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Black British people

Black British people are British citizens of either Black African descent, or of Black African-Caribbean background and include people with mixed ancestry from either group. The term Black British developed in the 1950s, referring to the Black British West Indian people from the former Caribbean British colonies in the West Indies now referred to as the Windrush Generation, people from Africa, who are residents of the United Kingdom and are British; the term black has had a number of applications as a racial and political label and may be used in a wider sociopolitical context to encompass a broader range of non-European ethnic minority populations in Britain. This has become a controversial definition. Black British is one of various self-designation entries used in official UK ethnicity classifications. Black residents constituted around 3 per cent of the United Kingdom's population in 2011; the figures have increased from the 1991 census when 1.63% of the population were recorded as Black or Black British to 1.15 million residents in 2001, or 2 per cent of the population, this further increased to just over 1.9 million in 2011.

97% of Black Britons live in England in England's larger urban areas, with most Black British living in Greater London.. The term Black British has most been used to refer to Black people of New Commonwealth origin, of both West African and South Asian descent. For example, Southall Black Sisters was established in 1979 "to meet the needs of black women". Note that "Asian" in the British context refers to people of South Asian ancestry. Black was used in this inclusive political sense to mean "non-white British". In the 1970s, a time of rising activism against racial discrimination, the main communities so described were from the British West Indies and the Indian subcontinent. Solidarity against racism and discrimination sometimes extended the term at that time to the Irish population of Britain as well. Several organisations continue to use the term inclusively, such as the Black Arts Alliance, who extend their use of the term to Latin Americans and all refugees, the National Black Police Association.

The official UK Census has separate self-designation entries for respondents to identify as "Asian British", "Black British" and "Other ethnic group". Due to the Indian diaspora and in particular Idi Amin's expulsion of Asians from Uganda in 1972, many British Asians are from families that had lived for several generations in the British West Indies or Southeast Africa; the 1991 UK census was the first to include a question on ethnicity. As of the 2011 UK Census, the Office for National Statistics and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency allow people in England and Wales and Northern Ireland who self-identify as "Black" to select "Black African", "Black Caribbean" or "Any other Black/African/Caribbean background" tick boxes. For the 2011 Scottish census, the General Register Office for Scotland established new, separate "African, African Scottish or African British" and "Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British" tick boxes for individuals in Scotland from Africa and the Caribbean who do not identify as "Black, Black Scottish or Black British".

In all of the UK censuses, persons with multiple familial ancestries can write in their respective ethnicities under a "Mixed or multiple ethnic groups" option, which includes additional "White and Black Caribbean" or "White and Black African" tick boxes in England and Northern Ireland. Black British was a term for those Black and mixed-race people in Sierra Leone who were descendants of migrants from England and Canada and identified as British, they are the descendants of black people who lived in England in the 18th century and freed Black American slaves who fought for the Crown in the American Revolutionary War. In 1787, hundreds of London's black poor agreed to go to this West African colony on the condition that they would retain the status of British subjects, live in freedom under the protection of the British Crown, be defended by the Royal Navy. Making this fresh start with them were some white people, including lovers and widows of the black men. In addition, nearly 1200 Black Loyalists, former American slaves, freed and resettled in Nova Scotia chose to join the new colony.

There is evidence of people with African ancestry in Roman Britain. A craniometric study of 22 individuals from Southwark, Roman London, found that four of them appeared to be of African ancestry, the isotopic analysis of their bones suggested childhoods spent in a climate warmer than Roman Britain. Analysis of autosomal DNA from four individuals from Roman London found that one had Black ancestry, with brown eyes and dark brown or black hair. Bone isotopes suggested that this individual, a male aged over 45 years, had spent his childhood in the London region; the Ivory Bangle Lady whose rich burial was found in York had cranial features that hinted at an admixed white/black ancestry. Her sarcophagus was made of stone and contained a jet bracelet and an ivory bangle, indicating great wealth for the time. There is written evidence of the presence in Roman Britain of residents from multiethnic Romanised North Africa; the inscriptions suggest. Some were in the upper echelons of society. According to the Augustan History, Roman emperor Septimus Severus visited Hadrian's

The National (Chicago building)

The National is a 20-floor building in the Chicago Loop in the United States. Constructed in 1907 as the Commercial National Bank Building, it was declared a Chicago landmark in 2016; the building was designed by D. H. Burnham & Company, is the oldest surviving building in the Loop designed by that firm, it was designed for the Commercial National Bank, formed after the passage of the National Banking Act of 1863. It was constructed between 1906 and 1907; the Commercial National Bank merged with the Continental National Bank in 1910. The building was renamed the "Edison Building" in 1912 and served as the headquarters of Commonwealth Edison until 1969; the building has an estimated height of 231.82 ft. List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in the United States Marquette Building Commission on Chicago Landmarks. Commercial National Bank Building. City of Chicago. Official website Bluetstar Properties: 125 S Clark

Alfred Saunders

Alfred Saunders was a 19th-century New Zealand politician. He was elected onto the Nelson Provincial Council representing Waimea South in 1855 and remained a councillor until his election of Superintendent for the Nelson Province from 1865 to 1867, he was elected as Member of Parliament for Waimea in 1861, he resigned from this seat in 1864. He represented Cheviot from 1878 to 1881 when he was defeated, he unsuccessfully contested the 1882 by-election in the Wakanui electorate. He contested the 1888 by-election in the Ashley electorate and was defeated by John Verrall by just two votes. From 1889 to 1890 he represented the Lincoln electorate and from 1890 to 1896 he represented Selwyn, being defeated at the general election of 1896 for the latter constituency, he supported the Temperance Union petition in favour of woman's suffrage to Parliament in 1891. He had ten children, including Sarah Page. Mennell, Philip. "Saunders, Alfred". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co – via Wikisource