Sasha Morgenthaler was a Swiss artist and dollmaker, best known for the "Sasha doll" produced in Germany and the United Kingdom beginning in the late 1960s. Popular with collectors, Sasha dolls are characterized by their individualism, their realistic expressions, their unique color, the extreme attention to detail in the manufacture of the dolls as well as their clothes, it is said by Juliette Peers that: "Sasha dolls are renowned for possessing a solid intellectuality." Morgenthaler created face sculpts for her dolls with subtle expressions, not artificially exaggerated smiles: her concern was that children surviving the horrors of WWII would not relate to such happy dolls in times of terror. It was said of Morgenthaler herself, as a child, that "When she was sad, she did not like her dolls uncompromising smiles. Once she grabbed a nail file and scraped off her doll's false grin..." In her own words, "No grotesque caricature can awaken a child's true feelings. A piece of wood carved, is far superior to a conventional doll with an exaggerated smile."
Sasha Morgenthaler was an artist working most in sculpture and paint. Paul Klee orchestrated Morgenthaler's entry to the School of Fine Arts at Geneva. Morgenthaler married fellow artist Ernst Morgenthaler. Morgenthaler decided in the 1960s to mass-produce dolls at reasonable prices after years of making dolls herself for the studio, on commission, for private individuals. Two companies were licensed to produce the dolls: Götz in Germany and Frido in the UK. Production in Germany ran from 1965 to 1969 and from 1995 to 2001, while the UK production ran from 1966 to 1986. Dolls were produced in different styles, wearing different clothes, with subtle variations that individualize and particularize each. Asymmetrical and made of hard vinyl with elastic stringing enabling them to take poses, Sasha dolls are characterized by a serious, open expression that seems to make them more adaptable to imaginative play than if they were forever smiling. Morgenthaler's original idea was for the dolls to represent an image of universal childhood, so from the beginning of mass-production, the vinyl was coffee-coloured so that they would not appear to belong to any one ethnic group.
In the early 1970s, black dolls were introduced, first in an dark complexion in a lighter complexion in the latter part of the decade. Around 1980, the "skin" tone of most of the "Caucasian" dolls was lightened. Dolls come in girl, boy and toddler versions. Girl and boy dolls are 16 inches or so tall, while toddlers are 11 -- 12 inches. Babies do not stand; when first introduced, baby dolls were sexed with stylised genitals, but the practice was discontinued. Dolls have rooted hair in brown, red, or black, though some "limited edition" dolls had wigs. Clothes sets were available, though some clothes came only with the purchase of a doll and were not available separately; the generic name for the dolls is "Sasha" after their creator. Some dolls have their own names, however. During the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, "Caucasian" boy dolls were known as "Gregor", black girl dolls were known as "Cora", black boy dolls were known as "Caleb"; when production resumed in 1995, many of the dolls were given individual names by the manufacturer, but all are still identified by the collective name of "Sasha".
Now that production has ceased, the dolls are becoming more collectible. The rarest ones can fetch high prices from individual dealers. Various generations of Morgenthaler's Sasha dolls are available for viewing at the Puppenmuseum Sasha Morgenthaler in Switzerland. Here visitors may view related archival holdings and other works of art by Morgenthaler. Doggart, A. Doggart, J. & Friedland, S.. The Friedlands Business and Family, London: John Doggart. Susanna Lewis's comprehensive Sasha doll page
Lenci dolls are pressed felt dolls with painted features, manufactured in Turin by Enrico and Elena Scavini from 1919 until 1944. They are now collectables; the bodies and the clothing of Lenci boy and girl dolls are made of pressed woolen felt. The bodies were machine stitched up the back and across the shoulders hand stitched between the legs; this allowed them to wear low cut clothes that displayed their limbs. The faces were pressed on moulds and features were hand painted, hair was made from mohair and this was stitched in. Felt pressed dolls were popular in the nineteenth century and just after the first world war; the eyes face sideways, giving the boys the girls one of loneliness. These dolls have Lenci stamped into the felt of the foot, they were produced in various sizes, sold with various uniforms. The two dolls in the Judges' Lodgings museum in Lancaster have the boy in a burgundy cardigan, the girl in a blue hat and coat, they were purported to have been made in the image of a dead daughter.
