. Foreign vessels that docked at Honolulu Harbor poured vast amounts of wealth into the kingdom's coffers and provided for the well-being of native Hawaiians; the British subsequently built a fort to protect the entrance to the harbor. As the downtown waterfront was developed and the many high-rises along the waterfront were constructed, early artifacts such as poi pounders, fishing lures and human remains were unearthed along the current waterfront and along the docks near the Aloha Tower adjacent to Alakea Street and Nimitz Highway.
On September 11, 1926, after five years of construction, the world-famous Aloha Tower was dedicated at Pier 9 of Honolulu Harbor. The tallest building in Hawaiʻi at that time, the Aloha Tower became a guiding beacon welcoming vessels to Honolulu. Just as the Statue of Liberty greeted thousands of immigrants each year to New York City, the Aloha Tower greeted thousands of immigrants to Honolulu. By the time the Aloha Tower was dedicated, Honolulu was a popular vacation destination for wealthy American and European families, they traveled on Matson steamers that docked at the Aloha Tower and were greeted by Hawaiian music, hula performers and lei. When the attack on Pearl Harbor came on December 7, 1941, Coast Guardsmen from the USCGC Taney were ordered to take up defensive positions around Aloha Tower; the Aloha Tower was painted in camouflage colors so as to disappear at night. In 1982, the Hawaiʻi Maritime Center was opened near the Aloha Tower in an old royal pier to present the history of Honolulu Harbor and the relative industries it served.
Falls of Clyde, a historic merchant ship, is docked at the royal pier. In 2002, the Hawaiʻi Maritime Center became an incorporated institution of the Bishop Museum. In 1994, the Aloha Tower Marketplace opened making Honolulu Harbor the only harbor in the nation to combine a visitor attraction and restaurant outlets, working commercial harbor facilities at a single location. Hawaiʻi State Department of Transportation