Björn Ulvaeus

Björn Kristian Ulvaeus is a Swedish songwriter, producer, a member of the Swedish musical group ABBA, co-composer of the musicals Chess, Kristina från Duvemåla, Mamma Mia!. He co-produced the film Mamma Mia! with fellow ABBA member and close friend Benny Andersson. Björn Kristian Ulvaeus was born in Gothenburg on 25 April 1945. In 1951, he moved with his family to Västervik, Kalmar County, his parents were Aina Eliza Viktoria and Erik Gunnar Ulvaeus. Ulvaeus has one sister, Eva Margareta. Ulvaeus studied business and law at Lund University after undertaking his military service, alongside comedian Magnus Holmström. Before gaining international recognition with ABBA, Ulvaeus was a member of the Swedish folk-schlager band Hootenanny Singers, known earlier as the "West Bay Singers", who had an enormous following in Scandinavia. While on the road in southern Sweden in 1966, they encountered the Hep Stars, Ulvaeus became friends with the group's keyboard player, Benny Andersson; the two musicians shared a passion for songwriting, each found a composing partner in the other.

On meeting again that summer, they composed their first song together: "Isn't It Easy To Say", a song soon to be recorded by Andersson's group. The two continued teaming up for music, helping out each other's bands in the recording studio, adding guitar or keyboards to the recordings. In 1968, they composed two songs together: "A Flower in My Garden", recorded by Hep Stars, their first "real" hit "Ljuva Sextiotal", for which Stig Anderson wrote lyrics; the latter, a cabarét-style ironic song about the 1960s, was submitted for the 1969 Swedish heats for the Eurovision Song Contest, but was rejected. Another hit came in 1969 with "Speleman" recorded by Hep Stars. While filming a nostalgic schlager special for television in March 1969, Björn met eighteen-year-old future wife and singer-songwriter Agnetha Fältskog. Benny met his future spouse, 23-year-old jazz and schlager vocalist Anni-Frid Lyngstad, only weeks before. Björn Ulvaeus continued recording and touring with Hootenanny Singers to great acclaim while working as in-house producer at Polar Record Company, with Benny as his new partner.

The twosome produced records by other artists and continued writing songs together. Polar artist Arne Lamberts Swedish version of "A Flower in My Garden" was one of Björn & Benny's first in-house productions. In December 1969, they recorded the new song "She's My Kind of Girl", which became their first single as a duo, it was released in March 1970, giving them a minor hit in Sweden and a top-ten hit in Japan two years later. The Hootenanny Singers entered Svensktoppen, the Swedish radio charts, in 1970 with "Omkring Tiggarn Från Luossa", a cover of an old folk-schlager song, it remained on the charts for 52 consecutive weeks, a record which endured until 1990. After ABBA went on hiatus in 1982, Ulvaeus and Andersson created the musicals Chess, a collaboration with lyricist Tim Rice, Kristina från Duvemåla, Mamma Mia!. Together with Andersson, Ulvaeus was nominated for the Drama Desk Award in the category "Outstanding Music", for a Tony Award in a category "Best Orchestrations"; the original cast recordings for both musicals were nominated for a Grammy Award.

For the 2004 semi-final of the Eurovision Song Contest in Istanbul, thirty years after ABBA had won the 1974 contest in Brighton, UK, Ulvaeus appeared in a special comedy video made for the interval act, entitled "Our Last Video". Each of the four members of the group appeared in cameo roles, as did others such as Cher and Rik Mayall; the video was not included in the official DVD release of the Eurovision Contest, but was issued as a separate DVD release. It was billed as the first time the four had worked together since the group split. In fact, they each filmed their appearances separately. Ulvaeus shared with Andersson "The Special International Ivor Novello Award" from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors, "The Music Export Prize" from the Swedish Ministry of Industry and Trade, "Lifetime Achievement Award" from the Swedish Music Publishers Association. On 15 April 2013, it was announced by the EBU and the SVT that Ulvaeus and Andersson, with the Late Swedish DJ and record producer Avicii, had composed the anthem for the 2013 Eurovision Song Contest.

The song was performed for the first time in the Final on 18 May. In 2019 Ulvaeus worked with Swedish songwriter Andreas Carlsson to arrange an English dub of Tomas Ledin's jukebox musical film En del av mitt hjärta directed by Edward af Sillén. Ulvaeus was asked to write English lyrics for Ledin's songs as they are long term friends. On 6 July 1971, Ulvaeus married Agnetha Fältskog; the couple decided to separate in early 1979, their divorce was finalised in July 1980. Ulvaeus married music journalist Lena Källersjö on 6 January 1981; this marriage produced two daughters: Emma Eleonora and Anna Linnea. Ulvaeus and Källersjö live in Djursholm, an area of Stockholm. From 1984 to 1990 they lived in the United Kingdom, where Ulvaeus founded an IT business with his brother, he is one of four people wh


Telechrome was the first all-electronic single-tube color television system. It was invented by well-known Scottish television engineer, John Logie Baird, who had made the first public television broadcast, as well as the first color broadcast using a pre-Telechrome system. Telechrome used two electron guns aimed at either side of a semi-transparent mica sheet. One of the sides was covered in cyan phosphor and the other red-orange, producing a limited color gamut, but well suited to displaying skin tones. With minor modifications, the system could be used to produce 3D images. Telechrome was selected as the basis for a UK-wide television standard by a committee in 1944, but the difficult task of converting the two-color system to three-color RGB was still underway when Baird died in 1946; the introduction of the shadow mask design by RCA produced a workable solution for color television, albeit one with less image brightness. Interest in alternative systems like the Telechrome or Geer tube faded by the late 1950s.

The only alternatives to see widespread use were General Electric's slot-mask, Sony's Trinitron, both were modifications of the RCA concept. All CRT-based methods have since been completely replaced by LCD television, starting in the 1990s. Baird performed one of the earliest public demonstrations of color television system on 3 July 1928 using an all-mechanical system with three Nipkow disk scanners synchronized with a single disk on the receiving end and three colored lights that were turned on and off in synchronicity with the broadcaster; the same basic system was used on 4 February 1938 to create the first color broadcast transmissions from The Crystal Palace to the Dominion Theatre in London. Baird was not the only one to experiment with mechanical color television, a number of similar devices were demonstrated throughout this period, but Baird is recorded as the first to show a real over-the-air transmission in a public demonstration. In 1940 he introduced a much better solution using a system known today as hybrid color.

This used a traditional white CRT with a rotating colored filter in front. Three frames, sent one after the other in a system known as sequential scan, were displayed on the CRT while the colored wheel was spun in synchronicity; this design was physically long, leading to deep receiver chassis, but versions folded the optical path using mirrors to produce a somewhat more practical system. Again, Baird was not the only one to produce such a system, with CBS displaying a similar system at the same time. However, Baird was not happy with the design stated that a electronic device would be better; the basic problem facing designers of color televisions was this: Sending each frame of the moving image meant sending three signals, red and blue. The sequential systems, like Baird's earlier efforts, sent the three images one after another. In order for motion to appear smooth, images must change at least 16 times a second. To reduce flicker, over 40 frames per second is mandatory. In sequential systems, each color requires a separate field.

For this reason high refresh rates were necessary. CBS' system refreshed at 144 fps. (Peter Goldmark's CBS team tried several field rates. Within the 6 MHz allowable channel bandwidth, the most acceptable rate was 144 fps; this rate made pictures incompatible with existing systems working at 60 Hz. A system sending all three signals at the same time at a conventional refresh rate would be preferable. Transmitting such a signal could be accomplished by using three camera tubes, each with a color filter in front of them, using mirrors or prisms to aim at the same scene through a single lens; each signal would be separately broadcast using three conventional TV channels, using the luminance concept, one of those could be received on a conventional black and white set. This would use a considerable amount of bandwidth, but this was a small cost in the era of only a few television channels; the problem, was how to combine the three separate signals back into a single display. The system used in the cameras, with three separate tubes combined together optically, was not practical due to the cost of a receiver set with three CRTs as well as the unwieldily chassis needed to contain them.

One such example was the RCA Triniscope, which produced useful images but was complex, required constant adjustment, was the size of a contemporary refrigerator to produce a 10 inches display. A number of experiments were carried out using more conventional tubes and filtering them, but the low output of the CRTs produced dim images that were dismissed as impractical. Baird had worked on a high-intensity CRT system known as the "teapot tube" that saw some use in the UK and US as a projection system in theatres; these were built with two such CRTs side-by-side, with one acting as a hot backup in case the primary tube failed. In 1941 Baird converted such a projector to produce a two-color image by placing filters in front of the two tubes and projecting them onto a smaller screen to improve the effective intensity, he first showed this in 1941, in 1942 the BBC described the resulting color image as "entirely natural". The image, of Paddy Naismith, is the first known image of color television to be published.

A projection system with two CRTs was better than three, but still not practical for a home receiver. Baird continued to consider other solutions. One used a single conventional CRT with the two images displayed in a single frame, with the top half of the image containing the image for one color and the bottom the other. Lens systems focused on the display were positioned to see only the top or bottom image, passed them through filters

Mary Valley Rattler

The Mary Valley Rattler, is a heritage railway line that conducted steam train trips and tours from Gympie through the Mary Valley in the Gympie Region, Australia. It is now one of the region's biggest tourist attractions and is managed by a not-for-profit organisation, it has been described as Australia's third biggest heritage railway. It was shut down for safety reasons in 2012. Journeys recommenced between Gympie and Amamoor on 6 October 2018; the Mary Valley railway line was a branch line of the North Coast railway line, which branched west at Monkland and continued to Brooloo in the upper Mary Valley. It was constructed between 1911 and April 1915 to facilitate closer settlement of the Mary River valley; the line reached Kandanga in February 1914 and the terminus of Brooloo in April 1915. In March 1920 an extension of 10 miles 20 chains to Kenilworth was approved at an estimated cost of £175,000. However, the extension was never constructed. By the 1970s the line become unprofitable, due to the economic impact on the dairying industry of lower butter consumption due to competiton of margarine and the loss of the United Kingdom export market when the UK entered the European Economic Community.

The Wide Bay Co-Operative Butter Factory in Gympie closed in May 1978 after nearly 80 years of operation. In 1988 staff were withdrawn from Imbil and Dagun stations and some railway buildings such as goods sheds and residences were sold for removal; the pineapple industry lobbied to keep the line operational until 1995. The Mary Valley Heritage Railway Board proposed to operate a tourist train on the line in 1996 using volunteers and trainees; the tourist train service commenced on23 May 1998. In 2010, the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation conducted a review of the operations of the railway, it was dependent on grant income. In 2011, concerns were raised about the safety of the line, but government inspectors found no significant safety issues; when 2010-11 Queensland floods closed roads in the area, the railway was used as a shuttle service. Some of the line crossings had a five km/h speed limit with the top speed limited to 25 km/h. After two serious derailments during August and September 2012, the limitations and state of the railway company's finances became known.

It was shut down indefinitely by the Department Transport & Main Roads, as it was declared unsafe to convey passengers. Following flood damage in 2013, the railway disbanded. In June 2016, the Gympie Regional Council allocated $250,000 for operational start-up costs and $3.8 million for capital funds to restart the Rattler. "Ride The Rattler" scenic tours were operated by the Mary Valley Heritage Railway every Saturday and Wednesday from the historic Gympie Railway Station. This historic 40 km journey commences at Gympie, after crossing the Mary River, negotiates an abundance of curves and bridges to pass through the small country villages of Dagun and Kandanga to Imbil; the steam train, a restored C17 class locomotive from the early 1920s, departs Gympie station at 10 am. The Gympie Station itself dates back to pre-1880; as the train travels south, it passes through the southern end of the city of Gympie. After crossing the Mary River, the railway line enters the Mary Valley; the line wanders away from the river to negotiate the valleys of some of its main tributaries, including the Yabba and Amamoor Creeks.

In this area there are a number of curves and bridges as you head towards the station of Kandanga. The country village of Kandanga was established in 1910 to service patrons travelling on the proposed Mary Valley line which became operational as far as Kandanga in 1914; the original Kandanga railway station, now restored to its former glory, contains an interesting pictorial record of the history of the Mary Valley line. Travelling through to Imbil, the line traverses an interesting gorge section through timbered country, before reaching a short tunnel that pierces a ridge of coastal ranges; the track descends to the line's largest town, Imbil. The Imbil Railway Bridge over Yabba Creek was constructed between 1911 and 1915; the Mary Valley Rattler has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Kandanga. Details & photos of railway Valley Rattler Webpage