Tristram Risdon was an English antiquarian and topographer, the author of Survey of the County of Devon. He was able to devote most of his life to writing this work. After he completed it in about 1632 it circulated around interested people in several manuscript copies for 80 years before it was first published by Curll in a inferior form. A full version was not published until 1811. Risdon collected information about genealogy and heraldry in a note-book. Risdon was born at Winscott, in the parish of St Giles in the Wood, near Great Torrington in Devon, England, he was the eldest son of his wife Joan. William was the younger son of Giles Risdon of Bableigh, in the parish of Parkham, where Tristram Risdon stated that the family had been seated since before 1274. Risdon stated that the family originated in Gloucestershire, where during the reign of King Richard I they were lords of the manor of Risdon. After a local education, Tristram Risdon studied either at Broadgates Hall or at Exeter College in Oxford, though he left the university without taking any degree.
This was because of the death of his half-sister, Thomazin Barry, upon which he inherited the family estate at Winscott, which required his personal attention. He married Pascoe Chafe, the daughter of Thomas Chafe of Exeter, on 2 December 1608 and they had four sons and three daughters. From about 1605 to the 1630s he devoted his time to the study of antiquities those of Devon, the result of his labours was his Survey of the County of Devon, he was interred in St Giles's church. According to John Prince, who had used the Survey as a source for his Worthies of Devon, Risdon started work on the Survey in 1605 and completed it in 1630. Internal evidence shows, that it was not completed until 1632 at the earliest. Risdon was one of a number of authors who wrote about the topography of Devon between the 17th and early 19th centuries; these authors copied content from earlier works, Risdon admitted that he had taken much of his Survey from his friend Sir William Pole's manuscript Collections towards a description of the country of Devon.
Risdon did, make considerable additions and improvements of his own and he acknowledged his debt to Pole "from whose Lamp I have received Light in these my Labours". However, in organising his survey Risdon chose not to follow Pole's method, by the units of county government, he rejected the system adopted by Thomas Westcote, another friend, in his A View of Devonshire of 1630, based on the courses of the rivers. Instead he decided to begin "... In the east part of the county, with the sun, to make my gradation into the south, holding course about by the river Tamer, to visit such places as are offered to be seen upon her banks. Lastly, to take notice of such remarkable things as the north parts afford". Unlike his antiquarian contemporaries, Risdon's work does not overly concern itself with genealogy and reads more like a travel book describing parishes in the same order as he visited them. Concerning his literary style, the opinion of Joyce Youings, former Professor of English Social History at Exeter University, was that although his general description has echoes of John Hooker's writing, "The three hundred pages of topographical detail which follow make tedious reading, unredeemed by Westcote's style."
According to Gordon Goodwin, writing in the 1900 Dictionary of National Biography, Risdon was the first documentary source of several old Devonshire stories: of Elflida and Ethelwold, Childe the Hunter and his daughter, the Tiverton fire. In its turn, Risdon's Survey has been used as a source for topographies. For example, apart from John Prince's Worthies of Devon mentioned above, the Lysons brothers credit it and Pole's collections for the details of the descent of the principal landed property in the Devon volume of their Magna Britannia. After the completion of the Survey, many copies of the manuscript entered into public circulation, none of them agreeing with the others, each having something redundant or deficient. Ten copies of the manuscript are known to survive, details of which are published in Maxted and Brayshay pp. 146–148. The Survey was first published in 1714 by Edmund Curll, the infamous London bookseller, who extracted the parts he thought would best suit his purpose, printed them.
But shortly before publication, the proposed book appears to have been shown to John Prince, being well acquainted with the original, persuaded Curll to publish the remainder as a continuation of the parts printed. Curll did this in the same year, but it remained a imperfect version. In 1785 William Chapple published the first part of his Review of Risdon's Survey of Devon, it contained the general description of the county, but Chapple died before he could complete the work. The first complete edition of the Survey appeared in 1811 and included many additions by uncredited editors, its full title is: The chorographical description, or survey of the county of Devon, with the city and county of Exeter. Collected by the travail of Tristram Risdon, of Winscott, Gent. For the love of his Country and Countrymen, in that Province; this publication was based on the copy of Risdon's manuscript which belonged to John Coles of Stonehouse which after having been compared with others appeared to the editors be the most co
Ordinary (church officer)
An ordinary is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws. Such officers are found in hierarchically organised churches of Western Christianity which have an ecclesiastical legal system. For example, diocesan bishops are the Church of England. In Eastern Christianity, a corresponding officer is called a hierarch. Within civic governance, notably in the southern United States, the role of the county ordinary involved the discharge of certain legal or related, tasks falling to city or county authorities, such as licensing marriages and adjudicating claims against an authority. In canon law, the power to govern the church is divided into the power to make laws, enforce the laws, to judge based on the law. A person exercises power to govern either because the person holds an office to which the law grants governing power or because someone with governing power has delegated it to the person. Ordinary power is the former; the office with ordinary power could possess the governing power itself or instead it could have the ordinary power of agency, the inherent power to exercise someone else's power.
