Postcodes in the United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities.
Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district.
Every post office in the district was to display this information
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Ashley (Bristol ward)
Ashley is one of thirty-five council wards in the city of Bristol in the United Kingdom. The ward contains the areas of Baptist Mills, Montpelier, St Andrews, St Pauls, Ashley is part of the Bristol West parliamentary constituency, which elects one Member of Parliament. The incumbent Member of Parliament is Thangam Debbonaire, of the Labour Party, On Bristol City Council, these are Mike Davies and Carole Johnson of the Labour Party, and Jude English of the Green Party. All three councillors were elected in May 2016, Baptist Mills is a small and not very well known area of Bristol, which is located between St Werburghs and Easton. It was home to a brass works between 1700 and 1840, and a pottery between 1840 and 1891, the area is now often regarded as part of St Werburghs. In the 19th Century part of Baptist Mills was known as Botany Bay, Montpelier is an area of North Bristol. It is bounded by the Cheltenham Road to the west, St Pauls to the south, St Werburghs to the east and it has its own railway station, and a reputation for being bohemian and alternative.
Picton Street is a haven for lovers of organic and vegetarian cuisine, Montpelier was carved by French prisoners of war from the Napoleonic conflicts. All the streets and avenues are named after famous generals or have military connotations, such as Wellington, stories are told of the P. O. Ws transporting spoil from the New Cut to lay the foundations for the terrace housing. Original cobble stones laid by the P. O. Ws can be seen in the gutters, there is a fine double-bayed villa in the street named after him, Picton Lodge. There is a feeling of community spirit in Montpelier. Street parties and fundraising events have recently been there to light up the iconic railway bridge known locally as The Arches. St Andrews is a suburb of Bristol situated about 3 km north of the city centre, St Andrews church, which gave the area its name, was in St Andrews Road, Montpelier. The David Thomas Memorial church was erected 1879 –1881 but demolished in 1987 destroying most of a Gothic fantasy by Stuart Coleman.
The building still retains a thin octagonal spire and west front but the halls, apse. In the middle part of the 20th century the area became unfashionable, St Andrews Park is at the heart of the area. The park was laid out in 1895, and is home to such as Music in the Park during the summer. The park features a childrens play area, permanent paddling pool
The Young Ones (TV series)
The Young Ones is a British sitcom, broadcast in the United Kingdom from 1982 to 1984 in two six-part series. Shown on BBC2, it featured anarchic, offbeat humour which helped bring alternative comedy to television in the 1980s, in 1985, it was shown on MTV, one of the first non-music television shows on the fledgling channel. In a 2004 poll, it ranked at number 31 in the BBCs list of Britains Best Sitcoms, the series originated on Londons comedy club circuit in the early 1980s, where most of the cast had gained popularity at The Comedy Store. Alexei Sayle was the prominent act, drawing attention as the manic, Adrian Edmondson and Rik Mayall worked as the double act 20th Century Coyote, which became The Dangerous Brothers. Nigel Planer was in an act with Peter Richardson called The Outer Limits. The Comic Strip became one of the most popular venues in London. Peter Richardson negotiated a deal for six self-contained half-hour films, in response, the BBC began negotiations with Edmondson, Richardson and Sayle to star in a sitcom in a similar style.
Paul Jackson was installed as a producer, richardsons project, The Comic Strip Presents. Aired on Channel 4s opening night on 2 November 1982, with The Young Ones following a week on BBC2, the series was written by Mayall, his then-girlfriend Lise Mayer, and Ben Elton. Richardson was originally set to play Mike, but clashed with Jackson and he was replaced by Christopher Ryan, the only member of the group who was not a stand-up comedian. The show was voted number 31 in the BBCs Best Sitcom poll in 2004, the show combined traditional sitcom style with violent slapstick, non-sequitur plot turns, and surrealism. These older styles were mixed with the working and lower-middle class attitudes of the growing 1980s alternative comedy boom, Every episode except one featured a live performance by a band, including Madness, Motörhead, and The Damned. This was a used to qualify the series for a larger budget. Stories were set in a house where the students lived during their time at Scumbag College. It can be classified as a comedy of manners, when it was first broadcast, the show gained attention for its violent slapstick, which Mayall and Edmondson had been using in 20th Century Coyote for some time.
The show featured surreal elements, such as puppets playing talking animals or objects, confusion was added with lengthy cutaways with no relation to the main plot. Throughout the series, the wall was frequently broken for comedic effect by all characters at various parts of the show. The wall was broken as either a punchline to a joke or to make a plot point more obvious
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
South Western Ambulance Service
The South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust is the organisation responsible for providing ambulance services for the National Health Service across South West England. On March 1,2011 SWASFT was the first ambulance service in the country to become a Foundation Trust, the Trust merged with neighbouring Great Western Ambulance Service on 1 February 2013. SWASFT serves a population of more than 5.3 million, the operational area is predominantly rural but has large urban centres including Bristol, Exeter, Bath, Gloucester and Poole. The Trust’s core operations include, Emergency ambulance 999 services Urgent Care Services – GP out-of-hours medical care NHS111 call-handling and triage services Tiverton Urgent Care Centre. It is one of ten Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency services and employs more than 4,000 mainly clinical and operational staff plus GPs. The Trust is one of the largest in England and it covers an area of 51,871 km and 827 miles of coastline. In 2015/16 approximately one in eight 999 calls to South Western Ambulance Service are treated over the telephone and treat is 12. 7% of calls and means the patient receives clinical advice over the telephone.
For 36. 4% of incidents the patients experience see and treat, in a further 7. 7% of incidents, the patient is taken to a non-emergency hospital department so that might mean a community hospital or minor injuries unit. The remaining incidents result in a patient being taken to an emergency department. SWASFT is the best performing ambulance service in the country for non-conveyance rates, in addition approximately 62% of patients taken to hospital are admitted – this is again the highest performance for an ambulance trust in the country. SWASFT place a lot of emphasis on patient experience and actively encourage feedback about its services - whether positive or negative, lessons learned from the feedback, and all improvements and changes, are reported to its Board of Directors. The Trust engages with patients and the public at events and shows, the number of compliments received by the Trust in 2014/15 increased by 41% to 2,055. Complaints rose by 20% to 1,268, the easiest way to contact the Trust is online at their website.
In May 2014 the Trust won a contract to run a minor injuries unit at Tiverton and District Hospital
Gloucester Road, Bristol
Gloucester Road is a road in Bristol, England. It runs through the suburbs of St. Andrews and Horfield and is a part of the A38, a coaching route north of Bristol to Filton. The street is a point for local businesses, and is promoted by Bristol City Council as a centre of independent trade. The Bristol North Baths on Gloucester Road were popular for most of the 20th century, numerous shops and bars have achieved popularity in the local press for their unique contribution to Bristol. Graffiti and stencil art is popular and encouraged by some business in the area, the road is around 1.7 miles long. It starts at the junction with Cheltenham Road, Zetland Road, Cheltenham Road is spanned by a railway viaduct carrying the Severn Beach Line south of this junction. The first property on Gloucester Road is the Maplin electronics shop where the, now culverted, the difference between the two roads is further emphasised by the fact that Gloucester Road has the postal code of BS7 whilst Cheltenham Road is BS6.
The road heads northeast through the suburbs of St. Andrews and Horfield, the road ahead through the surbubs is Filton Road, Gloucester Road North towards Filton Airport and the M5. The road is part of the A38, a route across England. It is part of the Cotham and Gloucester Road Conservation Area, designated by Bristol City Council to conserve the local architecture and open space. Cycling and motorist groups have clashed about facilities on Gloucester Road, the situation has increased in the 2010s following Bristol becoming the first Cycling City in 2008 and encouraging more cycling. It had become built-up along its length around 1888, shops and traders settled on the road in the late 19th century. At the turn of the 20th, there were a high concentration of butchers and grocers, as was typical for the time, the street was home to Rooted Records, the central location of the Bristol dubstep scene until closure in 2010. The Bristol North Baths were based on Gloucester Road, and the building is Grade II listed, opening in 1915, they once included an annex for slipper baths that catered for individual bathing, as opposed to swimming in a group.
The annex was demolished and became a car park in 2002, the building is awaiting redevelopment into flats. Along with the Bristol Flyer at No.96 next door, although Bristol City Council has invested £3m in redeveloping the North Baths, progress has continually stalled, as hidden structural problems have been uncovered. In 2016, the council reported an extra £1.5 million would be required to complete the project, Gloucester Road is well known for independent shops. In 2012, its only store was a branch of Somerfield
Avon and Somerset Constabulary
The first police force in England was formed in Covent Garden by Somerset born novelist Henry Fielding, in 1748. In 1835, Bristol and Bath became the first to create their own forces in the county itself. The original Bristol constabulary had 232 officers issued with a top hat, blue coat and this constabulary began certain practices that were eventually adopted country-wide, including recruiting female officers and photographing prisoners. Bridgwater and Chard followed with their own constabularies in 1839, with all forces being merged into the Somerset Constabulary in 1940 and it was the only force to provide a mounted escort for the Queen during her Royal Jubilee tour of Bristol in 1977. Avon & Somerset Constabulary provides service for approximately 1.5 million people, in January 2013, Port took the PCC to court to seek an injunction to block the interviews of candidates for the post of Chief Constable. In mid-May 2014, Gargan was suspended by Commissioner Mountstevens following allegations of inappropriate behaviour towards female officers, the enquiry into the allegations was referred to the Independent Police Complaints Commission.
Gargan is reported by the Commissioner to have denied the allegations, during the period of Gargans suspension, the force was run by the Deputy Chief Constable, John Long. Records of the Bristol Constabulary and Avon and Somerset Constabulary are held at Bristol Archives, the constabulary is overseen by the Avon and Somerset Police and Crime Commissioner, a new elected position which replaced the Avon and Somerset Police Authority in November 2012. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Avon and Somerset Police and Crime Panel, the first police and crime commissioner, who was elected on 15 November 2012 and took office on 21 November 2012, is Sue Mountstevens. She had previously been a magistrate and a member of the police authority, the Portishead complex cost £31 million to construct and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 2 June 1995. Avon and Somerset Police use a total of 41 police stations, targeted Patrol Teams responding to emergency calls. Traffic Units patrol the roads and target and pursue people committing traffic offences, criminal Investigation Departments detect serious crime Forensic Services investigate crime scenes for forensic evidence that may correspond with many of the Home Office databases.
Pro-active Policing Units target persistent criminals and focus on specific operations, Dog Units are officers who patrol with dogs and respond to incidents where a police dog is required. The helicopter is staffed by officers of both forces and features various technology including thermal imaging, a spotlight and Global Positioning System. The aircraft has a time of two minutes. The helicopter can be used as an air ambulance when required and this is now under the control of the NPAS. This collaboration encompasses the Armed Response Units and Police Dog Patrols, the RPU has 55 cars and 28 motorcycles. The RPU has three bases, Weston-Super-Mare and Taunton and Somerset Constabulary has a Support Group that specialise in very specific needs of investigations or missions, such as police divers, football match management and explosive searching
Alessandro Del Piero
Alessandro Alex Del Piero Ufficiale OMRI is an Italian former professional footballer who mainly played as a deep-lying forward, although he was capable of playing in several offensive positions. In 2015, he worked as a pundit for Sky Sport Italia. After beginning his career with Italian club Padova in Serie B in 1991, he moved to Juventus F. C. in 1993, where he played for 19 seasons, and holds the club records for most goals and appearances. After leaving the club in 2012, he spent two seasons with Australian side Sydney FC, he retired after a season with Delhi Dynamos FC in the Indian Super League. Del Piero has scored in every competition in which he has participated, in 2004, he was named in the FIFA100, a list of the 125 greatest living footballers selected by Pelé as a part of FIFAs centenary celebrations. In the same year, he was voted into the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll. Along with six awards in Italy for gentlemanly conduct, he has won the Golden Foot award. Born in Conegliano, Del Piero is the son of Gino, an electrician, and Bruna and he regularly played football in the backyard with two friends and Pierpaolo, as a child.
All three dreamed of becoming footballers, but only Alessandro would eventually manage to do so, Alessandros older brother, briefly played professional football for Sampdoria before an injury curtailed his career, he worked as Alessandros agent. The family lived in the hamlet of Saccon, a home in San Vendemiano. While growing up, Del Pieros family did not have money for travelling abroad. While playing for the youth team of San Vendemiano, Del Piero used to feature as a goalkeeper. His mother thought it would be better for him to play in this role as he would not sweat, and the possibility of him getting injured was less likely. His brother Stefano commented to their mother that, due to his skill, Alessandro was more suited to playing in an offensive position. Del Piero began his rise to professional football in 1981, in the ranks of San Vendemiano, in 1988, Del Piero was first spotted by scouts, and he left home at the young age of 13 to play with the youth side of Padova. The following season, on 22 November 1992, he scored his first professional goal in a 5–0 victory over Ternana, in 1993, thanks to Giampiero Boniperti, Del Piero was bought by Juventus for five billion lire, with an overlap of 150 million lire per season.
In 1993, Del Piero transferred to Juventus and played for the Torinese club for 19 seasons until being released in the summer of 2012, on his full debut for Juventus, he netted a hat-trick against Parma. Del Piero scored 8 goals in Serie A that season, including a match-winning chipped volley against Fiorentina, during this time, Del Piero earned the nickname Pinturicchio, due to the similarity between his own technical and tactical characteristics, and Baggios creative style of play
The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal.
The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts.
The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America.
At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms.
The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name