Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash. Researchers believe that the town was founded in the seventh or sixth century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, by the time of its destruction,160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash, the site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and these artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana.
During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies and this allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died. Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years, today it has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural, the ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei. It stands on a formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast, Pompeii is about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts and it was a major city in the region of Campania. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of bone, pottery shards.
Carbon dating has placed the oldest of these layers from the 8th–6th centuries BC, the other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorized that the layers of the sediment were created by large landslides. The town was founded around the 7th-6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans and it had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii was captured by the Etruscans, and in recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions. Pompeii was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, in the 5th century BC, the Samnites conquered it, the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town
In geography and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages and cities, a settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by a particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are a city, village ghost or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work. The oldest remains that have found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud. The Natufians built houses, in the Levant, around 10,000 BC, remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated, urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies.
Settlements can be ordered by size, centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy, geoscience Australia defines a populated place as a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons. The Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, the Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated Places. The Canadian government uses the term populated place in the Atlas of Canada, Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements, the Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns. The Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia, Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places. The common English-language translation is urban areas, the UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term urban settlement to denote an urban area when analysing census information.
The Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, the Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a place may have a corresponding civil record. Census − a statistical area delineated locally specifically for the tabulation of Census Bureau data, civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland
The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known mainly from archeological research. Early Bronze Age cultures in Poland begun around 2300–2400 BCE, while the Iron Age commenced in approximately 700–750 BCE, the Iron Age archeological cultures no longer existed by the start of the Common Era. In Poland the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became particularly prominent, the most famous archeological finding from that period is the Biskupin fortified settlement on the lake from which it takes its name, representing the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age. The Bronze Age in Poland consisted of Period I,2300 to 1600 BC, Period II,1600 to 1350 BC, Period III,1350 to 1100 BC, Period IV,1100 to 900 BC, Period V,900 to 700 BC. The Early Iron Age included Hallstatt Period C,700 to 600 BC, Bronze items present in Poland around 2300 BC were brought from the Carpathian Basin. The native Early Bronze Age that followed was dominated by the innovative Unetice culture in western Poland and those were replaced in their respective territories, for the duration of the second, the Older Bronze Period, by the Tumulus culture and the Trzciniec culture.
Characteristic of the remaining bronze periods were the Urnfield cultures, within their range skeletal burials had been replaced by cremation of bodies throughout much of Europe, in Poland the Lusatian culture settlements dominated the landscape for nearly a thousand years, continuing into and including the Early Iron Age. A series of Scythian invasions, beginning in the 6th century BC, the Hallstatt Period D was the time of expansion of the Pomeranian culture, while the Western Baltic Kurgans culture occupied the Masuria-Warmia region of contemporary Poland. This settled agricultural societys origins consisted of the traditions inherited from the Corded Ware populations. Significantly, the Unetice people cultivated contacts with the highly developed cultures of the Carpathian Basin and their culture echoed inspiring influence coming all the way from the most highly developed at that time civilizations of the Middle East. Characteristic of the Unetice societies was greater general affluence and developed social stratification, objects made of bronze, often of luxurious or prestigious nature, were in high demand as symbols of power and importance and are typically found in the graves of princes.
Many concealed bronze treasures have been found, including a fine one from Pilszcz near Głubczyce, stylistically refined Uneticean ceramics show inspiration from the Achaean vessels obtained through trade. Fortified settlements were built, one actively researched site, that was utilized, remains of settlements and cemeteries were discovered around Wrocław and elsewhere in Lower Silesia, including an amber processing workshop in Nowa Wieś, Bolesławiec County. The nature of the weapons and other items found at Unetice sites suggests a chronic state of warfare, the Iwno culture, named after Iwno near Szubin, was a contemporary of the Unetice culture. Iwno thin-walled clay vessels were carefully finished and domestic animal rising was important for the economy, the Płonia group of a comparable period, named after a neighborhood of Szczecin, extended over central and western Polish Pomerania, it is known for stone chest burials. Mierzanowice culture was a society, frequently still using stone tools.
The Pleszów group of the Mierzanowice culture originated the most significant of the Polish Bronze Age fortified settlements and it was constructed on a particularly suitable, elevated natural location, with the initial enclosed area of 0.6 hectares. It remained in use from about 2100 to 1300 BC and is often dubbed the Carpathian Troy or the Troy of the North
The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD. It takes its name from the village near the town Przeworsk where the first artifacts were found and they knew how to dig and build wells, so the settlements didnt have to be located near bodies of water. Thirteen 2nd century wells with variously constructed timber lined walls were found at a settlement in Stanisławice, fields were being used for crop cultivation for a while and as pastures, when animal excrement helped the soil regain fertility. Once iron share plows were introduced the fields were alternated between tillage and grazing, a number of such micro-regions possibly made up a tribe, with these separated by empty space, zones of mutual fear, as Tacitus put it. The tribes in turn, especially if they were closely related, would at times form larger structures, such as temporary alliances for waging wars. A Przeworsk culture turn of the industrial complex for the extraction of salt from salt springs was discovered in Chabsk near Mogilno.
The dead were cremated and the ashes placed in urns. In the 1st century AD this was replaced with a sharp-profiled shape, the burial gifts were often, for unknown reasons, bent or broken, and burned with the body. The burials range from poor to rich, the latter ones supplied with fancy Celtic and Roman imports, scholars view the Przeworsk culture as an amalgam of a series of localized cultures. Continuity with the preceding Pomeranian culture is observed, albeit modified by significant influences from the La Tene, the Przeworsk culture is sometimes associated with the Vandals. To the east, in what is now northern Ukraine and southern Belarus, was the Zarubintsy culture, much of this area was subsequently absorbed by the Wielbark culture. The main characteristic feature of the Przeworsk culture are burials and these were mostly cremations, with occasional inhumation. Warrior burials are notable, which often include horse-gear and spurs, some burials are exceptionally rich, overshadowing the graves of Germanic groups further west, especially after 400 AD.
Pottery and metalwork are often rich and show a great variety The cultures decline in the late 5th century coincides with the invasion of the Huns. Other factors may have included the social crisis that occurred as a result of the collapse of the Roman world, in the late 5/6th century, the Prague-Korchak culture appears in the Vistula basin. Przeworsk culture settlements and burial sites Vandals Amber Road Mallory, James P. Adams, Douglas Q
Archaeological open-air museum
An archaeological open-air museum is a non-profit permanent institution with outdoor true-to-scale architectural reconstructions primarily based on archaeological sources. The above definition was made by EXARC, using ICOMs definition of museums, by that time Roeland Paardekooper was their director. Professional practice and performance in archaeological open-air museums should respect the ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums, true to scale architectural reconstructions in the open air - Archaeological open-air museums deal with outdoor true to scale reconstructed buildings. The authenticity of materials and techniques used should be accounted for through written and accessible records. An honest assessment of each reconstruction should be feasible, appropriate interpretation with organisation of activities for visitors - Depending on the nature and amount of visitors, different kinds of interpretation can be appropriate. ICOM ICOM Code of ethics for museums EXARC the international ICOM affiliated association of archaeological open-air museums and experimental archaeology
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Once described as Paris of the East, Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. On 9 November 1939, the city was awarded Polands highest military decoration for heroism, Warsaw is one of Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world, in 2017 the city came 4th in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in the “Human capital and life style”. It was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central, Warsaw is considered an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural and economic hub.
The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, the Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external security, has its headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union, the city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra and the University of Warsaw. The historic city-centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, buildings represent examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. Warsaw provides many examples of architecture from the gothic, baroque and modern periods, the city is positioning itself as Europes chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and renowned restaurants. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, according to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love.
In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland, the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka, other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Варшава /Varšava /Varshava, Varšuva, Varsó. The first fortified settlements on the site of todays Warsaw were located in Bródno, after Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa
The Ahnenerbe was an institute in Nazi Germany purposed to research the archaeological and cultural history of the Aryan race. The name Ahnenerbe means inheritance from the ancestors, in January 1929, Heinrich Himmler was appointed the leader of the fledgling Schutzstaffel. He launched a recruitment campaign that expanded the SS from fewer than 300 members in 1929 to 10,000 in 1931. Once the SS had grown, Himmler began its transformation into an elite of young Nordic males. This was to be accomplished by a new bureaucracy, the Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt-SS, Himmler appointed SS-Obergruppenführer Richard Walther Darré to lead the organisation, which determined if applicants were racially fit to be in the SS. This brought about a campaign meant to educate new applicants about their Nordic past through weekly classes taught by senior RuSHA graduates using the periodical SS-Leitheft, starting in 1934, Himmler began financially supporting and visiting excavations in Germany. The latter was established in 1934 and was supposed to serve as a staff for all SS activities related to prehistory.
It was responsible for research and related propaganda and led by Rolf Höhne. Höhne was eventually replaced by Peter Paulsen, an archaeologist, in October 1937, in fact, Langsdorff did this in Himmlers personal staff. The department tried to use of pre-history in the training. When the RuSHA was restructured, the department was dissolved with its responsibilities passing to the Ahnenerbe, the Abteilung Ausgrabung in Himmlers personal staff was established in 1935 on the initiative of Langsdorff. In March 1937, Höhne joined the leadership of this department, by 1937, it was responsible for SS excavations and maintained its own personnel for this activity. On July 1,1935, at SS headquarters in Berlin, Himmler met with five racial experts representing Darré and with Herman Wirth, one of Germany’s most famous but most controversial prehistorians. Together they established an organization called the German Ancestral Heritage—Society for the Study of the History of Primeval Ideas, shortened to its better-known form in 1937.
At the meeting they designated its official goal, “to promote the science of ancient intellectual history, ” and appointed Himmler as its superintendent, Himmler appointed Wolfram Sievers Generalsekretär of the Ahnenerbe. Through 1937, the Ahnenerbe was essentially engaged in amateur völkisch research and academic pressure caused Himmler to start looking for an alternative to Wirth as early as the spring of 1936. In September, Hitler negatively referred to Wirths beliefs regarding Atlantis, in March 1937, the Ahnenerbe was given a new statute, implementing the Führerprinzip and giving Himmler extensive powers. Wirth was deposed as president and appointed president, a powerless position
It is situated in mid-northern Poland, on the boundary between the two historic regions from which it takes its name and Pomerania. Its two chief cities, serving as the joint capitals, are Bydgoszcz and Toruń. The Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998 and it consisted of territory from the former Bydgoszcz, Toruń and Włocławek Voivodeships. The area now known as Kuyavia-Pomerania was previously divided between the region of Kuyavia and the Polish fiefdom of Royal Prussia, of the two principal cities of todays Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeship, one was historically located in Kuyavia, whilst the other was an important town of Royal Prussia. The functions of capital are split between Bydgoszcz and Toruń. The Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship is bordered by five other voivodeships, the voivodeship contains 52 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population, Transportation infrastructure is of importance to the voivodeships economy.
Kuyavia-Pomerania is a node in the Polish transportation system. Railway lines from the South and East pass through Bydgoszcz to connect to the ports on the Baltic Sea. In addition to this, Bydgoszcz is home to the rolling stock manufacturer PESA SA, Polands largest and most modern producer of railway, all major towns of the province have municipal transportation companies operating buses, whilst Bydgoszcz, Toruń and Grudziądz have extensive tram systems. The Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships government is headed by the voivode who is appointed by the Polish Prime Minister. The voivode is assisted in performing his duties by the voivodeships marshal, the current voivode of Kuyavia-Pomerania is Ewa Monika Mes, and the present marshal is Piotr Całbecki. The Sejmik of Kuyavia-Pomerania consists of 33 members, the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship is divided into 23 counties,4 city counties and 19 land counties. These are further divided into 144 gminas, the counties are listed in the following table.
Protected areas in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship include the nine Landscape Parks listed below