The law vesting ordinary power could either be ecclesiastical law, i.e. the positive enactments that the church has established for itself, or divine law, i.e. the laws which the church believes were given to it by God. As an example of divinely instituted ordinaries, Catholics in communion with the Holy See believe that when Jesus established the Church, he established the episcopate and the primacy of Peter, endowing the offices with power to govern the Church. Thus, in the Catholic Church, the office of successor of Simon Peter and the office of diocesan bishop possess their ordinary power in the absence of positive enactments from the Church. Many officers possess ordinary power but, due to their lack of ordinary executive power, are not called ordinaries; the best example of this phenomenon is the office of a.k.a. officialis. The judicial vicar only has authority through his office to exercise the diocesan bishop's power to judge cases. Though the vicar has vicarious ordinary judicial power, he is not an ordinary because he lacks ordinary executive power.
A vicar general, has authority through his office to exercise the diocesan bishop's executive power. He is therefore an ordinary because of this vicarious ordinary executive power. Local ordinaries are ordinaries in particular churches; the following clerics are local ordinaries: The Bishop of Rome is ordinary for the whole Catholic Church. In Eastern Catholic churches, major archbishops, metropolitans have ordinary power of governance for the whole territory of their respective autonomous particular churches. Diocesan/eparchial bishops/eparchs Other prelates who head if only temporarily, a particular church or a community equivalent to it. Canon 368 of the Code of Canon Law lists five Latin-rite jurisdictional areas that are considered equivalent to a diocese; these are headed by: A territorial prelature called a prelate nullius dioceseos, in charge of a geographical area that has not yet been raised to the level of diocese A territorial abbey, in charge of an area, which in mission countries can be quite vast, associated with an abbey An apostolic vicar, in charge of an apostolic vicariate in a mission country, not yet ready to be made a diocese An apostolic prefecture, in charge of an apostolic prefecture, not yet ready to be made an apostolic vicariate A permanent apostolic administrator, in charge of a geographical area that for serious reasons cannot be made a diocese.
To these may be added: An apostolic exarch, in charge of an apostolic exarchate—not yet ready to be made an eparchy—for the faithful of an Eastern Catholic Church in an area, situated outside the home territory of that Eastern Church A military ordinariate A personal prelate, in charge of a group of persons without regard to geography: the only personal prelature existing is that of Opus Dei An apostolic administrator of a personal apostolic administration: only one exists, the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney An ordinary of a personal ordinariate for former Anglicans A superior of an autonomous mission Of somewhat similar standing is the Diocesan administrator elected to govern a diocese during a vacancy. Apart from certain limitations of nature and law, he has, on a caretaker basis, the same obligations and powers as a diocesan bishop. An apostolic administrator is appointed by the Holy See to run a vacant diocese, or a diocese whose bishop is incapacitated or otherwise impeded.
Classified as local ordinaries, although they do not head a particular church or equivalent community are: Vicars general and protosyncelli Episcopal vicars and syncelli Major superiors of religious institutes and of societies of apostolic life are ordinaries of their respective memberships, but not local ordinaries. In the Orthodox Church, a hierarch holds uncontested authority within the boundaries of his own diocese; the violation of this rule is called eispēdēsis (Greek: εἰσπήδησις, "trespassing" "j
The River Taw rises at Taw Head, a spring on the central northern flanks of Dartmoor, crosses north Devon and close to the sea at the town of Barnstaple a significant port, empties into Bideford Bay in the Bristol Channel having formed a large estuary of wide meanders which at its western extreme is joined by the estuary of the Torridge. As a stream the Taw heads north and gives its name to the village of South Tawton and to North Tawton. Headwaters add to the size from a number of two major upper course tributaries including the Lapford Yeo, Little Dart River. Along the middle course the Taw receives the River Mole, which all rise on upland Exmoor to the north-east. By this midway stage the river has increased in size and becomes a season-round recreational trout, sea trout and salmon river before becoming tidal at Newbridge 19 km from the sea; the river drains a variable width basin as one of many rivers in the agriculturally county, the river has a rolling valley surrounded by animal pasture, cultivated fields and woodland until near its end.
