Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is the chief adviser to the President of India and head of the Council of Ministers, they can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India—the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha —but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha. The prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system; the prime minister can dismiss members of the cabinet. The union cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha as per article 75 of the Constitution of India; the prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Lok Sabha and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president. India follows a parliamentary system in which the prime minister is the presiding head of the government and chief of the executive of the government.
In such systems, the head of state, or, the head of state's official representative holds a purely ceremonial position and acts—on most matters—only on the advice of the prime minister. The prime minister—if they are not already—shall become a member of parliament within six months of beginning his/her tenure. A prime minister is expected to work with other central ministers to ensure the passage of bills by the parliament. Since 1947, there have been 14 different prime ministers; the first few decades after 1947 saw the Indian National Congress' complete domination over the political map of India. India's first prime minister—Jawaharlal Nehru—took oath on 15 August 1947. Nehru went on to serve as prime minister for 17 consecutive years, winning four general elections in the process, his tenure ended on his death. After the death of Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri—a former home minister and a leader of the Congress party—ascended to the position of prime minister. Shastri's tenure saw the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Shashtri subsequently died of a reported heart attack in Tashkent, after signing the Tashkent Declaration. After Shastri, Indira Gandhi—Nehru's daughter—was elected as the country's first woman prime minister. Indira's first term in office lasted 11 years, in which she took steps such as nationalization of banks. In addition, events such as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. In 1975, President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed—on Indira's advice—imposed a state of emergency, bestowing the government with the power to rule by decree, the period is known for human right violations. After widespread protests, the emergency was lifted in 1977, a general election was to be held. All of the political parties of the opposition—after the conclusion of the emergency—fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the Janata Party, in the general election of 1977, were successful in defeating the Congress. Subsequently, Morarji Desai—a former deputy prime minister—became the first non-Congress prime minister of the country.
The government of Prime Minister Desai was composed of groups with opposite ideologies, in which unity and coordination were difficult to maintain. After two and a half years as PM. Thereafter, Charan Singh—a deputy prime minister in Desai's cabinet—with outside, conditional support from Congress, proved a majority in Lok Sabha and took oath as prime minister. However, Congress pulled its support shortly after, Singh had to resign. In 1980, after a three-year absence, the Congress returned to power with an absolute majority. Indira Gandhi was elected prime minister a second time. During her second tenure, Operation Blue Star—an Indian Army operation inside the Golden Temple, the most sacred site in Sikhism—was conducted, resulting in thousands of deaths. Subsequently, on 31 October 1984, Gandhi was shot dead by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh—two of her bodyguards—in the garden of her residence at 1, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. After Indira, Rajiv—her eldest son and 40 years old at the time—was sworn in on the evening of 31 October 1984, becoming the youngest person to hold the office of prime minister.
Rajiv called for a general election. In the subsequent general election, the Congress secured an absolute majority, winning 401 of 552 seats in the Lok Sabha, the maximum number received by any party in the history of India. Vishwanath Pratap Singh—first finance minister and later defence minister in Gandhi's cabinet—uncovered irregularities, in what became to be known as the Bofors scandal, during his stint at the Ministry of Defence. In the general election of 1989, the National Front—with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Left Front—came to power. V. P. Singh was elected prime minister. During a tenure of less than a year, Sing
The shehnai is a musical instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is made out of wood, with a double reed at one end and a metal or wooden flared bell at the other end, its sound is thought to create and maintain a sense of auspiciousness and sanctity and, as a result, is used during marriages, processions and in temples although it is played in concerts. The shehnai is similar to South India's nadaswaram; this tubular instrument broadens towards the lower end. It has between six and nine holes, it employs one set of quadruple reeds. By controlling the breath, various tunes can be played on it; the shehnai has a range of two octaves, from the A below middle C to the A one line above the treble clef. The instrument’s flared open end is made of metal while its body is made of wood or bamboo; the shehnai is thought to have been developed by improving upon the pungi. Another theory of the origin of the shehnai is that the name is a modification of the word "sur-nal"; the word nal/nali/nad is used in many Indian languages to mean reed.
The word "sur" means tone or tune—musical note or music—and is used as a prefix to the names of many Indian instruments. The "sur-nal" is said to have given its name to the "surna/zurna" of the old Persian Empire, the name by which the reed-pipe is known throughout the Middle East and eastern Europe. Shehnai is played at traditional North Indian weddings and is associated with the bride leaving her parental house for her husband's house. Sometimes, two shehnais can be tied together, making it a double shawm similar to the ancient Greek aulos; the counterparts to the shehnai played in West India and Coastal Karnataka are indigenous to the territory. Shenai players were/are an integral part of Goan/Konkani and temples along the western coast and the players are called Vajantri and were allotted lands for services rendered to the temples. Bismillah Khan S. Ballesh Anant Lal Ali Ahmed Hussain Khan Reed instrument, a type of woodwind instrument Shawm, a type of reed instrument Mizmar, a shawm similar to the shehnai Nadaswaram, a similar South Indian instrument Ranade, Ashok Damodar.
Music contexts: a concise dictionary of Hindustani Music. Bibliophile South Asia. ISBN 81-85002-63-0. Hoiberg, Dale. Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan
Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University Central Hindu College, is a public central university located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1916 by Madan Mohan Annie Besant. With over 30,000 students residing in campus, it claims the title of largest residential university in Asia; the university's main campus spread over 1,300 acres was built on land donated by the Kashi Naresh, the hereditary ruler of Banaras. The south campus, spread over 2,700 acres, hosts the Krishi Vigyan Kendra and is located in Barkachha in Mirzapur district, about 60 km from Banaras; the University is planning to set up a campus in Bihar. BHU is organised into about 140 departments; as of 2017, the total student enrollment at the university is 27,359 coming from 48 countries. It has over 75 hostels for resident students. Several of its faculties and institutes include arts, management studies, performing arts, agricultural science,medical science and environment and sustainable development along with departments of linguistics, journalism & mass communication, among others.
The university's engineering institute was designated as Indian Institute of Technology in June 2012. BHU celebrated its centenary year in 2015-2016; the Centenary Year Celebration Cell organised various programs including cultural programs, feasts & competitions & Mahamana Madan Mohan Malviya Birth Anniversary on 25 December 2015. The Banaras Hindu University was established by Madan Mohan Malviya. A prominent lawyer and an Indian independence activist, Malviya considered education as the primary means for achieving a national awakening. At the 21st Conference of the Indian National Congress in Benares in December 1905, Malviya publicly announced his intent to establish a university in Varanasi. On the request of Malviya,Sant baba Attar Singh ji Mastuana sahib, Sangrur Punjab laid the foundation stone of Banaras Hindu University at Varanasi in 1914. Malviya continued to develop his vision for the university with inputs from other Indian nationalists and educationists, he published his plan in 1911.
The focus of his arguments was the prevailing poverty in India and the decline in income of Indians compared to Europeans. The plan called for the focus on technology and science, besides the study of India's religion and culture: "The millions mired in poverty here can only get rid when science is used in their interest; such maximum application of science is only possible when scientific knowledge is available to Indians in their own country." Malviya's plan evaluated whether to seek government recognition for the university or operate without its control. He decided in favour of the former for various reasons. Malviya considered the question of medium of instruction and decided to start with English given the prevalent environment, add Hindi and other Indian languages. A distinguishing characteristic of Malviya's vision was the preference for a residential university. All other Indian universities of the period, such as the universities in Bombay, Madras, etc. were affiliating universities which only conducted examinations and awarded degrees to students of their affiliated colleges.
Malviya had supported Besant's cause and in 1903, he had raised 250,000 Rupees in donations to finance the construction of the school's hostel. In 1907 Besant had applied for a royal charter to establish a university. However, there was no response from the British government. Following the publication of Malviya's plan, Besant met Malviya and in April 1911 they agreed to unite their forces to build the university in Varanasi. Malviya soon left his legal practice to focus on developing the university and his independence activities. On 22 November 1911, he registered the Hindu University Society to gather support and raise funds for building the university, he spent the next 4 years raising funds for the university. Malviya sought and received early support from the Kashi Naresh Prabhu Narayan Singh and Maharaja Sir Rameshwar Singh Bahadur of Raj Darbhanga. Thakur Jadunath Singh of Arkha along with other noble houses of United Provinces contributed for the development of the University. In October 1915, with support from Malviya's allies in the Indian National Congress, the Banaras Hindu University Bill was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.
BHU was established in 1916, the first university in India, the result of a private individual's efforts. The foundation for the main campus of the university was laid by Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India, on Vasant Panchami 4 February 1916. To promote the university's expansion, Malviya invited eminent guest speakers such as Mahatma Gandhi, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Prof C. V. Raman, Prafulla Chandra Roy, Prof Sam Higginbottom, Sir Patrick Geddes, Besant to deliver a series of what are now called The University Extension Lectures between 5–8 February 1916. Gandhi's lecture on the occasion was his first public address in India. Sir Sunder Lal was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor, the university began its academic session the same month with classes held at the Central Hindu School in the Kamachha area, while the campus was being built on over 1,300 acres of land donated by the Kashi Naresh on the outskirts of th
Hariprasad Chaurasia is an Indian music director and classical flutist, who plays the bansuri, an Indian bamboo flute, in the Hindustani classical tradition. Chaurasia was born in Prayagraj in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, his mother died when he was 6. He had to learn music without his father's knowledge, he did go to the Akhada and train with his father for some time, although he started learning music and practising at his friend's house. He has stated, I was not any good at wrestling. I went there only to please my father, but maybe because of the strength and stamina I built up I'm able to play the bansuri to this day. Chaurasia started learning vocal music from his neighbour, Rajaram, at the age of 15, he switched to playing the flute under the tutelage of Bholanath Prasanna of Varanasi for eight years. He joined the All India Radio, Odisha in 1957 and worked as a composer and performer. Much while working for All India Radio, he received guidance from the reclusive Annapurna Devi, daughter of Baba Allaudin Khan.
She only agreed to teach him. Another version is that she only agreed to teach him after he took the decision to switch from right-handed to left-handed playing to show her his commitment. In any case Chaurasia plays left-handed to this day. Apart from classical music, Hariprasad has collaborated with Shivkumar Sharma, forming a group called Shiv-Hari; the pair composed music for many popular movies, including Silsila and Chandni, created some popular songs. Pandit Chaurasia collaborated with Odia musician Bhubaneswar Mishra, forming the pair "Bhuban-Hari", the pair composed music for many Odia movies, creating numerous songs that were hugely popular in the state; these include Muje janena kaha baata. Pandit Chaurasia's nephew and pupil Rakesh Chaurasia is a accomplished flutist now, has been performing globally with such eminent maestros as Ustad Zakir Hussain, he serves as the artistic director of the World Music Department at the Rotterdam Music Conservatory in the Netherlands. He was the founder of the Vrindavan Gurukul in Mumbai and Vrindavan Gurukul in Bhubaneshwar.
Both of these institutes are schools dedicated to training students in bansuri in the Guru-shishya tradition. He has collaborated with several western musicians, including John McLaughlin, Jan Garbarek, Ken Lauber, has composed music for Indian films. Chaurasia played on The Beatles' 1968 B-side "The Inner Light", written by George Harrison. Chaurasia was married to Anuradha, he has three sons Vinay and Rajiv, five granddaughters and a single grandson. The 2013 documentary film Bansuri Guru features the life and legacy of Chaurasia and was directed by the musician's son Rajeev Chaurasia and produced by the Films Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Sangeet Natak Academy - 1984 Konark Samman - 1992 Padma Bhushan - 1992 Yash Bharati Samman - 1994 Padma Vibhushan - 2000 Pandit Chatur Lal Excellence Award - 2015 Hafiz Ali Khan Award - 2000 Dinanath Mangeshkar Award - 2000 Pune Pandit Award - 2008, by The Art & Music Foundation, India Akshaya Samman - 2009 Honorary Doctorate, North Orissa University - 2008 Honorary Doctorate, Utkal University - 2011 National Eminence award, NADA VIDYA BHARTI by Visakha Music and Dance Academy, Vizag - 2009 The 25 Greatest Global Living Legends In India by NDTV - 2013 Official biography "Woodwinds of Change" by Surjit Singh - 2008'Hariprasad Chaurasia and the Art of Improvisation', by Henri Tournier These are major albums released by Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia 1967Call of the Valley with Shivkumar Sharma and Brij Bhushan Kabra1978Krishnadhwani 601981Pt.
Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute1984Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute 1987Morning to Midnight Ragas - Morning Ragas1988Call of the Valley1989Venu Live in Ahmedabad'891990Immortal Series1991Megh Malhar1992Night Ragas Live in Amsterdam'92 Morning to Midnight Ragas - Afternoon Ragas All time Favourites Live from Sawai Gandharva Music Festival - Video Raga-s DU Nord Et Du Sud Immortal Series - Flute Fantasia1993Indian Classical Masters Daylight Ragas Flute - Hariprasad Chaurasia1994Thumri - The Music of Love In A Mellow Mood Possession Immortal Series - Devine Drupad Classic Greats1 - Ideas on Flute1995In Live Concert Cascades of Hindustani Music Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 4am to 7am Raga Bhairava: Integration Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 7am to 10am Raga Gurjari Todi: Compassion Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 10am to 1pm Raga Vrindavani Saranga: Greater Energy Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 1pm to 4pm Raga Multani: Affuence Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 4pm to 7pm Raga Marwa: Coherence Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 7pm to 10pm Raga Desh: Joy Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 10pm to 1am Raga Abhogi: Peaceful Slumber Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 1am to 4am Raga Sindhu Bhairavi: Gentleness Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute Malhar-Chandrika Music 157 - Live in London Music - Flute Great Jugalbandis Music from the world of OSHO - Above & Beyond Prem Yog Written on the Wind Romantic Themes Saptarishi - Live at Siri Fort The Mystical Flute of Hari Prasad Chaurasia Maestro's Choice Basant Bahar Chaurasia's Choice1996Hari Prasad Chaurasia & his Divine Flute Flute Recital Valley Recalls - In search of Peace and Harmony Krishna's
Oboes belong to the classification of double reed woodwind instruments. Oboes are made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials; the most common oboe plays in the soprano range. A soprano oboe measures 65 cm long, with metal keys, a conical bore and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed at a sufficient air pressure, causing it to vibrate with the air column; the distinctive tone is versatile and has been described as "bright". When the word oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family, such as the bass oboe, the cor anglais, or oboe d'amore A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. Today, the oboe is used in concert bands, chamber music, film music, some genres of folk music, as a solo instrument, heard in jazz, rock and popular music. In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear and penetrating voice; the Sprightly Companion, an instruction book published by Henry Playford in 1695, describes the oboe as "Majestical and Stately, not much Inferior to the Trumpet."
In the play Angels in America the sound is described as like "that of a duck if the duck were a songbird". The rich timbre is derived from its conical bore; as a result, oboes are easier to hear over other instruments in large ensembles due to its penetrating sound. The highest note is a semitone lower than the nominally highest note of the B♭ clarinet. Since the clarinet has a wider range, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Music for the standard oboe is written in concert pitch, the instrument has a soprano range from B♭3 to G6. Orchestras tune to a concert A played by the first oboe. According to the League of American Orchestras, this is done because the pitch is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning; the pitch of the oboe is affected by the way. The reed has a significant effect on the sound. Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch. German and French reeds, for instance, differ in many ways.
Weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch. Skilled oboists adjust their embouchure to compensate for these factors. Subtle manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the oboist to express timbre and dynamics. Most professional oboists make their reeds to suit their individual needs. By making their reeds, oboists can control factors such as tone color and responsiveness. Novice oboists may begin with a Fibrecane reed, made of a synthetic material. Commercially available cane reeds are available in several degrees of hardness; these reeds, like clarinet and bassoon reeds, are made from Arundo donax. As oboists gain more experience, they may start making their own reeds after the model of their teacher or buying handmade reeds and using special tools including gougers, pre-gougers, guillotines and other tools to make the reed to their liking. According to the late John Mack, former principal oboist of the Cleveland Orchestra, an oboe student must fill a laundry basket with finished reeds in order to master the art.
"Making good reeds requires years of practice, the amateur is well advised not to embark on making his own reeds... Orchestral musicians sometimes do this, co-principals in particular earn a bit on the side in this way.... Many professional musicians import their reed cane... directly from the growers in southern France and split it vertically into three parts themselves. Oboes require thicknesses of about 10 millimeters." This allows each oboist to adjust the reeds for individual embouchure, oral cavity, oboe angle, air support. The reed is considered the part of oboe playing that makes it so difficult because slight variations in temperature, altitude and climate will change a working reed into an unplayable collection of cane. In English, prior to 1770, the standard instrument was called a "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy"; the spelling of oboe was adopted into English c. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a transliteration of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French name. The regular oboe first appeared in the mid-17th century.
This name was used for its predecessor, the shawm, from which the basic form of the hautbois was derived. Major differences between the two instruments include the division of the hautbois into three sections, or joints, the elimination of the pirouette, the wooden ledge below the reed which allowed players to rest their lips; the exact date and place of origin of the hautbois are obscure, as are the individuals who were responsible. Circumstantial evidence, such as the statement by the flautist composer Michel de la Barre in his Memoire, points to members of the Philidor and Hotteterre families; the instrument may in fact have had multiple inventors. The hautbois spread throughout Europe, including Great Britain, where it was called "hautboy", "hoboy", "hautboit", "howboye", similar variants of the French name, it was the
Ravi Shankar, born Rabindra Shankar Chowdhury, his name preceded by the title Pandit and "Sitar maestro", was an Indian musician and a composer of Hindustani classical music. He was the best-known proponent of the sitar in the second half of the 20th century and influenced many other musicians throughout the world. Shankar was awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1999. Shankar was born to a Bengali Brahmin family in India, spent his youth touring India and Europe with the dance group of his brother Uday Shankar, he gave up dancing in 1938 to study sitar playing under court musician Allauddin Khan. After finishing his studies in 1944, Shankar worked as a composer, creating the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, was music director of All India Radio, New Delhi, from 1949 to 1956. In 1956, Shankar began to tour Europe and the Americas playing Indian classical music and increased its popularity there in the 1960s through teaching and his association with violinist Yehudi Menuhin and Beatles guitarist George Harrison.
His influence on the latter helped popularize the use of Indian instruments in pop music in the latter half of the 1960s. Shankar engaged Western music by writing compositions for sitar and orchestra, toured the world in the 1970s and 1980s. From 1986 to 1992, he served as a nominated member of Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Parliament of India, he continued to perform until the end of his life. Shankar was born on 7 April 1920 in Benares the capital of the eponymous princely state, in a Bengali family, as the youngest of seven brothers, his father, Shyam Shankar Chowdhury, was a Middle Temple scholar from East Bengal. A respected statesman and politician, he served for several years as dewan of Jhalawar and used the Sanskrit spelling of the family name and removed its last part. Shyam was married to Hemangini Devi who hailed from a small village named Nasrathpur in Mardah block of Ghazipur district, near Benares and his father was a prosperous landlord. Shyam worked as a lawyer in London and there he married a second time while Devi raised Shankar in Benares, did not meet his son until he was eight years old.
Shankar shortened the Sanskrit version of his first name, Ravindra, to Ravi, for "sun". Shankar had five siblings: Uday, Rajendra and Bhupendra. Shankar attended the Bengalitola High School in Benares between 1927 and 1928. At the age of ten, after spending his first decade in Benares, Shankar went to Paris with the dance group of his brother, choreographer Uday Shankar. By the age of 13 he had become a member of the group, accompanied its members on tour and learned to dance and play various Indian instruments. Uday's dance group travelled Europe and the United States in the early to mid-1930s and Shankar learned French, discovered Western classical music, jazz and became acquainted with Western customs. Shankar heard Allauddin Khan – the lead musician at the court of the princely state of Maihar – play at a music conference in December 1934 in Calcutta, Uday convinced the Maharaja of Maihar H. H Maharaja Brijnath singh Judev in 1935 to allow Khan to become his group's soloist for a tour of Europe.
Shankar was sporadically trained by Khan on tour, Khan offered Shankar training to become a serious musician under the condition that he abandon touring and come to Maihar. Shankar's parents had died by the time he returned from the Europe tour, touring the West had become difficult because of political conflicts that would lead to World War II. Shankar gave up his dancing career in 1938 to go to Maihar and study Indian classical music as Khan's pupil, living with his family in the traditional gurukul system. Khan was a rigorous teacher and Shankar had training on sitar and surbahar, learned ragas and the musical styles dhrupad and khyal, was taught the techniques of the instruments rudra veena and sursingar, he studied with Khan's children Ali Akbar Khan and Annapurna Devi. Shankar began to perform publicly on sitar in December 1939 and his debut performance was a jugalbandi with Ali Akbar Khan, who played the string instrument sarod. Shankar completed his training in 1944, he moved to Mumbai and joined the Indian People's Theatre Association, for whom he composed music for ballets in 1945 and 1946.
Shankar recomposed the music for the popular song "Sare Jahan Se Achcha" at the age of 25. He began to record music for HMV India and worked as a music director for All India Radio, New Delhi, from February 1949 to January 1956. Shankar composed for it. Beginning in the mid-1950s he composed the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, which became internationally acclaimed, he was music director for several Hindi movies including Anuradha. V. K. Narayana Menon, director of AIR Delhi, introduced the Western violinist Yehudi Menuhin to Shankar during Menuhin's first visit to India in 1952. Shankar had performed as part of a cultural delegation in the Soviet Union in 1954 and Menuhin invited Shankar in 1955 to perform in New York City for a demonstration of Indian classical music, sponsored by the Ford Foundation. Shankar heard about the positive response Khan received and resigned from AIR in 1956 to tour the United Kingdom and the United States, he played for smaller audiences and educated them about Indian music, incorporating ragas from the South Indian Carnatic music in his performances, recorded his first LP album Three Ragas in London, released in 1956.
In 1958, Shankar participated in the
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons