Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
London Borough of Islington
The London Borough of Islington /ˈɪzlɪŋtən/ is a London borough in Inner London with an estimated population of 215,667. The borough contains two Westminster parliamentary constituencies, Islington North and Islington South & Finsbury, the local authority is Islington Council. The borough is home to football club Arsenal, one of the most successful clubs in England, Islington was originally named by the Saxons Giseldone, Gislandune. The name means Gīslas hill from the Old English personal name Gīsla and dun hill, the name later mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many manors in the area, along with Bernersbury, Neweton Berewe or Hey-bury. Islington came to be applied as the name for the parish covering these villages, on the merger with Finsbury, to form the modern borough this name came to be applied to the whole borough. It is a London borough council, one of thirty-two principal subdivisions of the area of Greater London.
The council was created by the London Government Act 1963 and replaced two local authorities, Finsbury Metropolitan Borough Council and Islington Metropolitan Borough Council, the former Islington Metropolitan Town Hall, at the intersection of Upper Street and Richmond Grove, serves as the present Boroughs council building. Islington is divided into 16 wards, each electing three councillors, following the May 2014 election, Islington Council comprises 47 Labour Party councillors and 1 Green Party councillor. Of these 48 councillors, the Leader of the Council is Councillor Richard Watts, Islington is represented by two parliamentary constituencies. Islington North is represented by Jeremy Corbyn of the Labour Party, inmarsat has its head office in the borough. Islington has a variety of transportation services, with direct connections to the suburbs. Islington has ten tube stations within its boundaries, with connections by the tube to all around London, farringdon station is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines.
There are several London Overground stations in the borough, there are two prisons in Islington, a mens prison, HM Prison Pentonville and a womens prison HM Prison Holloway, which in the early 20th century was used to hold many suffragettes. The farm contains a range of animals from rabbits to cows to chickens. In 1801, the parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 65,721. This rose steadily throughout the 19th century, as the district built up. The increase in population peaked before World War I, falling slowly in the aftermath until World War II began an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London, the decline in population reversed in the 1980s, but it remains below its 1971 level
St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate is a Church of England church on the west side of Bishopsgate in the City of London, first mentioned in 1212. It survived the Great Fire of London in 1666, and was rebuilt in 1724–29, the church is on the west side of Bishopsgate near Liverpool Street station. In the Middle Ages the site was just outside the city walls near the Bishops Gate after which the street is named, St Botolph was a patron saint of travellers, so it was an appropriate dedication for a church near a city gate. There were three churches of St Botolph in medieval London, at Billingsgate and Aldersgate. Adjoining the buildings is a substantial churchyard – running along the back of Wormwood Street, the course of London Wall –. The church is linked with the Worshipful Company of Coopers and the Worshipful Company of Bowyers, christian worship on this site may have Roman origins, though this is not fully proven. Stow, writing in 1598 only describes the church of his time as standing in a churchyard, adjoining to the town ditch.
It narrowly escaped the Great Fire, the house having been partly demolished to stop the spread of the flames. Writing in 1708, Hatton described it as an old church built of brick and stone, by this time the Gothic church had been altered with the addition of Tuscan columns supporting the roof, and Ionic ones the galleries. In 1710, the parishioners petitioned parliament for permission to rebuild the church on another site, the first stone was laid in 1725, and the new building was consecrated in 1728, though not completed until the next year. The designer was James Gold. or Gould, during construction, the foundations of the original Anglo-Saxon church were discovered. To provide a striking frontage towards Bishopsgate, the architect placed the tower at the east end, its floor, with a pediment on the exterior. The east end and tower are faced with stone, while the rest of the church is brick, the interior is divided into nave and aisles by Composite columns, the nave being barrel vaulted. The church was found to be too dark, so a large west window was created.
