Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five became extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene in South Asia, was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus, the ancestor of all other Bison species. From 2 million years ago to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki, North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly related to the true buffalo; the North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, the wood bison, B. b. athabascae, the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada.

A third subspecies, the eastern bison is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison. References to "woods bison" or "wood bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle and produce sometimes fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron; the American bison and the European bison are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. They are typical artiodactyl ungulates, are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo, they are muscular with shaggy coats of long hair. Adults grow up to 2 m in height and 3.35 m in length for American bison and up to 2.1 metres in height and 2.9 metres in length for European bison. American bison can weigh from around 400 to 1,270 kg and European bison can weigh from 800 to 1,000 kg.

European bison tend to be taller than American bison. Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds; the bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, join a herd of males, which are smaller than female herds. Mature bulls travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes commingle. American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but had a much larger range, including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison number only about 20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as threatened in the United States, though numerous attempts have been made by beefalo ranchers to have it removed from the Endangered Species List.

Although superficially similar and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison has 14; the American bison has four lumbar vertebrae. Adult American bison are less slim in have shorter legs. American bison tend to graze more, browse less than their European relatives, their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference. The body of the American bison is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison; the horns of the European bison point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American bison are more tamed than their European cousins, breed with domestic cattle more readily; the bovine tribe split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species.

This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini: Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison and yak and Banteng and gayalHowever, Y chromosome analysis as

Souleymane Cissé

Souleymane Cissé is a Malian film director. Born in Bamako and raised in a Muslim family, Souleymane Cissé was a passionate cinephile from childhood, he attended secondary school in Dakar, returned to Mali in 1960 after national independence. His film career began as an assistant projectionist for a documentary on the arrest of Patrice Lumumba; this triggered his desire to create films of his own, he obtained a scholarship to the Moscow school of Cinema and Television. In 1970 he returned to Mali, joined the Ministry of Information as a cameraman, where he produced documentaries and short films. Two years he produced his first medium-length film, Cinq jours d’une vie, which tells the story of a young man who drops out of a Qur'anic school and becomes a petty thief living on the street. Cinq Jours premiered at the Carthage Film Festival. In 1974, Cissé produced his first full-length film in the Bambara language, Den muso, the story of a young mute girl, raped; the girl becomes pregnant, is rejected both by her family and by the child's father.

Den Muso was banned by the Malian Minister of Culture, Cissé was arrested and jailed for having accepted French funding. Four years Cissé produced Baara, which received the Yenenga's Talon prize at Fespaco in 1979. In 1982, he produced Finyé, which tells the story of dissatisfied Malian youth rising up against the establishment; this earned him his second Yenenga's Talon, at 1983's Fespaco. Between 1984 and 1987, he produced Yeelen, a coming-of-age film which won the Jury Prize at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. In 1995, he produced Waati. Cissé is president of UCECAO, the Union of Creators and Entrepreneurs of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts of Western Africa. L’aspirant Source d’inspiration Dégal à Dialloubé Fête du Sanké Cinq jours d’une vie Den muso L’homme et ses idoles Baara Chanteurs traditionnels des Iles Seychelles Finye Yeelen Waati Tell Me Who You Are Souleymane Cissé on IMDb

Jaime Ridge

Jaime Dillon Ridge is a New Zealand fashion blogger and owns the blog Dillon Dot. She has appeared in several Australasian fashion magazines, including Denizen. Ridge was born in Manly, Australia in 1993 but the family returned to New Zealand in 1997 so Matthew could captain the Auckland Warriors. Ridge's parents are New Zealand rugby player and former All Black Matthew Ridge, Sally Ridge. Growing up, Ridge was in the public eye and appeared in gossip magazines. After moving to New Zealand, Ridge was educated at Diocesan School for Girls. In 2010, she moved to King's College. Ridge holds a Bachelor of Commerce from the University of Auckland. Due to financial pressure following her split with Adam Parore, Ridge chose to go directly to university after Year 12, so Sally could save the over $20,000 annual fees charged to attend King's College. Jaime started her personal style blog Dillon Dot in 2015 after having gained a considerable Instagram following, she had worked as a fashion and beauty account manager for an Auckland PR firm.

In 2012, age 19, Ridge and her mother starred in their own six-part reality television show The Ridges, based around their everyday lives. She was paid $24,000 for the series. While the first episode debuted in the top five evening shows, the show fell in the ratings. Despite the finale regaining viewers, in early 2013 TV3 announced the show would not be renewed for a second series. Ridge did some modelling for the clothing company that Sally and Parore established in 2004 and describes modelling in print media and music videos as a temporary side job. Along with Sally, Ridge is represented by agent Sara Tetro. Ridge claimed. Ridge has expressed sadness at not meeting new half-brother London Ridge, father Matthew's son with current partner Carly Binding, former member of New Zealand girl group TrueBliss and solo artist. Ridge and Matthew had reconciled by early 2014. In February 2014, Ridge and mother Sally spoke out against online bullying following the death of New Zealand celebrity Charlotte Dawson.

Ridge had publicly criticised an opinion article speculating as to the cause of Dawson's death. ONE News reported Ridge as being one of the most followed New Zealanders on social media. In August 2014, Jaime collaborated on a jewellery line for women and men with local designer Lindi Kingi. During The Ridges, Ridge agreed to participate in a charity boxing match; the show covered Ridge training for 7 weeks with father Matthew's former-Warrior teammate Monty Betham at Boxing Alley gym in Auckland. Underweight Ridge was pressured to lose 5 kg in one week, dropping to just over 60 kg; the show culminated in Ridge winning the'KFC Godfather of All Fight Nights' match against fellow TV3 reality television star Rosanna Arkle of The GC. In November 2013 Ridge acted as the face of Dress for Success Auckland's charitable fundraiser sale The Great Designer Sale. In August 2014, Ridge produced a piece of art for ANZ Daffodil Day Art Auction charity art auction; the proceeds of the auction went to the Cancer Society of New Zealand.

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