Its length is 72 km. The Tarka trail named; the following is a list of bridges over the River Taw listed going upstream from the estuary at Barnstaple. The left bank of a river is that on the left of a traveller progressing downstream; the river shares the large tidal ranges of the Bristol Channel and daily changes of water depth of 6 m to 8 m are common near its mouth. This effect can be seen in changes to the tidal-estuarine basin, 18 km long; the tidally-influenced river starts at Newbridge, 4 km south of Barnstaple, where the river's width is 20 m. The channel's width increases over the next 8 km, reaching 1 km by Fremington. At Barnstaple the Taw is joined by the Yeo, tidal for a short distance inland. Seawards of Fremington, the small River Caen joins the river on its north bank, the river of Braunton; this tributary was made navigable on its main lower course as the Braunton Canal in the early 19th century. The Taw gives its name to Bishop's Tawton just before passing through the only town on its route, Barnstaple.
The Long Bridge here medieval, is the second-lowest bridging point of the Taw. Work has now finished on the long-awaited'downstream bridge', part of the Barnstaple Western Bypass and now the Taw's lowest crossing point. Seawards of Barnstaple, the river's journey is blocked by the large dune complex of Braunton Burrows, hence its late diversion south-westward and shared estuary mouth with the River Torridge across Zulu Bar sandbanks and out into Barnstaple Bay; the second lowest port on the Taw is Fremington. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries its tidal quay was the busiest port between Bristol and Lands End as it was a handy landing point for Welsh coal shipped across the Bristol Channel which could be distributed around the south-west peninsula by train; the lowest port can be found at Yelland. The site of a coal-fired power station, it still is used as a tanker-distribution centre for commercial and domestic petrol and diesel deliveries; the oil storage tanks here are filled from coastal lighters.
The flooding of the Taw in August 1983 and the destruction of the sand dune causeway to Crow Island at the southern tip of Braunton Burrows was the inspiration for Ted Hughes' poem to commemorate the christening of Prince William, son of Prince Charles - Rain-Charm for the Duchy. Local rail and road routes follow the river from Barnstaple through the centre of the county; the Southern Railway built a series of 4-6-2 steam locomotives named after various places within the West Country. The locomotive that honours the Taw Valley is preserved in its rebuilt form on the Severn Valley Railway carrying its post-nationalisation number 34027. Current river level at Umberleigh Webcam view of River Taw running under Barnstaple's Long Bridge Tide times and heights for the Taw's mouth Environment Agency: Taw and North Devon Streams Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy. Map p.6 Fishing: River Taw Fisheries Association Notes References
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066. Edward was the son of Emma of Normandy, he succeeded Cnut the Great's son – and his own half brother – Harthacnut. He restored the rule of the House of Wessex after the period of Danish rule since Cnut conquered England in 1016; when Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. Edgar the Ætheling, of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks. Historians disagree about Edward's long reign, his nickname reflects the traditional image of him as pious. Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, as opposed to King Edward the Martyr; some portray Edward the Confessor's reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, due to the infighting that began after his heirless death.
Biographers Frank Barlow and Peter Rex, on the other hand, portray Edward as a successful king, one, energetic and sometimes ruthless. However, Richard Mortimer argues that the return of the Godwins from exile in 1052 "meant the effective end of his exercise of power", citing Edward's reduced activity as implying "a withdrawal from affairs". About a century in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the late king. Saint Edward was one of England's national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint in about 1350. Saint Edward's feast day is 13 October, celebrated by both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales. Edward was the seventh son of Æthelred the Unready, the first by his second wife, Emma of Normandy. Edward was born between 1003 and 1005 in Islip, is first recorded as a'witness' to two charters in 1005, he had one full brother, a sister, Godgifu. In charters he was always listed behind his older half-brothers. During his childhood, England was the target of Viking raids and invasions under Sweyn Forkbeard and his son, Cnut.
Following Sweyn's seizure of the throne in 1013, Emma fled to Normandy, followed by Edward and Alfred, by Æthelred. Sweyn died in February 1014, leading Englishmen invited Æthelred back on condition that he promised to rule'more justly' than before. Æthelred agreed. Æthelred died in April 1016, he was succeeded by Edward's older half-brother Edmund Ironside, who carried on the fight against Sweyn's son, Cnut. According to Scandinavian tradition, Edward fought alongside Edmund. Edmund died in November 1016, Cnut became undisputed king. Edward again went into exile with his brother and sister. In the same year Cnut had Edward's last surviving elder half-brother, executed, leaving Edward as the leading Anglo-Saxon claimant to the throne. Edward spent a quarter of a century in exile mainly in Normandy, although there is no evidence of his location until the early 1030s, he received support from his sister Godgifu, who married Drogo of Mantes, count of Vexin in about 1024. In the early 1030s, Edward witnessed four charters in Normandy, signing two of them as king of England.
According to the Norman chronicler, William of Jumièges, Robert I, Duke of Normandy attempted an invasion of England to place Edward on the throne in about 1034, but it was blown off course to Jersey. He received support for his claim to the throne from a number of continental abbots Robert, abbot of the Norman abbey of Jumièges, to become Edward's Archbishop of Canterbury. Edward was said to have developed an intense personal piety during this period, but modern historians regard this as a product of the medieval campaign for his canonisation. In Frank Barlow's view "in his lifestyle would seem to have been that of a typical member of the rustic nobility", he appeared to have a slim prospect of acceding to the English throne during this period, his ambitious mother was more interested in supporting Harthacnut, her son by Cnut. Cnut died in 1035, Harthacnut succeeded him as king of Denmark, it is unclear whether he intended to keep England as well, but he was too busy defending his position in Denmark to come to England to assert his claim to the throne.
It was therefore decided that his elder half-brother Harold Harefoot should act as regent, while Emma held Wessex on Harthacnut's behalf. In 1036 Edward and his brother Alfred separately came to England. Emma claimed that they came in response to a letter forged by Harold inviting them to visit her, but historians believe that she did invite them in an effort to counter Harold's growing popularity. Alfred was captured by Earl of Wessex who turned him over to Harold Harefoot, he had Alfred blinded by forcing red-hot pokers into his eyes to make him unsuitable for kingship, Alfred died soon after as a result of his wounds. The murder is thought to be the source of much of Edward's hatred for the Earl and one of the primary reasons for Godwin's banishment in autumn 1051. Edward is said to have fought a successful skirmish near Southampton, and
Church of St Mary Major, Exeter
The Church of St Mary Major Exeter Minster, was a historic church and parish in the City of Exeter, dating from the 7th century. It pre-dated the first Exeter Cathedral by some five centuries, was rebuilt several times, but was demolished in 1971, it was situated to the immediate south-west of the site today being a grass lawn. The earliest known form of a building on the site was a Roman bath-house, built 60-65 AD. In the 7th century the Saxons built on the site of the bath-house a minster. Saint Boniface, supposed to have been born in Crediton, was educated at Exeter Minster in 680, when the monastery of Escancastre, or Examchester was under the rule of Abbot Wulfhard, it was refounded circa 930 by the Anglo-Saxon King Æthelstan but was burnt down by Viking raiders in 1003. It was rebuilt by King Canute in 1018. In 1050 the See of Crediton moved its seat to Exeter Minster, by licence of King Edward the Confessor, the founding of the See of Exeter. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, in 1114 Bishop William Warelwast commenced the building of a new cathedral to house the See of Exeter, on the site of the present Exeter Cathedral, to the immediate north-east of Exeter Minster.
The new Cathedral was completed circa 1220, whereupon the Minster was vacated by the Bishop, was converted to a parish church dedicated to Saint Mary. The "Major" suffix appears to indicate a church of special status, as in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, it was demolished in 1865 in order to build a larger church to house the expanded population of the City, which new building was consecrated in 1867. It escaped the bombing in World War II which so much of the City suffered, but was demolished in 1971, being by little attended by parishioners. Following the demolition several Saxon graves were discovered on the site, together with the foundations of the Roman bath-house and Saxon Minster; the site is now a level grass lawn. Exeter monastery St Mary Major - Cathedral Yard, Exeter Memories website, 2015 Hoskins, W. G. Two Thousand Years in Exeter, 1963
Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He was the elder son of his wife Ealhswith; when Edward succeeded to the throne, he had to defeat a challenge from his cousin Æthelwold, who had a strong claim to the throne as the son of Alfred's elder brother and predecessor, Æthelred. Alfred had succeeded Æthelred as king of Wessex in 871, faced defeat against the Danish Vikings until his decisive victory at the Battle of Edington in 878. After the battle, the Vikings still ruled Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia, leaving only Wessex and western Mercia under Anglo-Saxon control. In the early 880s Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, the ruler of western Mercia, accepted Alfred's lordship and married his daughter Æthelflæd, around 886 Alfred adopted the new title King of the Anglo-Saxons as the ruler of all Anglo-Saxons not subject to Danish rule. In 910 a Mercian and West Saxon army inflicted a decisive defeat on an invading Northumbrian army, ending the threat from the northern Vikings.
In the 910s, Edward conquered Viking-ruled southern England in partnership with his sister Æthelflæd, who had succeeded as Lady of the Mercians following the death of her husband in 911. Historians dispute how far Mercia was dominated by Wessex during this period, after Æthelflæd's death in June 918, her daughter Ælfwynn became second Lady of the Mercians, but in December Edward took her into Wessex and imposed direct rule on Mercia. By the end of the 910s he ruled Wessex and East Anglia, only Northumbria remained under Viking rule. In 924 he faced a Mercian and Welsh revolt at Chester, after putting it down he died at Farndon in Cheshire on 17 July 924, he was succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan. Edward was admired by medieval chroniclers, in the view of William of Malmesbury, he was "much inferior to his father in the cultivation of letters" but "incomparably more glorious in the power of his rule", he was ignored by modern historians until the 1990s, Nick Higham described him as "perhaps the most neglected of English kings" because few primary sources for his reign survive.
His reputation rose in the late twentieth century and he is now seen as destroying the power of the Vikings in southern England while laying the foundations for a south-centred united English kingdom. Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century and maintained its position until it suffered a decisive defeat by Wessex at the Battle of Ellandun in 825. Thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings. In 865 the Danish Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia and used this as a starting point for an invasion; the East Anglians were forced to pay off the Vikings. They appointed a puppet king in 867, moved on Mercia, where they spent the winter of 867–868. King Burgred of Mercia was joined by King Æthelred of Wessex and his brother, the future King Alfred, for a combined attack on the Vikings, who refused an engagement; the following year, the Danes conquered East Anglia, in 874 they expelled King Burgred and, with their support, Ceolwulf became the last King of Mercia.
In 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. In early 878 they invaded Wessex, many West Saxons submitted to them. Alfred, now king, was reduced to a remote base in the Isle of Athelney in Somerset, but the situation was transformed when he won a decisive victory at the Battle of Edington, he was thus able to prevent the Vikings from taking Wessex and western Mercia, although they still occupied Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia. Edward's parents and Ealhswith, married in 868, her father was Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, her mother, was a member of the Mercian royal family. Alfred and Ealhswith had five children; the oldest was Æthelflæd, who married Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, ruled as Lady of the Mercians after his death. Edward was next, the second daughter, Æthelgifu, became abbess of Shaftesbury; the third daughter, Ælfthryth, married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, the younger son, Æthelweard, was given a scholarly education, including learning Latin.
This would suggest that he was intended for the church, but it is unlikely in Æthelweard's case as he had sons. There were an unknown number of children who died young. Neither part of Edward's name, which means'protector of wealth', had been used by the West Saxon royal house, Barbara Yorke suggests that he may have been named after his maternal grandmother Eadburh, reflecting the West Saxon policy of strengthening links with Mercia. Historians estimate that Edward was born in the mid-870s, his eldest sister, Æthelflæd, was born about a year after her parents' marriage, Edward was brought up with his youngest sister, Ælfthryth. Edward led troops in battle in 893, must have been of marriageable age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894. According to Asser in his Life of King Alfred, Edward and Ælfthryth were educated at court by male and female tutors, read ecclesiastical and secular works in English, such as the Psalms and Old English poems, they were taught the courtly qualities of gentleness and humility, Asser wrote that they were obedient to their father and friendly to visitors.
This is the only known case of princess receiving the same upbringing. As a son of a king, Edward was an ætheling, a pri