In 1820 a lantern was added to the centre of the roof, the church was designated a Grade II* listed building on 4 January 1950. By permission of the Rector, The Orthodox Parish of Saint Botolph in London worships there, part of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of the British Isles and Ireland. The infant son of the playwright Ben Jonson is buried in the churchyard, at one point the satirist and essayist Stephen Gosson was rector. The woman claimed by A L Rowse to be Shakespeares Dark Lady and she married Alfonso Lanier there on 18 October 1592
St Andrew Undershaft
St Andrew Undershaft is a Church of England church in the City of London, the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London. It is located on St. Mary Axe, within the Aldgate ward, the present building was constructed in 1532 but a church has existed on the site since the 12th century. Today, St Andrew Undershaft is administered from the nearby St Helens Bishopsgate church, the first church on the site, which today is bordered by St. Mary Axe and Leadenhall Street, was built in medieval times, being recorded in 1147. It was rebuilt in the 14th century and again in 1532 and it is in the Perpendicular style with its entrance located at the base of its off-centre tower. The interior is divided into six bays, with many of the fittings that survived Victorian renovation. Formerly, St Andrew Undershaft had one of Londons few surviving large stained-glass windows, installed in the 17th century, the churchs curious name derives from the shaft of the maypole that was traditionally set up each year opposite the church.
The custom continued each spring until 1517, when student riots put an end to it, St Andrew Undershaft is now administered from the nearby church of St Helens Bishopsgate. St Andrew Undershaft was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950, the organ was installed in 1696 by Renatus Harris. A swell was added in 1750 by John Byfield, there have been other restorations and enhancements by George Pike England in 1810–11 and 1826. Further work was carried out by William Hill, Speechly and J. W. Walker & Sons, the monument to Sir Thomas and his wife Joan survives in St Andrew Undershaft. Joan was a granddaughter of Sir Stephen Jennings, Lord Mayor, John Stow, author of the Survey of London, buried in 1605. The pen held in the hand of his monument is renewed annually by the Lord Mayor of London. Hugh Hamersley, Lord Mayor of London in 1627, whose memorial is in St Andrew Undershaft, hans Holbein the Younger, a former parishioner of St Andrew Undershaft. Frederick George Blomfield, rector of St Andrew Undershaft, son of Charles James Blomfield, John Lawrence Toole, comedian who was born and christened in St Andrew Undershaft.
Fabian Stedman the father of church bellringing was buried in St Andrew Undershaft, List of buildings that survived the Great Fire of London List of churches in London
The Steelyard, from the Middle Low German Stalhof / Dutch Staalhof, was the main trading base of the Hanseatic League in London during 15th and 16th centuries. The Steelyard was located on the bank of the Thames by the outflow of the Walbrook. The site is now covered by Cannon Street station and commemorated in the name of Steelyard Passage, the Steelyard, like other Hansa stations, was a separate walled community with its own warehouses on the river, its own weighing house, counting houses and residential quarters. In 1988 remains of the former Hanseatic trading house, once the largest medieval trading complex in Britain, were uncovered by archaeologists during work on Cannon Street Station. As a church the Germans used former All-Hallows-the-Great, since there was only a chapel on their own premises. This led to constant friction over the position of English merchants in the Hanseatic towns and Hanseatic privileges in England. Not only English wool but finished cloth was exported through the Hansa, in 1475 the Hanseatic League finally purchased the London site outright and it became universally known as the Steelyard, but this was the last outstanding success of the Hansa.
In exchange for the privileges the German merchants had to maintain Bishopsgate, one of the seven gates of the city, from where the roads led to their interests in Boston. Both were destroyed by a fire, but there are copies in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, merchants of the Steelyard were portrayed by Cornelis Ketel. There is a description of the Steelyard by John Stow. The prosperity of the Hanse merchants, who were in competition with those of the City of London, induced Queen Elizabeth to suppress the Steelyard. James I reopened the Steelyard, but it never carried the weight it formerly had in London. Most of the buildings were destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666, the land and buildings remained the property of the Hanseatic League, and were subsequently let as warehouses to merchants. His son James Colquhoun was his successor as Consul of the Hanseatic cities in London, lübeck and Hamburg only sold their common property, the London Steelyard, to the South Eastern Railway in 1852.
Cannon Street station was built on the site and opened in 1866, the Steelyard possibly gave its name to the steelyard balance, a type of portable balance, consisting of a suspended horizontal beam. An object to be weighed would be hung on the end of the beam, while weights would be slid along the longer end. The weight could be calculated by multiplying the sum of the known weights by the ratio of the distances from the beams fulcrum
The Heron Tower is a commercial skyscraper in London. The Heron Tower is located on Bishopsgate and is bordered by Camomile Street, Outwich Street, construction of the building started in 2007 and was completed in 2011. The tower initially struggled to attract tenants in the depths of the Great Recession, but is now fully let. Designed by architects Kohn Pedersen Fox, the height of the Heron Tower was planned to be only 183 m, identical to that of Tower 42 and it attracted some controversy when first announced due to its proximity to St Pauls Cathedral when viewed from Waterloo Bridge. English Heritage was notably vocal in expressing concerns, a public inquiry was subsequently held, the outcome of which was decided by deputy prime minister John Prescott, who ruled in the developers favour. The tower was given approval for construction in July 2002. Three years later, the project had yet to begin construction, in September 2005 the Heron Property Corporation submitted a planning application to increase the height of its approved building.
Herons revised plans now proposed a 202-metre tall tower topped by a 28-metre mast, although the design was largely identical to the previous scheme, the towers crown and southern façades were refined. In January 2006, the project was approved by the City of London Corporation. In February 2013 it was revealed in The Times that backers of the Heron Tower included Prince Abdul Aziz bin Fahd, the Heron Tower was designed to feature a concierge-style entrance and reception area, incorporating a 70,000 litre aquarium containing around 1,200 fish. A bar-restaurant called The Drift occupies part of the ground and first floors, there is a restaurant and sky bar leased to Sushi Samba and Duck & Waffle, both open to the public, on floors 38–40. Situated 175 metres above the City and accessed by lifts from a dedicated entrance on Bishopsgate. The building uses photovoltaic cells to generate energy, allowing it to achieve a BREEAM rating of excellent in January 2010. In March 2007, it was confirmed that Heron had signed a deal with the State General Reserve Fund of Oman to provide the equity for the development.
Following the appointment of Skanska, the firm that erected the gherkin-shaped 30 St Mary Axe building, as main contractor, full construction began in April 2008, with foundation piles and steel rebar cages being installed, while the first tower crane was erected in June. In August a second crane was erected, followed by a third. In early October, the first steel beams appeared on site, in November, steelwork temporarily finished, and concrete was poured for the base slabs. Steelwork recommenced on 19 January 2009, the speed of construction increased, with floors being constructed in sets of two, with each set taking a planned fortnight to construct
London Borough of Hackney
The London Borough of Hackney is a North East London Borough within Inner London, United Kingdom. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, the London Plan issued by the Greater London Authority assigns whole boroughs to sub-regions for statutory monitoring and resource allocation purposes. The most recent iteration of this plan assigns Hackney to the ‘East’ sub-region, while the 2008 and 2004 versions assigned the borough to ‘North’ and ‘East’ sub-regions respectively. Hackney is bounded by Islington to the west, Haringey to the north, Waltham Forest to the north-east, Newham to the east, Tower Hamlets to the south-east and the City of London to the south-west. Much of Hackney retains an inner-city character, but in places as Dalston large housing estates have been joined by newly developed gated communities. In South Hackney, near Victoria Park, terraced Georgian and Edwardian housing still survives, the historical and administrative heart of Hackney is the area roughly extending north from Mare Street and surrounding the Church of St John-at-Hackney, known as Hackney Central.
To the north of the borough are Upper Clapton and Lower Clapton, Stamford Hill, to the east is the large open space of Hackney Marshes and the districts of Hackney Wick and Homerton. Light industries in the area around the River Lea employ over 3,000 people, some of the area was used for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The borough was formed in 1965 from the area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hackney, Shoreditch. The shield is surmounted by a representation of St. Augustines Tower, the old metropolitan borough of Hackney was closely based on the unusually large ancient parish of the same name. The council displays, in Hackney Town Hall, a portrait of the Queen wearing the robes of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem, in the 13th century the name appears as Hackenaye or Hacquenye, but no certain derivation is advanced. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names discusses the origin of the name, the first surviving records of the place name are as Hakney and Hakeneye. This was once a much wilder place than today, the Dictionary suggests that the ‘Hack’ element may derive from, The Old English ‘Haecc’ meaning a hatch – an entrance to a woodland or common.
Or alternatively from ‘Haca’ meaning a hook, and in this context, given the island context, the ‘hatch’ option is unlikely to be correct, so the favoured Hakas Island or the Island on the bend seem more likely. The place name will have originally referred to just the island or possibly both the island and the manor of the name based around it. Subsequently, the name Hackney was applied to the ancient parish of Hackney. At one time most of the area was covered with oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers. In Roman times and for a time after, the River Lea was an estuary
Gracechurch Street is a main road in the City of London, the historic and financial centre of London, which is designated the A1213. It is home to a number of shops and offices and has an entrance to Leadenhall Market, a covered market dating from the 14th century. At its southern end, the street begins near Christopher Wrens Monument to the Great Fire of London, at a junction with King William Street and Cannon Street. Heading north, it crosses Lombard Street and Fenchurch Street, and continues forward into Bishopsgate, Leadenhall Market, a covered market dating from the 14th century and a Grade II* listed structure since 1972, is the streets most famous attraction. The closest mainline station is Fenchurch Street and the nearest London Underground station is Monument. The postcode for the street is EC3V, the word Gracechurch derives from Garscherchestrete, Gres-cherch and Gras-cherche, with Gracechurch not used until after the destruction of the street in the Great Fire of London in 1666.
The street is in the heart of Roman Londinium, it directly over the site of the basilica. In medieval times a corn market was held by St. Benet Gracechurch at the junction with Lombard Street, the existence of such markets can be seen from the derivation of their names, gaers or gers meaning a blade of grass or herb and faenum meaning hay. The Religious Society of Friends once had a house on Gracechurch Street. William Penn was arrested on 14 August 1670 for delivering a sermon in the street in front of the building after having been forbidden to preach indoors and it was burnt down in 1821 but rebuilt. Many of its members had moved to Stoke Newington, a couple of miles north along more or less the same street. The worlds first school bus was set up to run between Newington Academy for Girls, a Quaker school set up there in 1824, and Gracechurch Street Meeting House. For a time it became one of the most important Quaker Meetings, by the 18th century 20-25% of the immediate population were Quakers.
City Friends mingled piety with prosperity and earned reputations as sober, during its long history, the street was for a period named Gracious Street. Gracechurch Street formed part of the course of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The womens Olympic marathon took place on 5 August 2012 and the mens on 12 August, the Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September. Gracechurch Street is mentioned in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice as being the home of Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner, the former Swan-with-Two-Necks inn is the scene of Estellas meeting with Pip in Charles Dickens Great Expectations. The street has lent its name to the Gracechurch Shopping Centre in Sutton Coldfield, Gracechurch Street, A Dictionary of London
London postal district
The London postal district is the area in England of 241 square miles to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered. It was integrated by the Post Office into the national system of the United Kingdom during the early 1970s and corresponds to the N, NW, SW, SE, W, WC, E. The postal district has known as the London postal area. The County of London was much smaller at 117 square miles, by the 1850s, the rapid growth of the metropolitan area meant it became too large to operate efficiently as a single post town. A Post Office inquiry into the problem had been set up in 1837, in 1854 Charles Canning, the Postmaster General, set up a committee at the Post Office in St. Martins Le Grand to investigate how London could best be divided for the purposes of directing mail. In 1856, of the 470 million items of mail sent in the United Kingdom during the year, approximately one fifth were for delivery in London, the General Post Office thus at the control of the Postmaster General devised the area in 1856 project-managed by Sir Rowland Hill.
Hill produced an almost perfectly circular area of 12 miles radius from the central post office at St. Martins Le Grand, within the district it was divided into two central areas and eight compass points which operated much like separate post towns. Each was constituted London with a suffix indicating the area it covered, the system was introduced during 1857 and completed on 1 January 1858. The remaining eight letter prefixes have not changed, at the same time, the London postal district boundary was retracted in the east, removing places such as Ilford for good. In 1868 the S district was split between SE and SW, the NE and S codes have been re-used in the national postcode system and now refer to the NE postcode area around Newcastle upon Tyne and the S postcode area around Sheffield. In 1917, as a measure to improve efficiency, the districts were further subdivided with a number applied to each sub-district. Exceptionally and esoterically, W2 and SW11 are head districts, the numbered sub-districts became the outward code of the postcode system as expanded into longer codes during the 1970s.
Ad hoc changes have taken place to the organisation of the districts, subdivisions of postcode sub-districts Owing to heavier demand, seven high-density postcode districts in central London have been subdivided to create new, smaller postcode districts. This is achieved by adding a letter after the postcode district. Where such sub-districts are used such as on street signs and maps. The districts subdivided are E1, N1, EC SW1, W1, WC1, there are solely non-geographic suffixed sub-districts for PO boxes in NW1 and SE1. The London postal district has never been aligned with the London boundary, when the initial system was designed, the London boundary was restricted to the square mile of the small, ancient City of London. The wider metropolitan area covered parts of Middlesex, Kent, Essex
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate