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Bituminous coal

Bituminous coal or black coal is a soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt. It is of higher quality of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite, its coloration can be sometimes dark brown. These distinctive sequences, which are classified according to either "dull, bright-banded" or "bright, dull-banded", is how bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material, its primary constituents are macerals: vitrinite, liptinite. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60–80%. Bank density is 1,346 kilograms per cubic metre. Bulk density runs to 833 kilograms per cubic metre; the heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 megajoules per kilogram on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. Within the coal mining industry, this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp, a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions.

Extraction of bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring, good ventilation and vigilant site management. Bituminous coals are graded according to vitrinite reflectance, moisture content, volatile content and ash content; the highest value bituminous coals have a specific grade of plasticity and low ash content with low carbonate and sulfur. Plasticity is vital for coking as it represents its ability to form specific plasticity phases during the coking process, measured by coal dilatation tests. Low phosphorus content is vital for these coals, as phosphorus is a damaging element in steel making. Coking coal is best if it has a narrow range of volatility and plasticity; this is measured by the free swelling index test. Volatile content and swelling index are used to select coals for coke blending as well. Volatility is critical for steel-making and power generation, as this determines the burn rate of the coal. High volatile content coals, while easy to ignite are not as prized as moderately volatile coals.

The smelter must balance the volatile content of the coals to optimize the ease of ignition, burn rate, energy output of the coal. Low ash and carbonate coals are prized for power generation because they do not produce much boiler slag and they do not require as much effort to scrub the flue gases to remove particulate matter. Carbonates are deleterious as they stick to the boiler apparatus. Smithing coal is a type of high-quality bituminous coal ideally suited for use in a coal forge, it is as free from ash and other impurities as possible. The constituents of the coal should be as follows: Cannel coal is a coal which ignites producing a bright flame; the name derives from the Scottish pronunciation of candle coal. It contains a high volatile content, is non-coking and was a source for coal oil in West Virginia during the mid-1800s. While the use of Cannel has diminished over the past century, it is still valued by artists for its ability to be carved and polished into sculptures and jewelry.

"Cannel coal is a terrestrial type of hydrogen sulfide rich oil shale, technically called sapropelic coal." When used for many industrial processes, bituminous coal must first be "coked" to remove volatile components. Coking is achieved by heating the coal in the absence of oxygen, which drives off volatile hydrocarbons such as propane and other aromatic hydrocarbons, some sulfur gases; this drives off a considerable amount of the contained water of the bituminous coal. Coking coal is used in the manufacture of steel, where carbon must be as volatile-free and ash-free as possible. Coking coal is heated to produce coke, a hard, porous material, used to blast in furnaces for the extraction of iron from the iron ore. Bituminous coal in the United States is between 300 million years old. In the United States, Cretaceous bituminous coals occur in Wyoming and New Mexico. In Canada, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin of Alberta and British Columbia hosts major deposits of bituminous coal that formed in swamps along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway.

They range in age from latest Jurassic or earliest Cretaceous in the Mist Mountain Formation, to Late Cretaceous in the Gates Formation. The Intermontane and Insular Coalfields of British Columbia contain deposits of Cretaceous bituminous coal. Extensive but low-value coals of Jurassic age extend through the Surat Basin in Australia, formed in an intracratonic sag basin, contain evidence of dinosaur activity in the numerous ash plies; these coals are exploited in Queensland from the Walloon Coal Measures, which are up to 15 m thick of sub-bituminous to bituminous coals suited for coking, steam-raising and oil cracking. Coals of Triassic age are known from the Clarence-Moreton and Ipswich Basins, near Ipswich and the Esk Trough. Coals of this era are rare, many contain fossils of flowering plants; some of the best coking coals are Australian Triassic coals, although most economic deposits have been worked out. The second largest deposits of the world's bituminous coal are contained within Permian strata in Russia.

Australian deposits in the Bowen Basin in Que

The Blank Generation

The Blank Generation is the earliest of the published DIY "home movies" of New York punk's birth. It was filmed by No Wave filmmaker Amos Poe and Ivan Kral, legendary 1970s guitarist with Iggy Pop and Patti Smith. Directors and producers Ivan Kral and No Wave filmmaker Amos Poe use behind-the-scenes footage of punk musicians before they became icons; the film includes footage of Blondie, Patti Smith, The Ramones, Talking Heads, New York Dolls, The Heartbreakers, The Shirts, Robert Gordon as visitors to New York's CBGB's, Film locations include Max's Kansas City, The Bottom Line and the Lower East Side. Richard Hell Patti Smith Group Television Ramones The Heartbreakers Talking Heads Blondie Harry Toledo Marbles Tuff Darts The Miamis New York Dolls The Shirts Musicians featured in the film include: Joey Ramone, Debbie Harry, Richard Hell, Patti Smith, Johnny Thunders, David Byrne, Tom Verlaine, David Johansen, Wayne County, Tommy Ramone, Lenny Kaye, Dee Dee Ramone, Chris Stein, Fred Smith, Johnny Ramone, Ivan Kral, Robert Gordon, Richard Lloyd, Tina Weymouth, Walter Lure, Jeff Salen, Annie Golden, Jayne County, Chris Frantz, Jimmy Destri, Lizzy Mercier Descloux, Gary Valentine, Clem Burke, Arthur Kane, Syl Sylvain, Jerry Nolan, Jay Dee Daugherty, Richard Sohl, Billy Ficca, Hilly Kristal and more.

Filmed as a sequel to Night Lunch and Kral used silent 16mm cameras for all of the concert footage. Together they edited the images with demo recordings and sound recorded on cassette players of the various bands; the cinematic tension between sound and image was inspired by Jean-Luc Godard and the French New Wave as a way to alienate the audience and make them hyper-aware that they were watching a film. Official website Digitally Obsessed - March 14, 2010 Rocksbackpages - Cynthia Rose 1980 Goldmine - August 21, 2009 The Blank Generation at AllMovie The Blank Generation on IMDb The BLANK generation Film fan page CIMMFEST 2010

Thomas Salt

Sir Thomas Salt, 1st Baronet, was a British banker and Conservative politician. His grandfather John Stevenson Salt, married Sarah Stevenson, the granddaughter of John Stevenson, founder in 1737 of a banking company in Stafford. Salt became a partner in the firm of Stevenson Salt & Co which had opened in Cheapside, London in 1788 and which in 1867 merged with Bosanquet & Co and with Lloyds Banking Company. Salt went on to be a director, Chairman, of Lloyds from 1884 to 1896, he was Chairman, from 1883 to 1904, of the North Staffordshire Railway. He was chair of the New Zealand Midland Railway Company in 1889, he was returned to Parliament for Stafford in 1859, a seat he held until 1865, again from 1869 to 1880, 1881 to 1885 and 1886 to 1892. From January 1876 to April 1880, he was Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board, a junior post, in the second ministry of Benjamin Disraeli’s government. In 1899 he was created a Baronet, of Standon, of Weeping Cross in the County of Stafford.

His estates included Baswich House, built by his father in 1850, Standon Hall, which his son rebuilt in 1901. He died in April 1904, aged 73, his youngest son was a major-general in the army, his uncle was the banker William Salt, after whom the William Salt Library at Stafford is named. His granddaughter was the diplomat Dame Barbara Salt, DBE. Handbook of London Bankers FG Hilton Price Google Books. History of Stevenson Salt & Co Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Thomas Salt