The Weisshorn is a major peak of the Alps and Switzerland, culminating at 4,506 metres above sea level. It is part of the Pennine Alps and is located between the valleys of Anniviers and Zermatt in the canton of Valais, in the latter valley, the Weisshorn is one of the many 4000ers surrounding Zermatt, with Monte Rosa and the Matterhorn. The Weisshorn was first climbed in 1861 from Randa by the Irish physicist John Tyndall, the Weisshorn Hut is used on the normal route. The Weisshorn is considered by mountaineers to be the most beautiful mountain in the Alps and Switzerland for its pyramidal shape. In April and May 1991, two consecutive rockslides took place from a cliff above the town of Randa on the east side of the massif, the Weisshorn is situated in the southern canton of Valais, about 25 km southwards from the Rhone between Sierre and Visp. The Weisshorn faces the slightly higher Dom across the Mattertal, with the village of Randa 3100 metres below these two summits, after the Dom, the Weisshorn is the second-highest Alpine summit situated completely out the main chain and fully within Switzerland.
On both sides of the Weisshorn range, the end up in the Rhone, through the Navissence. The Weisshorn has a shape and its faces are separated by three ridges descending steeply from the summit. Two of these are nearly in a line, one running approximately north. The third ridge is nearly at right angles to two, running almost due east. In the compartment between the northern and eastern spurs lies the Bis Glacier and it is connected with the summit by long and extremely steep slopes of snow. In the compartment between the eastern and southern spurs lies the Schali Glacier, ranges of steep rocks rise round the whole basin of this glacier, except in one or two places where they are interrupted by couloirs of snow. Finally, on the side the mountain presents one gigantic face of rocky precipice. This face rises above the Weisshorn Glacier and the Moming Glacier, the northern spur forks out at a considerable distance below the summit into two branches enclosing the Turtmann Glacier. The eastern branch connects the mountain with the Bishorn, across the Weisshornjoch, the Weisshorn is the culminating point of the Dent Blanche nappe, a klippe belonging to the Austroalpine nappes.
The mountain is composed of gneisses, the west face is composed of sedimentary rocks from the cretaceous period. The mountain was first climbed on 19 August 1861 by the 29-year-old physicist John Tyndall, with guides J. J. Bennen and their itinerary corresponds to the normal route for climbing the mountain today, the east ridge, starting from the Weisshorn Hut. In 1860 an attempt was made by C. E. Mathews by the southern face and he came to Zermatt with Melchior Anderegg, and engaged Johann Kronig as second guide
The Lenzspitze is a 4, 294-metre mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. This route is used today. The east-north-east ridge starts at the Mischabel Hut and this ridge was first climbed on 3 August 1882 by William Woodman Goodman with guides Ambros Supersaxo and Theodor Andenmatten. This face was descended on skis by Heini Holzer on 22 July 1972, the High Mountains of the Alps
The Strahlhorn is a mountain of the Swiss Pennine Alps, located south of Saas-Fee and east of Zermatt in the canton of Valais. It lies on the range separates the Mattertal from the Saastal and is located approximately halfway between the Rimpfischhorn and the Schwarzberghorn. Dumler and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, Diadem,1994 Strahlhorn
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The Gorner Glacier is a valley glacier found on the west side of the Monte Rosa massif close to Zermatt in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is about 12.4 km long and 1 to 1.5 km wide, the entire glacial area of the glacier related to Gorner Glacier is 57 km2, which makes it the second largest glacial system in the Alps after the Aletsch Glacier system. Numerous smaller glaciers connect with the Gorner Glacier and its tributaries are, Monte Rosa Gletscher, Zwillingsgletscher, Schwärzegletscher, Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher. The Grenzgletscher between the central Monte Rosa massif and the Liskamm to the south is nowadays by far the lower Gorner Glaciers main tributary, the Gorner Glaciers upper part is almost already disconnected from its lower part. Also the former tributaries Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher left their connections to the Gorner Glacier during the last century, the Lower Theodul Glacier in the 1980s. An interesting feature of this glacier is the Gornersee, an ice marginal lake at the area of the Gorner-.
This lake fills every year and drains in summer, usually as a Glacial lake outburst flood and this is one of few glacial lakes in the Alps exhibiting this kind of behaviour. There are several interesting features including crevasses and table top forms where large surface boulders have been left stranded above the glaciers surface. Supported by ice that the boulder has sheltered from melting that has effected the more exposed surrounding ice, due to the immense information about the glacier, it is perfect for a glacier project. It is the source of the river Gornera which flows down through Zermatt itself, most of its water gets captured by a water catchment station of the Grande Dixence hydroelectric power plant. This water ends up in the Lac des Dix, the reservoir of Grande Dixence. The glacier as well as the mountains can be seen from the Gornergrat. Like almost all glaciers in the Alps, and most glaciers on the globe as well. And in a dramatic way. Nowadays, Gorner Glacier retreats with about 30 metres every year, since its last major expansion in 1859 it lost more than 2,500 metres in distance.
However, the upper Gorner Glacier traditionally is to be found on the north side, the reason is that the upper part of the Gorner Glacier is currently losing contact with its lower part and now the Grenzgletscher has become its much larger tributary. So it is easy to mismatch the Border Glacier as the upper Gorner Glacier, but this was not the case in earlier times, as the following comparison impressively shows, List of glaciers in Switzerland Gorner Glacier glaciology. ethz. ch Gorner Glacier swisseduc. ch
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
The Tracuit Hut is a mountain hut of the Swiss Alpine Club, located above Zinal in the canton of Valais. The hut lies at an elevation of 3,256 metres above sea level, at the Tracuit Pass, the Tracuit Hut is the starting point for the ascents of Bishorn and Les Diablons. The hut, lying on a ridge, is accessible to hikers by a trail from the west slopes, the Turtmann Glacier lies on the east side. List of buildings and structures above 3000 m in Switzerland Swisstopo topographic maps Official website The Tracuit Hut on Mount Wiki
The Ober Gabelhorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland, located between Zermatt and Zinal. The Ober Gabelhorn lies in the Swiss canton of Valais at the end of the Zinal valley. It rises, together with the Dent Blanche and the Zinalrothorn, on the south side lies the Zmutt Glacier in the valley of Zmutt, which extends west of Zermatt. The Ober Gabelhorn has a shape, similar to the nearby Matterhorn. Only the smooth face is completely glaciated, the other faces being mostly rocky. The south-west ridge is called the Arbengrat while the north-north-west ridge is the Arête du Coeur, the south-east ridge looking over the Ober Gabeljoch is the Gabelhorngrat. The Wellenkuppe is a prominence on the north-east ridge, it is usually climbed as part of the normal route. Huts serving the peak are the Rothorn Hut, the Grand Mountet Hut, the first ascent was by A. W. Moore, Horace Walker and Jakob Anderegg on 6 July 1865, via the east face. The second ascent of the peak, and the first by the north-north-west ridge, was one day by Lord Francis Douglas, Peter Taugwalder.
At the time of their ascent they were not aware of Moore and Taugwalder made several attempts before they reached the summit. P. Inäbnit accompanied them on the first attempt from the south-east ridge and they didnt have enough time to go higher than the base of the mountain. On the second attempt they reached the Wellenkuppe on the north-east ridge and they finally reached the summit on their third attempt. They were disconcerted to see some footprints on the east face, not aware of the dangers that might have made the previous expedition turn back, they sat down on the summit to have lunch. Suddenly an avalanche started and everything on the summit began to fall away from them and Taugwalder were swept away, but they were roped to Viennin who was a little distance below the summit. Viennin was able to belay Taugwalder and Douglas with the rope, Francis Douglas returned to Zermatt, and was killed a week on 14 July on the first ascent of the Matterhorn. The Arbengrat was first climbed in 1874 by H. S.
Hoare and E. Hulton with guides J. von Bergen, P. Rubi and J. Moser. The route on the Gabelhorngrat was opened three years by J. Walker Hartley, W. E. Davidson, P. Rubi and J. Juan. The north face, similar to but rather steeper than the north-east face of the Lenzspitze, was first climbed on 30 July 1930 by H. Kiener and they started from Zermatt at midnight and made a direct 2, 000-metre ascent to the Triftjoch
St. Niklaus, Switzerland
St. Niklaus is a village and a municipality in the Mattertal, part of the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. St. Niklaus is first mentioned in 1233 as chousun, in 1272 it was mentioned as ecclesia Sancti Nicholai de Chouson, Gebreitun de Gazun,1388 in villa sti nicolai de chosun, niu a fr Saint-Nicolas. Josef Marie Lochmatter, his best friend Peter Knubel, his brother-in-law Alois Pollinger, and Josef Imboden and they had a monopoly on Matterhorn ascents. Moreover, as the first Swiss guide, Peter Knubel climbed a mountain outside the Alps in 1874, Alois Pollinger invented the double-rope system of descent with. He used this technique with success at the Ridge of Ferpècle, Josef Imboden was the first Swiss to ascend a 6,000 meter-high in the Himalayas in 1883, where we find the highest mountains in the world. The fathers trained the sons early in their expeditions. The initiators of the new school came out of their ranks for the time, a fact that gave a new input to alpinism.
They werent satisfied to climb a mountain, but they always chose more and more difficult routes. They were the first ski-guides and were pioneers overseas, the mountain guides of St. Niklaus have effected about 300 first ascents a little bit everywhere in the world. In 1995 a monument for all guides of St. Niklaus was built, moreover, in 2000 a museum of the mountain guides was opened in St. Niklaus. St. Niklaus has an area, as of 2011, of 89.3 square kilometers, of this area,9. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 21. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 67. 2% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district. It is the settlement in the Matter valley. It consists of the settlements of Riedmatten, Stalu, Ze Schwidernu, Herbriggen, Breitmatten on the valley floor and the alpine settlement of Gasenried on the eastern slope. St Niklaus sits in the Mattertal, the valley that runs from Stalden to Zermatt. There are several footpath nets for Alpine hikers leading up on the mountains, the closest hut is the Topali hut at the west side of the village.
The Bordier hut at the east side can be accessed easily from St Niklaus, the highest mountain close to St Niklaus is Brunegghorn, reaching almost 4,000 m. In 1866 the municipality was created through the merger of St. Niklaus Dorf, the municipality is a stop on section of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn between Visp railway station and Zermatt railway station
Zmutt is a small village in the municipality of Zermatt, Switzerland, situated at 1936 m in the Zmutt Valley west of Zermatt. The village chapel is dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria, patroness of the Valais, the valley passes the northern slope of the Matterhorn and terminates in the Zmutt Glacier on the border to Italys Aosta Valley. The Zmutt dam at 46°0′28″N 7°42′34″E, constructed in 1964, has a height of 74 m and this dam is fed by waters from the Bis and Gorner Glacier