The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange refers to a citrus tree and its fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, has been spread by humans to many parts of the world. Wild trees are found near small streams in secluded and wooded parts of Florida and The Bahamas after it was introduced to the area from Spain, where it had been introduced and cultivated beginning in the 10th century by the Moors; the bitter orange is believed to be a cross between Citrus maxima × Citrus reticulata Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, are found in perfume, used as a flavoring or as a solvent. The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade. Bitter orange is employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant, due to its active ingredient, synephrine. Bitter orange supplements have been linked to a number of serious side effects and deaths, consumer groups advocate that people avoid using the fruit medically, it is still not concluded if bitter orange affects medical conditions of heart and cardiovascular organs, by itself or in formulae with other substances.
Standard reference materials are released concerning the properties in bitter orange by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, for ground fruit and solid oral dosage form, along with those packaged together into one item. Citrus × aurantium subsp. Amara is a spiny evergreen tree native to southern Vietnam, but cultivated, it is used as grafting stock for citrus trees, in marmalade, in liqueur such as triple sec, Grand Marnier and Curaçao. It is cultivated for the essential oil expressed from the fruit, for neroli oil and orange flower water, which are distilled from the flowers. Citrus × aurantium var. myrtifolia is sometimes considered a separate species, Citrus myrtifolia, the myrtle-leaved orange. A selection known as Chinotto is used for the namesake Italian soda beverage. Citrus × aurantium var. daidai, Daidai, is used in Chinese medicine and Japanese New Year celebrations. The aromatic flowers are added to tea. Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange, is a bitter orange and limetta hybrid.
Citrus × aurantium subsp. Currassuviencis, grows on the Caribbean island of Curaçao; the dried peels are used in the creation of Curaçao liqueur. Seville orange is a known tart orange, now grown throughout the Mediterranean region, it has a thick, dimpled skin, is prized for making marmalade, being higher in pectin than the sweet orange, therefore giving a better set and a higher yield. It is used in compotes and for orange-flavored liqueurs. Once a year, oranges of this variety are collected from trees in Seville and shipped to Britain to be used in marmalade. However, the fruit is consumed locally in Andalusia; the Seville orange—when preserved in sugar — is the principal ingredient in traditional British marmalade, reflecting the historic Atlantic trading relationship with Portugal and Spain: the earliest recipe for'marmelat of oranges' dating from 1677. The peel can be used in the production of bitters; the unripe fruit, called narthangai, is used in Southern Indian cuisine in Tamil cuisine.
It is pickled by stuffing it with salt. The pickle is consumed with yoghurt rice called thayir sadam; the fresh fruit is used in pachadis. The Belgian Witbier is made from wheat beer spiced with the peel of the bitter orange; the Finnish and Swedish use bitter orange peel in gingerbread, some Christmas bread and in mämmi. It is used in the Nordic glögi. In Greece and Cyprus, the nerántzi or kitrómilon is one of the most prized fruits used for spoon sweets, the C. aurantium tree is a popular ornamental tree. In Albania as well, "nerënxa" or "portokalli i hidhur" is used in spoon sweets; the blossoms are collected fresh to make a prized sweet-smelling aromatic jam, or added to brewing tea. In Turkey, juice of the ripe fruits can be used as salad dressing in Çukurova region. However, in Iraqi cuisine, a bitter orange or "raranj" in Iraqi is used to compliment dishes like Charred Fish "samak/simach maskouf", tomato stew "morgat tamata", "Qeema", a dish that has the same ingredients as an Iraqi tomato stew with the addition of minced meat, boiled chickpeas "lablabi", salads, as a dressing, on any dish one might desire to accompany bitter orange.
Iraqis consume it as a citrus fruit or juice it to make bitter orange juice "'aseer raranj". Throughout Iran, the juice is popularly used as a salad dressing, souring agent in stews and pickles or as a marinade. In the Americas, the juice from the ripe fruit is used as a marinade for meat in Nicaraguan, Cuban and Haitian cooking, as it is in Peruvian ceviche. In Yucatán, it is a main ingredient of the cochinita pibil. In Cuba a traditional Christmas time dessert is made with the peel of the bitter orange cooked in syrup and eaten with cheese and buñuelos; the extract of bitter orange has been marketed as dietary supplement purported to act as a weight-loss aid and appetite suppressant. Bitter orange contains the tyramine metabolites N-methyltyramine and synephrine, substances similar to epinephrine, which act on the α1 adrenergic receptor to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and heart rate. Several low-quality clinical trials have had results of p-Synephrine (alone or i
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Fernet Stock is a herbal bitters made in Plzeň-Božkov, Czech Republic. It is flavoured with 14 herbs, imported from the Mediterranean and the Alps, it is available in a sweeter form as Fernet Stock Citrus. The original Fernet is 40% alcohol, whereas the Citrus is a lower 30%. In 1884, Lionello Stock founded during the crisis after the Panic of 1873 the Camis & Stock company in Trieste part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and distributed its products throughout the empire, its flagship product was cognac, but following the end of the First World War, trade between the countries from the empire became more difficult. Stock founded a subsidiary called Stock Cognac Medicinal. At first, spirits transported from Trieste were be bottled there. Cognac or brandy were long the firm's flagship products; the plant began operating independently and shipments from Trieste came to an end. In 1927, the Pilsen company Stock Cognac Medicinal Božkov u Plzně began with its production of a bitter liqueur Fernet Stock.
It was however hit by the Great Depression in 1929 and seized by the Nazis as Jewish property in 1939, ending up as national property by the end of the Second World War. Although Lionello Stock regained possession in 1947, it was nationalized in 1948. Fernet Stock's popularity only increased through the 1960s and 70s, following the Velvet Revolution, its sales increased dramatically. In the nineties, sales of the popular liqueurs grew by 500%. In 1997, Stock Plzeň introduced the Fernet Stock Citrus, which over the two years became the second most popular Czech alcoholic spirit right behind Fernet Stock. In 1993, the distillery's original owner Stock Trieste became its majority shareholder. In 2007, Stock Plzeň were sold to Tenebro, a company belonging to the U. S. Oaktree Capital Management group. Fernet Stock – original first produced in 1927 in Božkov, 40% ABV. Fernet Stock Citrus – launched in 1997, with lemon taste, 30% ABV. Fernet Stock S mátou – with mint taste, 30% ABV. Fernet Stock Hruška – with pear taste, 30% ABV.
Fernet Stock Cranberry – with cranberry taste, 27% ABV. Becherovka Fernet Liquor portal Stock Triest Stock Plzeň-Božkov Fernet Stock Hungary
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
A herbal is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants with information on their medicinal, culinary, hallucinatory, aromatic, or magical powers, the legends associated with them. A herbal may classify the plants it describes, may give recipes for herbal extracts, tinctures, or potions, sometimes include mineral and animal medicaments in addition to those obtained from plants. Herbals were illustrated to assist plant identification. Herbals were among the first literature produced in Ancient Egypt, China and Europe as the medical wisdom of the day accumulated by herbalists and physicians. Herbals were among the first books to be printed in both China and Europe. In Western Europe herbals flourished for two centuries following the introduction of moveable type. In the late 17th century, the rise of modern chemistry and pharmacology reduced the medicinal value of the classical herbal; as reference manuals for botanical study and plant identification herbals were supplanted by Floras – systematic accounts of the plants found growing in a particular region, with scientifically accurate botanical descriptions and illustrations.
Herbals have seen a modest revival in the western world since the last decades of the 20th century, as herbalism and related disciplines became popular forms of alternative medicine. The word herbal is derived from the mediaeval Latin liber herbalis: it is sometimes used in contrast to the word florilegium, a treatise on flowers with emphasis on their beauty and enjoyment rather than the herbal emphasis on their utility. Much of the information found in printed herbals arose out of traditional medicine and herbal knowledge that predated the invention of writing. Before the advent of printing, herbals were produced as manuscripts, which could be kept as scrolls or loose sheets, or bound into codices. Early handwritten herbals were illustrated with paintings and drawings. Like other manuscript books, herbals were "published" through repeated copying by hand, either by professional scribes or by the readers themselves. In the process of making a copy, the copyist would translate, adapt, or reorder the content.
Most of the original herbals have been lost. As printing became available, it was promptly used to publish herbals, the first printed matter being known as incunabula. In Europe, the first printed herbal with woodcut illustrations, the Puch der Natur of Konrad of Megenberg, appeared in 1475. Metal-engraved plates were first used in about 1580; as woodcuts and metal engravings could be reproduced indefinitely they were traded among printers: there was therefore a large increase in the number of illustrations together with an improvement in quality and detail but a tendency for repetition. As examples of some of the world's most important records and first printed matter, a researcher will find herbals scattered through the world's most famous libraries including the Vatican Library in Rome, the Bodleian Library in Oxford, the Royal Library in Windsor, the British Library in London and the major continental libraries. China is renowned for its traditional herbal medicines. Legend has it that mythical Emperor Shennong, the founder of Chinese herbal medicine, composed the Shennong Bencao Jing or Great Herbal in about 2700 BCE as the forerunner of all Chinese herbals.
It survives as a copy describes about 365 herbs. High quality herbals and monographs on particular plants were produced in the period to 1250 CE including: the Zhenlei bencao written by Tang Shenwei in 1108, which passed through twelve editions until 1600. In 1406 Ming dynasty prince Zhu Xiao published the Jiuhuang Bencao illustrated herbal for famine foods, it contained high quality woodcuts and descriptions of 414 species of plants of which 276 were described for the first time, the book pre-dating the first European printed book by 69 years. It was reprinted many times. Other herbals include Bencao Fahui in 1450 by Xu Yong and Bencao Gangmu of Li Shizhen in 1590. Traditional herbal medicine of India, known as Ayurveda dates back to the second millennium BCE tracing its origins to the holy Hindu Vedas and, in particular, the Atharvaveda. One authentic compilation of teachings is by the surgeon Sushruta, available in a treatise called Sushruta Samhita; this contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources.
Other early works of Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka. This tradition, however is oral; the earliest surviving written material which contains the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript—dated to the 4th century CE. An illustrated herbal published in Mexico in 1552, Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, is written in the Aztec Nauhuatl language by a native physician, Martín Cruz; this is an early account of the medicine of the Aztecs although the formal illustrations, resembling European ones, suggest that the artists were following the traditions of their Spanish masters rather than an indigenous style of drawing. In 1570 Francisco Hernández was sent from Spain to study the natural resources of New Spain. Here he drew on indigenous sources, including the extensive botanical gardens, established by the Aztecs, to record c. 1200 plants in his Re