Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, amaranths, ice plants and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy leaves; the members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species. This order is part of the core eudicots; the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations; as with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants. Although the monophyly of the order has been supported, their placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade.
The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey and others. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham and Hutchinson have suggested.' "Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Polygonineae. These two suborders were recognized as two orders and Caryophyllales. Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV; as circumscribed by the APG III system, this order includes the same families as the APG II system plus the new families, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Anacampserotaceae. Family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Kewaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Macarthuriaceae family Microteaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Petiveriaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae As circumscribed by the APG II system, this order includes well-known plants like cacti, spinach, rhubarb, venus fly traps, bougainvillea.
Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales. Order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998 order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae The Cronquist system recognised the order, with this circumscription: order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Didiereaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Portulacaceae family MolluginaceaeThe difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order".
The APG favours much larger orders and families, the order Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist. A part of the difference lies with; the plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae are included in Amaranthaceae by APG. New to the order are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales. Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, the Engler system
Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes
The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation are a federally recognized tribe in the U. S. state of Montana. The government includes members of several Bitterroot Salish and Pend d'Oreilles tribes and is centered on the Flathead Indian Reservation; the peoples of this area were named Flathead Indians by Europeans. The name was applied to various Salish peoples, based on the practice of artificial cranial deformation by some of the groups, though the modern groups associated with the Flathead Reservation never engaged in it; the Salis lived east of the Continental Divide but established their headquarters near the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Hunting parties went west of the Continental Divide but not west of the Bitterroot Range; the easternmost edge of their ancestral hunting forays were the Gallatin Range, Crazy Mountain, Little Belt Ranges. The Flathead and the Pend d'Oreille both agree that the Flathead once occupied a large territory on the plains east of the Rocky Mountains.
This tribal homeland included the present-day counties of Broadwater, Deer Lodge, Silver Bow and Gallatin and parts of Lewis & Clark and Park. This was about the time; the tribe consisted of at least four bands. They had winter quarters near present-day Helena, near Butte, east of Butte and in the Big Hole Valley. Right north of the Flathead lived the Salis-Tunaxe. There was no sharp line between the two tribal territories, the people in the border zone intermarried. Further north lived the Kutenai-Tunaxe. Next to them lived the Salisan tribes' common enemy, the Blackfoot. West of the Rocky Mountains held the Pend d'Oreille the territory around Flathead Lake, south of them occupied the Semteuse a small area; the numerous Shoshone semi-surrounded the Salish from northeast to southwest. It seems the Salish did not know the Kiowa at his time, they may have been regarded as bands of Shoshone. Well-established plains tribes like the Sarsi, Cree, Gros Ventre, Arapaho and Sioux lived far away, they were unknown to the Salish.
The Salish got horses from the Shoshone, the animal changed the life of the people. During dog days, the Salis paid no special attention to the buffalo, it was hunted just like deer and elk. Newly acquired mounts made it possible to overtake the buffalo and the secured meat and skins could be carried by packhorses. All other game lost in importance. Before the horse life, the Salis lived in conical tents covered with two to four layers of sewed tule mats, depending on the season; the tipi soon substituted the old lodge. Instead of rawhide bags of many shapes and sizes, the women made parfleches from now on. Both the Salish-Tunaxe and the Semteuse were "killed off in wars" with the Blackfoot and further reduced by smallpox; some of the survivors took refuge among the Salish. With the near extinction of the Salish-Tunaxe, the Salish extended their hunting grounds northward to Sun River. Between 1700 and 1750, they were driven back by pedestrian Blackfoot warriors armed with fire weapons, they were forced out of the bison range and west of the divide along with the Kutenai-Tunaxe.
The Flatheads lived now between the Cascade Rocky Mountains. The first written record of the tribes is either from their meeting with trapper Andrew Garcia, explorer David Thompson, or the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Lewis and Clark came there and asked for horses but ate the horses due to starvation; the Flatheads appear in the records of the Roman Catholic Church at St. Louis, Missouri, to which they sent four delegations to request missionaries to minister to the tribe, their request was granted, a number of missionaries, including Pierre-Jean De Smet, S. J. were sent. The Flatheads are located in Sula, Montana; the tribes negotiated the Hellgate treaty with the United States in 1855. From the start, treaty negotiations were plagued by serious translation problems. A Jesuit observer, Father Adrian Hoecken, said that the translations were so poor that "not a tenth of what was said was understood by either side." But as in the meeting with Lewis and Clark, the pervasive cross-cultural miscommunication ran deeper than problems of language and translation.
Tribal people came to the meeting assuming they were going to formalize an already-recognized friendship. Non-Indians came with the goal of making official resources. Isaac Stevens, the new governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Washington Territory, was intent on obtaining cession of the Bitterroot Valley from the Salish. Many non-Indians were well aware of the valley's potential value for agriculture and its temperate climate in winter; because of the resistance of Chief Victor, Stevens ended up inserting into the treaty complicated language that defined the Bitterroot Valley south of Lolo Creek as a "conditional reservation" for the Salish. Victor put his X mark on the document, convinced that the agreement would not require his people to leave their homeland. No other word came from the government for the next fifteen years, so the Salish assumed that they would indeed stay in their Bitterroot Valley forever. After the 1864 gold rush in the newly established Montana Territory, pressure upon the Salish intensified from both illegal non-Indian squatters and government officials.
In 1870, Victor died, he was succeeded as chief by his son, Chief Charlot. Like his father, Charlot adhered to a policy of nonviol
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions: Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming Northern Shoshone: southeastern Idaho Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah Gosiute: western Utah, eastern NevadaThey traditionally speak the Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers, their peoples have become members of federally recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement colocated with the Northern Paiute people of the Great Basin. The name "Shoshone" comes from a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses; some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone "Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from sosoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning "People."Meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the "Sosonees or snake Indians" in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by 1,000 people today.
It belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming; the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes; the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward; some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700. As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century; the Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho.
As more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers; this was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces. Allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868, they fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War. In 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War, it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States.
In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett known as "Shoshone Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. The settlers went out after the Native Americans, they killed eight. They lost one man of Ed Hogle; the posse captured a woman. A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. In 2008 the Northwestern Shoshone acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre and some surrounding land, they wanted to protect the holy land and to build a memorial to the massacre, the largest their nation had suffered. "In partnership with the American West Heritage Center and state leaders in Idaho and Utah, the tribe has developed public/private partnerships to advance tribal cultural preservation and economic development goals." They have become a leader in developing tribal renewable energy.
In 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory. In 1937 the Bureau of Indian Affairs counted 1,201 Western Shoshone; as of the 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone. Shoshone people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources; these include: Eastern Shoshone people:Guchundeka', Buffalo Eaters Tukkutikka, Mountain Sheep Eaters, joined the Northern Shoshone Boho'inee', Pohogwe, Sage Grass people, Sagebrush Butte PeopleNorthern Shoshone people:Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley Doyahinee', Mountain people Kammedeka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters synonymous with Kammitikka Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters, Sawtooth Range, Idaho Yahandeka, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise and Wiser RiversWestern Shoshone people:Kusiutta, Great Salt Desert and Great Salt Lake, UtahCedar Valley Goshute Deep Creek Goshute Rush Valley G
Owens Valley is the now-arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin. The mountain peaks on either side reach above 14,000 feet in elevation, while the floor of the Owens Valley is about 4,000 feet, making the valley one of the deepest in the United States; the Sierra Nevada casts the valley in a rain shadow, which makes Owens Valley "the Land of Little Rain." The bed of Owens Lake, now a predominantly dry endorheic alkali flat, sits on the southern end of the valley. The valley provides water to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, the source of one-third of the water for Los Angeles, is infamous as the scene of one of the fiercest and longest-running episodes of the California Water Wars; these episodes inspired aspects of the 1974 film Chinatown. As well, the now-arid nature of the valley is due to LADWP depleting the water of the region. For example, Owens Lake was emptied by 1926, only 13 years after LA began diverting water.
Towns in the Owens Valley include Bishop, Lone Pine and Big Pine. The major road in the Owens Valley is U. S. Route 395. About three million years ago, the Sierra Nevada Fault and the White Mountains Fault systems became active with repeated episodes of slip earthquakes producing the impressive relief of the eastern Sierra Nevada and White Mountain escarpments that bound the northern Owens Valley-Mono Basin region. Owens Valley is a graben—a downdropped block of land between two vertical faults—the westernmost in the Basin and Range Province, it is part of a trough which extends from Oregon to Death Valley called the Walker Lane. The western flank of much of the valley has large moraines coming off the Sierra Nevada; these unsorted piles of rock and dust were pushed to where they are by glaciers during the last ice age. An excellent example of a moraine is on State Route 168; this graben was formed by a long series of earthquakes, such as the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake, that have moved the graben down and helped move the Sierra Nevada up.
The graben is much larger. The topmost part of this escarpment is exposed at Alabama Hills; the Owens Valley has many mini-volcanoes, such as Crater Mountain in the Big Pine volcanic field. Smaller versions of the Devils Postpile, can be found, by Little Lake; the valley contains plants adapted to alkali flat habitat. One of these, the Owens Valley checkerbloom, is endemic to Owens Valley; the valley was inhabited in late prehistoric times by the Timbisha in the extreme south end around Owens Lake and by the Mono tribe in the central and northern portions of the valley. The Timbisha speak the Timbisha language, classified in the Numic branch of Uto-Aztecan language family; the closest related languages are Comanche. The Eastern Mono speak a dialect of the Mono language, Numic but is more related to Northern Paiute; the Timbisha presently live in Death Valley at Furnace Creek although most families have summer homes in the Lone Pine colony. The Eastern Mono live in several colonies from Lone Pine to Bishop.
Trade between Native Americans of the Owens Valley and coastal tribes such as the Chumash has been indicated by the archaeological record. On May 1, 1834, Joseph R. Walker entered Owens Valley at the mouth of Walker Pass. Walker and his group of 52 men traveled up the valley on their way back to the Humboldt Sink, back up the Humboldt River to the Rocky Mountains. In 1845, John C. Fremont named the Owens valley and lake for Richard Owens, one of his guides. Camp Independence was established on Oak Creek nearby modern Independence, California, on July 4, 1862, during the Owens Valley Indian War. From 1942 to 1945, during World War II, the first Japanese American Internment camp operated in the valley at Manzanar near Independence, California. In the early 20th century, the valley became the scene of a struggle between local residents and the city of Los Angeles over water rights. William Mulholland, superintendent of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, planned the 223-mile Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913, which diverted water from the Owens River.
The water rights were acquired in a deceitful manner splitting water cooperatives and pitting neighbors against one another. In 1924, local farmers were fed up with the purchases and erupted in violence, sabotaging parts of the water system. Los Angeles acquired a large portion of the water rights to over 300,000 acres of land in the valley completely diverting the inflows of water away from Owens Lake. Gary Libecap of the University of California, Santa Barbara observed that the price that Los Angeles was willing to pay to other water sources per acre-foot of water was far higher than what the farmers received. Farmers who resisted the pressure from Los Angeles until 1930 received the highest price for their land. However, the sale of their land brought the farmers more income than if they had kept the land for farming and ranching. None of the sales were made under threat of eminent domain; as a result of these acquisitions, the lake subsequently dried up complet
Meriwether Lewis was an American explorer, soldier and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark. Their mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, establish trade with, sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, claim the Pacific Northwest and Oregon Country for the United States before European nations, they collected scientific data, information on indigenous nations. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Governor of Upper Louisiana in 1806, he died of gunshot wounds in what was either a murder or suicide, in 1809. Meriwether Lewis was born in Albemarle County, Colony of Virginia, in the present-day community of Ivy, he was the son of William Lewis, of Welsh ancestry, Lucy Meriwether, of English ancestry. After his father died of pneumonia in November 1779, he moved with his mother and stepfather Captain John Marks to Georgia, they settled along the Broad River in the Goosepond Community within the Broad River Valley in Wilkes County.
Lewis had no formal education until he was 13 years of age, but during his time in Georgia he enhanced his skills as a hunter and outdoorsman. He would venture out in the middle of the night in the dead of winter with only his dog to go hunting. At an early age, he was interested in natural history, which would develop into a lifelong passion, his mother taught him. In the Broad River Valley, Lewis first dealt with American Indians; this was the traditional territory of the Cherokee. Lewis seems to have been a champion for them among his own people. While in Georgia, he met Eric Parker. At age 13, Lewis was sent back to Virginia for education by private tutors, his father's older brother. One of his tutors was an uncle of Matthew Fontaine Maury. In 1793, Lewis graduated from Liberty Hall; that year he joined the Virginia militia, in 1794 he was sent as part of a detachment involved in putting down the Whiskey Rebellion. In 1795, Lewis joined the United States Army, commissioned as an ensign—an army rank, abolished and was equivalent to a modern-day second lieutenant.
By 1800 he rose to captain, ended his service there in 1801. Among his commanding officers was William Clark, who would become his companion in the Corps of Discovery. On April 1, 1801, Lewis was appointed as Secretary to the President by President Thomas Jefferson, whom he knew through Virginia society in Albemarle County. Lewis resided in the presidential mansion, conversed with various prominent figures in politics, the arts and other circles, he compiled information on the personnel and politics of the United States Army, which had seen an influx of Federalist officers as a result of "midnight appointments" made by outgoing president John Adams in 1801. When Jefferson began to plan for an expedition across the continent, he chose Lewis to lead the expedition. Meriwether Lewis recruited Clark aged 33, to share command of the expedition. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, Thomas Jefferson wanted to get an accurate sense of the new land and its resources; the President hoped to find a "direct and practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce with Asia."
In addition, Jefferson placed special importance on declaring U. S. sovereignty over the Native Americans along the Missouri River. The two-year exploration by Lewis and Clark was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States; when they left Fort Mandan in April 1805 they were accompanied by the 16-year-old Shoshone Indian woman, the wife of the French-Canadian fur trader, Toussaint Charbonneau. The Corps of Discovery made contact with many Native Americans in the trans-Mississippi West and found them accustomed to dealing with European traders and connected to global markets. After crossing the Rocky Mountains, the expedition reached the Oregon Country and the Pacific Ocean in November 1805, they returned in 1806, bringing with them an immense amount of information about the region as well as numerous plant and animal specimens. They demonstrated the possibility of overland travel to the Pacific coast; the success of their journey helped to strengthen the American concept of "Manifest destiny" - the idea that the United States was destined to reach all the way across North America from Atlantic to Pacific.
After returning from the expedition, Lewis received a reward of 1,600 acres of land. He initially made arrangements to publish the Corps of Discovery journals, but had difficulty completing his writing. In 1807, Jefferson appointed him governor of the Louisiana Territory. Lewis' record as an administrator is mixed, he published the first laws in the Upper-Louisiana Territory, established roads and furthered Jefferson's mission as a strong proponent of the fur trade. He negotiated peace among several quarreling Indian tribes, his duty to enforce Indian treaties was to protect the western Indian lands from encroachment, opposed by the rush of settlers looking to open new lands for settlements. But due to his quarreling with local political leaders, controversy over his approvals of trading licenses, land grant politics, Indian depredations, some historians have argued that Lewis was a poor administrator; that view has be
Lewisia is a plant genus, named for explorer Meriwether Lewis, who encountered the species in 1806. The native habitat of Lewisia species is north facing cliffs in western North America. Local Native Americans ate the roots, which have been used to treat sore throats. Lewisias are perennial alpine plants, they produce rosette-shaped flowers. Lewisia cotyledon grow up to 0.5 metres in width. Most species of Lewisia are deciduous, including the original Lewisia rediviva. Lewisia longipetala is the only semi-deciduous species; some species, such as Lewisia cotyledon, are evergreen. Meriwether Lewis, of Lewis and Clark fame, is credited with the first discovery by a European or American of Lewisia, known to the local Native Americans as bitterroot. Lewis discovered the specimen in 1806 at Lolo Creek, in the mountain range that became known as the Bitterroot Mountains; the plant was given Lewisia rediviva, by Frederick Traugott Pursh. There are several varieties of Lewisia, including: Lewisia brachycalyx Engelm.
Ex A. Gray: United States, Mexico Lewisia cantelovii J. T. Howell: USA Lewisia columbiana B. L. Rob. Lewisia columbiana var. columbiana: Canada, USA Lewisia columbiana var. rupicola C. L. Hitchc.: Canada, USA Lewisia columbiana var. wallowensis C. L. Hitchc.: USA Lewisia congdonii S. Clay: USA Lewisia cotyledon B. L. Rob. Lewisia cotyledon var. cotyledon: USA Lewisia cotyledon var. heckneri Munz: USA Lewisia cotyledon var. howellii Jeps.: USA Lewisia disepala Rydb.: USA Lewisia glandulosa Dempster: USA Lewisia kelloggii K. Brandegee Lewisia kelloggii var. hutchinsonii Dempster: USA Lewisia kelloggii var. kelloggii: USA Lewisia leeana B. L. Rob.: USA Lewisia longipetala S. Clay: USA Lewisia maguirei A. H. Holmgren: USA Lewisia nevadensis B. L. Rob.: USA Lewisia oppositifolia B. L. Rob.: USA Lewisia pygmaea B. L. Rob.: Canada, USA Lewisia rediviva Pursh Lewisia rediviva var. minor Munz: USA Lewisia rediviva var. rediviva: Canada, USA Lewisia sacajaweana B. L. Wilson: USA Lewisia serrata Heckard & Stebbins: USA Lewisia stebbinsii Gankin & W.
R. Hildreth: USA Lewisia triphylla B. L. Rob.: Canada, USA Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy: USA – hybrid of Lewisia leeana and Lewisia cotyledon Lewisias are found in western parts of North America. In their native habitat of north-facing cliffs, lewisias are subject to extremes in weather conditions. All species of Lewisia are edible. Lewisia rediviva has a large edible root and as a result became a food source for local Native Americans; the root is peeled before steaming. L. Rediviva has been used for medicinal purposes, it has been used to promote milk flow during lactation. For gardening, Lewisia species are planted in rockeries, because this mimics their natural habitat. Rockeries provide the free drainage that lewisias need to prevent their roots rotting, they may be planted in pots, though they need to be well drained and protected from sustained wet weather
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie