Haplorrhini is a clade containing the tarsiers and the simians. The name is spelt Haplorrhini, the simians include catarrhines, and the platyrrhines. The extinct omomyids, which are considered to be the most basal haplorhines, are believed to be closely related to the tarsiers than to other haplorhines. Haplorhines share a number of derived features that distinguish them from the strepsirrhine wet-nosed primates, the haplorhine upper lip, which has replaced the ancestral rhinarium found in strepsirrhines, is not directly connected to their nose or gum, allowing a large range of facial expressions. Their brain-to-body mass ratio is greater than the strepsirrhines. Haplorhines have a plate, unlike the postorbital bar found in strepsirrhines. All anthropoids have a uterus, tarsiers have a bicornate uterus like the strepsirrhines. Most species typically have single births, although twins and triplets are common for marmosets, despite similar gestation periods, haplorhine newborns are relatively much larger than strepsirrhine newborns, but have a longer dependence period on their mother.
This difference in size and dependence is credited to the complexity of their behavior. The taxonomic name Haplorhini derives from the Ancient Greek haploûs and rhinos and it refers to the lack of a rhinarium or wet nose, which is found in many mammals, including strepsirrhine primates. Haplorhini and its sister clade, diverged about 65 million years ago, the fossil Archicebus may be similar to the most recent common ancestor at this time. The other major clade within Haplorhini, the simians, is divided into two parvorders and Catarrhini, the New World monkeys split from catarrhines about 40 mya, while the apes diverged from Old World monkeys about 25 mya. The available fossil evidence indicates both the hominoid and cercopithecoid clades originated in Africa. The following is the listing of the living families, and their placement in the Order Primates, ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini, lorises
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
The Angola colobus, Angolan black-and-white colobus, or Angolan colobus is an arboreal Old World monkey belonging to the Colobus genus. It has a mantle of white hair on the shoulders, the long, thin tail can be either black or white, but the tip is always white. There is a significant regional variation in the amount of white on the body. Animals that live in the mountains have longer, thicker fur than animals from the lowlands to protect them against the cold, the Angola colobus has a head-body length of 50 to 70 cm, with the males usually being larger than females. The tail is about 75 cm long, and the weight varies between 9 and 20 kg. The Angola colobus occurs in rainforests, both in the lowlands and coastal mountains. It lives in most of the Congo Basin, to the south and northeast of the Congo River, as far as Ruwenzori and southwestern Uganda. The species can be found in East Africa, especially in the montane and coastal forests of Kenya and Tanzania, although the species is named after Angola, it is quite rare in that country.
Of all Colobus species, the Angola colobus occurs in the southernmost latitudes, the geographical range lies south of that of the mantled guereza. It is found up to 2,415 m above sea level in Kenya, the diet of the Angola colobus consists of about two thirds of leaves and one third of fruit and seeds. The East Tanzanian population lives mainly on fruit, supplemented with full-grown leaves
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, often styled J. C. D. von Schreber, was a German naturalist. He was appointed professor of materia medica at the University of Erlangen in 1769, in 1774 he began writing a multi-volume set of books entitled Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen, which focused on the mammals of the world. Many of the animals included were given a name for the first time. From 1791 until his death in 1810, he was the President of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1787. In April 1795 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society Numerous honors were bestowed on him including the office of a count palatine. Schreber wrote on entomology notably Schreberi Novae Species Insectorvm and his herbarium collection has been preserved in the Botanische Staatssammlung München since 1813
Zanzibar red colobus
The Zanzibar red colobus is a species of red colobus monkey endemic to Unguja, the main island of the Zanzibar Archipelago, off the coast of Tanzania. It is known as Kirks red colobus after Sir John Kirk and it is now classified as an endangered species and in the mid-1990s was adopted as the flagship species for conservation in Zanzibar. The species has been reclassified twice, it was previously in the genus Colobus, furthermore, it is suggested through mitochondrial analysis, that phylogenetic groups within the red colobus have been genetically isolated from another since the Pliocene. Examining cranial morphology has shown that P. kirkii has diverged from mainland Procolobus to its own species, there has been no evidence for population bottlenecks in the species. The smaller cranium of P. kirkii in contrast to the mainland colobus monkey, is consistent with Fosters rule in which the animal becomes smaller over time when there is limited resources. Males tend to have traits which include a shorter face, large orbits.
It is not certain how long ago and where this change occurred. Through molecular analyses, it is indicated that P. kirkii is more related to the Udzungwa red colobus compared to other red colobus species. The species has been reclassified twice, it was previously in the genus Colobus, an alternative common name is Kirks red colobus after Sir John Kirk, the British Resident of Zanzibar who first brought it to the attention of zoological science. This Old World monkeys coat ranges from red to black, accented with a black stripe along the shoulders and arms. Its black face is crowned with long, white hair, and features a pink mark on its lips. Also, the Zanzibar red colobus has a long tail used only for balancing — it is not prehensile, sexual dimorphism is generally decreased in the species, meaning the females have little difference in their body size and colour from their male counterparts. Females usually outnumber the males in their groups, the species has a notably small cranium and rotund body shape, with males potentially reaching over 12 kg and females,10 kg.
In adults, highly differentiated facial features help them to each other in a group. To make up for this, they have four digits that align to form a strong hook, allowing them to easily grasp branches. Locals on the island have called the Zanzibar red colobus kima punju which means monkey in Swahili because of their strong smell unlike other monkeys. This has caused people to negative views of the monkey and even to say it has an evil influence on trees on which they feed. The Zanzibar red colobus is found in three forests of the Zanzibar archipelago and it displays a wide habit tolerance, but it is mainly an arboreal species and prefers drier areas over wet ones
It eats mainly leaves, but fruits and flowers. Though it is arboreal, it primarily on the ground. It lives in groups consisting of 3 to 4 females and 1 to 3 males. These groups maintain distance from one another through territorial calling, the male king colobus grows to a head-and-body length of 670 mm, with a tail of between 630 and 900 mm. The body is black, the limbs and fingers are long, there is a fringe of silvery hair around the face as well as well as long white epaulettes on its shoulders. The king colobus can be distinguished from members of the Colobus genus by the placement of its white markings. The king colobus has white only on its whiskers and tail, the king colobus has a moderate-sized range, it used to be a common and widespread species but numbers have declined over the last few decades. The main cause for the decline is hunting which is threatening and fragmenting populations, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being vulnerable
Colin Peter Groves is Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. Born in England on 24 June 1942, Colin Groves completed a Bachelor of Science at University College London in 1963, and a Doctor of Philosophy at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine in 1966. From 1966 to 1973, Dr. Groves was a Postdoctoral Researcher and Teaching Fellow at the University of California, Queen Elizabeth College and he emigrated to Australia in 1974, and has been at the Australian National University since, being promoted to full Professor in 2000. Professor Groves research interests are human evolution, mammalian taxonomy, skeletal analysis, biological anthropology, ethnobiology and he has conducted extensive fieldwork in Kenya, Rwanda, Iran, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Along with the Czech biologist Professor Vratislav Mazák, Groves was the describer of Homo ergaster, Groves wrote Primate Taxonomy published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 2001, and Ungulate Taxonomy.
He is a member of the Australian Skeptics and has many published skeptical papers. He has conducted regular debates with creationists and anti-evolutionists, a theory of human and primate evolution. Laycock, D, ed. Skeptical, a handbook on pseudoscience, from Ussher to Slusher, from Archbish to Gish, or, not in a million years. A Personal Look at the History of Primatology, the Colin Groves Pages The Groves Collection at No Answers in Genesis ANU Faculty Homepage ANU Researcher Profile page
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.
At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
The Colobinae are a subfamily of the Old World monkey family that includes 61 species in 11 genera, including the black-and-white colobus, the large-nosed proboscis monkey, and the gray langurs. Some classifications split the colobine monkeys into two tribes, while others split them into three groups, both classifications put the three African genera Colobus and Procolobus in one group, these genera are distinct in that they have stub thumbs. The various Asian genera are placed into one or two groups. Analysis of mtDNA confirms the Asian species form two groups, one of langurs and the other of the odd-nosed species, but suggests the gray langurs are not closely related to either. Colobines are medium-sized primates with long tails and diverse colorations, the coloring of nearly all the young animals differs remarkably from that of the adults. Most species are arboreal, although some live a terrestrial life. They are found in different habitats of different climate zones. They live in groups, but in different group forms, colobines are folivorous, meaning their main source of nutrition is leaves.
Their diet may be supplemented with flowers and the occasional insect, to aid in digestion, particularly of hard-to-digest leaves, they have multichambered, complex stomachs, making them the only ruminant primates. Unlike the other subfamily of Old World monkeys, the Cercopithecinae, gestation averages six to seven months. Young are weaned at one year and are mature at three to six years. Their life expectancy is approximately 20 years, in India, gray langurs are known to hybridize with Nilgiri langurs
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates. In taxonomy, primates include two distinct lineages and haplorhines, Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests, many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal, with the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent except for Antarctica, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas and Asia. Based on fossil evidence, the earliest known true primates, represented by the genus Teilhardina, an early close primate relative known from abundant remains is the Late Paleocene Plesiadapis, c. Molecular clock studies suggest that the branch may be even older. The order Primates was traditionally divided into two groupings and anthropoids. Prosimians have characteristics more like those of the earliest primates, and include the lemurs of Madagascar, simians include monkeys and hominins.
Simians are divided into two groups, catarrhine monkeys and apes of Africa and Southeast Asia and platyrrhine or New World monkeys of South, catarrhines consist of Old World monkeys and great apes, New World monkeys include the capuchin and squirrel monkeys. Humans are the only extant catarrhines to have spread successfully outside of Africa, South Asia, New primate species are still being discovered. More than 25 species were described in the decade of the 2000s. Considered generalist mammals, primates exhibit a range of characteristics. Some primates are primarily terrestrial rather than arboreal, but all species possess adaptations for climbing trees, locomotion techniques used include leaping from tree to tree, walking on two or four limbs, knuckle-walking, and swinging between branches of trees. Primates are characterized by large brains relative to other mammals, as well as a reliance on stereoscopic vision at the expense of smell. These features are developed in monkeys and apes and noticeably less so in lorises.
Three-color vision has developed in some primates, most have opposable thumbs and some have prehensile tails. Many species are dimorphic, differences include body mass, canine tooth size. Primates have slower rates of development than other similarly sized mammals and reach maturity later, depending on the species, adults may live in solitude, in mated pairs, or in groups of up to hundreds of members. The relationships among the different groups of primates were not clearly understood until relatively recently, for example, ape has been used either as an alternative for monkey or for any tailless, relatively human-like primate
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, reptiles and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs, annelids, flatworms, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology.
The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish and humans. Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Pisces, Amphibia and Mammalia. Since the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, in 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms and Protozoa. The protozoa were moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.
They are distinguished from plants and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals
The mantled guereza, known simply as the guereza, the eastern black-and-white colobus, or the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus, is a black-and-white colobus, a type of Old World monkey. It is native to much of west central and east Africa, including Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Tanzania, the species consists of several subspecies that differ in appearance. It has an appearance, which is alluded to in its name. Its face is framed with hair and it has a large white tail tuft. The mantled guereza is diurnal and arboreal, found in deciduous and evergreen forests. It is a species that can cope with habitat disturbance. Although previously thought only to eat leaves, it eats seeds, fruits. It is able to digest plant material with a high fibre content with its specialised stomach and it is preyed on by birds of prey and some mammals, such as the common chimpanzee and the leopard. The mantled guereza lives in groups of three to fifteen individuals. These groups normally include a dominant male, several females, and it has a polygynous mating system and copulation is initiated with vocal communication.
After a gestation period of just over five months, infants are born with skin and white fur. The mantled guereza is well known for its chorus, the males roar is a method of long distance communication that reinforces territorial boundaries. It makes other vocalization and uses body postures, however, one subspecies found in Kenya is listed as Endangered. It can survive well in degraded forests and in areas it is more common in logged areas than unlogged ones. The mantled guereza is threatened by hunting for bushmeat and for its skin, the mantled guereza has many alternative common names including the guereza, the eastern black-and-white colobus, the magistrate colobus, or the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus. The name mantled refers to its mantle, the long white fringes of hair that run along its body. The scientific name Colobus derives from Greek kolobus meaning mutilated which refers to its lack of thumbs, the mantled guereza was discovered by Eduard Rüppell, a German naturalist and explorer, during his trip to Abyssinia between 1830 and 1834.
He wrote about the species in Neue Wirbelthiere con Abyssinien, Saengthiere in 1835 and it was first seen in Europe in 1890 in Berlin Zoological Garden when three individuals were purchased from a dealer from Massawa, Eritrea