Elena König was born in Turin in 1885. She moved to Germany, where she acquired the pet name of Lenchen which mutated into Lenci when back in Italy. During the chaos of the Great War where Italy fought against Germany, she experimented with felt, its many properties, she married Enrico Scavini in 1915, he included felt doll manufacture in the Lenci business- one, concerned with ceramics. In 1937, the firm employed the family relinquished control; the factory was bombed during an air-raid in 1944. The company liquidated in 2002. Photographer and author Dare Wright wrote a series of children's books, beginning in 1957 with The Lonely Doll, featuring her childhood Lenci doll, "Edith", as the main character. Lenci Collectors' website Lazenby. Lenci. ISBN 978-1932485455
Mohair is a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. Both durable and resilient, mohair is notable for its high luster and sheen, which has helped gain it the nickname the "Diamond Fiber", is used in fiber blends to add these qualities to a textile. Mohair takes dye exceptionally well. Mohair is warm in winter as it has excellent insulating properties, while remaining cool in summer due to its moisture wicking properties, it is durable elastic, flame resistant and crease resistant. It is considered to be a luxury fiber, like cashmere and silk, is more expensive than most wool, produced by sheep. Mohair is composed of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool and skin of all mammals, but its special properties are unique to the Angora goat. While it has scales like wool, the scales are not developed indicated. Thus, mohair does not felt as wool does. Mohair fiber is 25–45 microns in diameter, it increases in diameter with the age of the goat, growing along with the animal.
Fine hair from younger animals is used for finer applications such as clothing, the thicker hair from older animals is more used for carpets and heavy fabrics intended for outerwear. The term mohair is sometimes used to describe a type of material used for the folding roof on convertible cars. In this instance, mohair refers to a form of denim-like canvas. Shearing is done twice a year, in the spring and in the fall. One goat will produce 11 to 17 pounds of mohair a year. Shearing is done on a cleanly swept floor and extra care is taken to keep the hair clean and free of debris; the hair is processed to remove natural grease and vegetable matter. Mohair grows in uniform locks; the Angora goat is a single-coat breed, unlike pygora or cashmere, there is no need to dehair a mohair fleece to separate the coarse hair from the down hair. South Africa is the world's largest mohair producer, producing around 50% of the total world production. Due to animal cruelty in the South African farms, Zara, H&M, Topshop and many more will no longer sell Mohair clothing.
Mohair is one of the oldest textile fibers in use. The Angora goat is thought to originate from the mountains of Tibet, reaching Turkey in the 16th century. However, fabric made of mohair was known in England as early as the 8th century; the word "mohair" was adopted into English sometime before 1570 from the Arabic: mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally'choice', from khayyara,'he chose'. In about 1820, raw mohair was first exported from Turkey to England, which became the leading manufacturer of mohair products; the Yorkshire mills spun yarn, exported to Russia, Austria, etc. as well as woven directly in Yorkshire. Until 1849, the Turkish province of Ankara was the sole producer of Angora goats. Charles V is believed to be the first to bring Angora goats to Europe. Due to the great demand for mohair fiber, throughout the 1800s there was a great deal of crossbreeding between Angora goats and common goats; the growing demand for mohair further resulted in attempts on a commercial scale to introduce the goat into South Africa in 1838, the United States in 1849, Australia from 1856–1875, still New Zealand.
In 1849, Angora goats made their way to America as a gift from Turkey. During the 1960s, a blend of mohair and wool suiting fabric known as Tonik or Tonic was developed in England; this had a shiny, color changing appearance and was popular among rude boys and the mod subculture. Similar suits were worn by mod revivalists and fans of ska punk and Two Tone music during the early to mid-1980s. Today, South Africa is the largest mohair producer in the world, with the majority of South African mohair being produced in the Eastern Cape; the United States is the second-largest producer, with the majority of American mohair being produced in Texas. Turkey produces good-quality mohair; because the goats are sheared once a year, Turkey produces the longest mohair of the world. In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so as to raise the profile of mohair and other natural fibers. Mohair is used in scarves, winter hats, sweaters, coats and home furnishing.
Mohair fiber is found in carpets, wall fabrics, craft yarns, many other fabrics, may be used as a substitute for fur. Because its texture resembles fine human hair, mohair is used in making high grade doll wigs or in rooting customized dolls. Mohair is a soft yarn when compared with other natural and synthetic fibers. Due to mohair lacking prominent, protruding scales along the hair's surface, it is blended with wool or alpaca. Blending the scaled wool helps the smooth mohair fibers hold their shape and stick together when spun into yarn. Mohair is valued for certain other unique characteristics: it is warmer than other fibers when used to make a light-weight garment, is blended with wool for this reason. Combined with mohair's ability to absorb dyes exceptionally well, pure mohair yarns are recognizable for their vivid saturated colours. Fibers from young goats are softest and are used to manufacture yarn for clothing. Fibers from mature goats are used to produce such things as rugs and carpets.
Mohair is used in'climbing skins' for randonnee skiing and ski touring. The mohair is used in a carpet allowing the skier an appropriate ascension method without sliding downhill; as of 2009, world output of mohair was estima
Mariquita Pérez is a Spanish doll thought up by Mrs Leonor Coello de Portugal in 1938. It was the most famous doll of the forties and fifties in Spain, although it was produced until 1976, it is regarded as the best doll made in Spain as well as one of the best of its time in Europe because of its craft production, the quality of the used materials and the wealth of wardrobe and accessories. It had a great success of reception in other countries such as Portugal, where it was manufactured too and Cuba
Fashion dolls are dolls designed to be dressed to reflect fashion trends. They are manufactured both as toys for children to play with and as collectibles for adult collectors; the dolls are modeled after teen girls or adult women, though child and some non-human variants exist. Contemporary fashion dolls are made of vinyl or another plastic. 3D software versions have appeared. An early form of the fashion dolls were French bisque dolls from the mid-19th century. However, fashion dolls were used throughout the courts of France and Spain as early as the 16th century to show the tactile qualities of fashion which could not be incorporated into the paintings. A letter dated 1515 and sent by Federico Gonzaga on behalf of King Francis I of France to his mother Isabella d'Este asks her to send a fashion doll to the French court so that copies of her style might be made for the women of France. Barbie was released by the American toy-company Mattel in 1959, was followed by many similar vinyl fashion dolls intended as children's toys.
The size of the Barbie, 11.5 inches set the standard used by other manufacturers. But fashion dolls have been made in many different sizes varying from 10.5 inches to 36 inches. Costumers and seamstresses use fashion dolls as a canvas for their work. Customizers repaint reroot hair, or do other alterations to the dolls themselves. Many of these works are one-of-a-kind; these artists are not connected to the original manufacturers and sell their work to collectors. Despite these setbacks, the fashion doll market continues to expand, introducing a number of toys-based dolls like Hasbro's Equestria Girls dolls, Mattel's Barbie, Ever After High and Monster High and MGA Entertainment's Bratz and Project Mc² that incorporate the use of fashion dolls and toys; the earliest bisque dolls from French companies were fashion dolls. These dominated the market between 1860 and 1890, they were made to represent grown up women and intended for children of affluent families to play with and dress in contemporary fashions.
These dolls came from companies like Jumeau, Gaultier, Rohmer and Huret, though their heads were manufactured in Germany. In the Passage Choiseul area of Paris an industry grew around making clothing and accessories for the dolls. Child like bisque dolls appeared in the mid-19th century and overtook the market towards the end of the century; the first American fashion doll, was released by the Alexander Doll Company in 1955. Cissy sported high-heeled shoes. Barbie was launched by the American toy company Mattel in 1959, inspired by the German Bild Lilli doll. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for fifty years. Many fashion doll lines have been launched as alternatives to Barbie. Tammy was created by the Ideal Toy Company in 1962. Advertised as "The Doll You Love to Dress", Tammy was portrayed as a young American teenager, more "girl next door" than the cosmopolitan image of Barbie. Sindy was created by the British Pedigree Dolls & Toys company in 1963 as a rival to Barbie with a wholesome look.
American Character Doll Company released their "Tressy" fashion doll in 1963 to compete with Barbie. Tressy was first sold as an 11½" fashion doll, after being acquired by the Ideal Toy Company, by the late 60s was sold as a larger pre-teen doll. Tressy featured a long swatch of hair that could be pulled out of the top of the doll's head by pushing a button on the doll's midriff. In the late 1960s and early 1970s Ideal released several other large fashion dolls with hair with adjustable length; the Crissy Doll and friends are 16" and Velvet Doll and friends are 18". British designer Mary Quant's Daisy doll from 1973 had a large selection of contemporary 70s fashion designed by Quant. Integrity Toys released the Fashion Royalty line of 12" dolls conceived and created by Jason Wu in 2000 which included characters such as Dania Zarr and Baroness Agness Von Weiss, marketed to adult collectors. In 2005, Superdoll Collectibles London artists Desmond Lingard and Charles Fegen, created Sybarites, 16" resin artist-dolls as fashion dolls for adult collectors.
Paul Pham creates 16" Numina dolls under the company name Dollcis for adult collectors. Fulla is marketed to children of Middle-Eastern countries as an alternative to Barbie; the concept of her evolved around 1999, she hit stores in late 2003. Bratz were released in 2001, designed by Carter Bryant and manufactured by California toy company MGA Entertainment, they are distinguished by large heads with lush, glossy lips. Mattel introduced the the Flavas line in 2003 to rival Bratz. In 2010 Mattel launched the Monster High doll line, based from horror monsters. In 2014, artist Nickolai Lamm unveiled Lammily, a fashion doll based on Lamm's study comparing Barbie's figure with measurements matching those of an average 19-year-old woman. Asian fashion dolls are made by Asian manufacturers and targeted to an Asian market. Blythe dolls with oversized heads and color changing eyes were made by American company Kenner but are now produced by Japanese company Takara. Another doll with an oversized head, was created in 2003 in Korea.
Japanese fashion dolls marketed to children include Jenny by Takara Tomy. In the mid-1990s dolls like Gene Marshall from Ashton-Drake, Tyler Wentworth from Tonner and Alexandra Fairchild Ford from Madame Alexander appeared, they are between 16 inches larger than other common fashion dolls. Integrity Toys expanded
A ceramic is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware and brick; the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from oriented to semi-crystalline and completely amorphous. Most fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware and porcelain. Varying crystallinity and electron composition in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast, identifiable attributes are difficult to specify for the group as a whole. General properties such as high melting temperature, high hardness, poor conductivity, high moduli of elasticity, chemical resistance and low ductility are the norm, with known exceptions to each of these rules. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family.
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica and sintered in fire. Ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, amorphous ceramic coatings on top of the crystalline ceramic substrates. Ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering, such as in semiconductors; the word "ceramic" comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, "of pottery" or "for pottery", from κέραμος, "potter's clay, pottery". The earliest known mention of the root "ceram-" is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, "workers of ceramics", written in Linear B syllabic script; the word "ceramic" may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more as the plural noun "ceramics".
A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material. Some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and tension, they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments. Ceramics can withstand high temperatures, ranging from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the ceramic process, its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include clay minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide, more known as alumina; the modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide. Both are valued for their abrasion resistance and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations.
Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries and body armor. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a great range of processing. Methods for dealing with them tend to fall into one of two categories – either make the ceramic in the desired shape, by reaction in situ, or by "forming" powders into the desired shape, sintering to form a solid body. Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand, slip casting, tape casting, injection molding, dry pressing, other variations. Noncrystalline ceramics, being glass, tend to be formed from melts; the glass is shaped when either molten, by casting, or when in a state of toffee-like viscosity, by methods such as blowing into a mold. If heat treatments cause this glass to become crystalline, the resulting material is known as a glass-ceramic used as cook-tops and as a glass composite material for nuclear waste disposal; the physical properties of any ceramic substance are a direct result of its crystalline structure and chemical composition.
Solid-state chemistry reveals the fundamental connection between microstructure and properties such as localized density variations, grain size distribution, type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by the Hall-Petch equation, toughness, dielectric constant, the optical properties exhibited by transparent materials. Ceramography is the art and science of preparation and evaluation of ceramic microstructures. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic microstructures is implemented on similar spatial scales to that used in the emerging field of nanotechnology: from tens of angstroms to tens of micrometers; this is somewhere between the minimum wavelength of visible light and the resolution limit of the naked eye. The microstructure includes most grains, secondary phases, grain boundaries, micro-
Simon & Halbig
Simon & Halbig was a doll manufacturer known for bisque doll heads with subtle colouring. They were based in the centre of the German doll industry, they supplied doll heads to many other well known doll makers. These are now collectables. Bisque or biscuit porcelain is unglazed porcelain with a matte finish, giving it a realistic skin-like texture, it is tinted or painted a realistic skin color. The bisque head is attached to a body made of cloth or leather, or a jointed body made of wood, papier-mâché or composition, a mix of pulp, sawdust and similar materials. Many, like Simon & Halbig, came from the Thuringia region, which has natural deposits of the clay used to make the dolls. Simon & Halbig was known for excellent sculpting of their doll heads, the high quality of their bisque. German childlike dolls were predominantly produced between 1890 and 1930. Examples of these dolls can be found in the Barry Elder collection in the Judges' Lodgings Museum, Lancaster Simon & Halbig was founded in 1839 and began making dolls from 1869 in their two porcelain factories in Gräfenhain and Hildburghausen in Thuringia, Germany.
In 1902 they started a co-operation with Kämmer of Kämmer & Reinhardt in which Kämmer modelled heads and the firm produced them. The heads of the dolls completed by Kämmer & Reinhardt, attached to bodies and legs of more durable composition, were stamped with the marks of both firms. In 1920, Simon & Halbig was bought by Kämmer & Reinhardt, who continued to produce dolls until 1932; the factory became known as Keramisches Werk Gräfenhain. American firmsArranbee Bawo & Dotter George Borgfeldt Edison Phonograph Toy Manufacturing Company Gimbel Brothers Strobel & Wilken John WanamakerGerman firmsC. M. Bergmann Gebrüder Bing Carl Bergner Cuno & Otto Dressel Eekhoff Hamburger & Co Heinrich Handwerck Adolf Hülß Kämmer & Reinhardt Louis Linder & Sohn Franz Schmidt FAO Schwarz Schoenau & Hoffmeister Wagner & Zetzsche Welsch & Co Wiesenthal, Schindel & Kallenberg Adolf WislizenusFrench-German firmsFleischmann & BloedelFrench firmsJumeau Roullet & Decamps S. F. B. J. Bisque doll