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Black Flag (band)

Black Flag is an American punk rock band formed in 1976 in Hermosa Beach, California. Called Panic, the band was established by Greg Ginn, the guitarist, primary songwriter, sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes in the band, they are considered to be one of the first hardcore punk bands, as well as one of the pioneers of post-hardcore. After breaking up in 1986, Black Flag reunited in 2003 and again in 2013; the second reunion lasted well over a year, during which they released their first studio album in over two decades, What The…. The band announced their third reunion in January 2019. Brandon Pertzborn was replaced by Isaias Gil on drums and Tyler Smith was replaced by Joseph Noval on bass. Black Flag's sound mixed the raw simplicity of the Ramones with atonal guitar solos and, in years, frequent tempo shifts; the lyrics were written by Ginn, like other punk bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s, Black Flag voiced an anti-authoritarian and nonconformist message, in songs punctuated with descriptions of social isolation, neurosis and paranoia.

These themes were explored further when Henry Rollins joined the band as lead singer in 1981. Most of the band's material was released on Ginn's independent record label SST Records. Over the course of the 1980s, Black Flag's sound, as well as their notoriety, evolved in ways that both embraced and alienated much of their early audience; as well as being central to the creation of hardcore punk, they were innovators in the first wave of American West Coast punk rock and are considered a key influence on punk subculture in the United States and abroad. Along with being among the earliest punk rock groups to incorporate elements and the influence of heavy metal melodies and rhythm, there were overt freestyles, free jazz and contemporary classical elements in their sound in Ginn's guitar playing, the band interspersed records and performances with instrumentals throughout their career, they played longer and more complex songs at a time when other bands in their milieu performed a raw, three-chord format.

As a result, their extensive discography is more stylistically varied than many of their punk rock contemporaries. Black Flag has been well-respected within the punk subculture for their tireless promotion of an autonomous DIY punk ethic and aesthetic, they are regarded as pioneers in the movement of underground do-it-yourself record labels that flourished among 1980s punk rock bands. Through constant touring throughout the United States and Canada, Europe, Black Flag established a dedicated cult following. Called Panic, Black Flag was formed in 1976 in Hermosa Beach, California located in the South Bay region of Los Angeles. Ginn insisted; this work ethic proved too challenging for some early members. Ginn's brother Raymond Pettibon and SST house record producer-to-be Spot filled in during rehearsals. In the beginning and Morris were inspired by the raw, stripped-down attitude of bands such as the Ramones and the Stooges. Ginn has said "We were influenced by the Stooges and the Ramones. Keith and myself saw the Ramones when they first toured LA in 1976.

After we saw them, I said. I thought Keith would be a good singer and after seeing the Ramones, it made him think that he doesn't have to be some classical operatic singer."Chuck Dukowski, bassist of Würm, liked Ginn's band, joined, forming a committed quartet with Ginn and drummer Brian Migdol. The band held their first performance in December 1977 in California. To avoid confusion with another band called Panic, they changed their name to Black Flag in late 1978, they played their first show under this name on January 27, 1979, at the Moose Lodge Hall in Redondo Beach, California. This was the first time; the name was suggested by Ginn's brother, artist Raymond Pettibon, who designed the band's logo: a stylized black flag represented as four black bars. Pettibon stated "If a white flag means surrender, a black flag represents anarchy." Their new name was reminiscent of the anarchist symbol, the insecticide of the same name, of the British heavy metal band Black Sabbath, one of Ginn's favorite bands.

Ginn suggested that he was "comfortable with all the implications of the name." The band spray painted the simple, striking logo all over Los Angeles, attracting attention from both supporters and the Los Angeles Police Department. Pettibon created much of their cover artwork. There were few opportunities for punk rock bands to perform in Southern California. Black Flag organized their own gigs, performing at house parties, schools, they called club owners themselves to arrange appearances, plastered hundreds of flyers—usually Pettibon's severe, haunting comic strip style panels—on any available surface to publicize performances. Dukowski reported that the "minimum that went out was 500 for a show."Though Ginn was the band's leader, special note should be made to Dukowski's contributions to Black Flag. Ginn was profoundly disciplined. Dukowski's intelligent, fast-talking, high-energy persona attracted significant attention, he was Black Flag's spokesman to the

Tawny frogmouth

The tawny frogmouth is a species of frogmouth native to and found throughout the Australian mainland and Tasmania. It is a big-headed, stocky bird mistaken for an owl due to its nocturnal habits and similar colouring, is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "mopoke", a common name for the Australian boobook, whose call is confused with the tawny frogmouth's. In 2019, Australian readers of The Guardian online voted it as the second most popular bird in the Australian Bird of the Year poll; the tawny frogmouth was first described in 1801 by English naturalist John Latham. Its specific epithet is derived from the Latin strix meaning "owl" and oides meaning "form". Tawny frogmouths belong to the frogmouth genus Podargus, which includes the two other species of frogmouths found within Australia, the marbled frogmouth and the Papuan frogmouth; the frogmouths form a well-defined group within the order Caprimulgiformes. Although related to owls, their closest relatives are the oilbirds, owlet-nightjars, true nightjars.

The earliest fossil evidence of frogmouths is from the Eocene and implies that they diverged from their closest relatives during the early Tertiary. Three subspecies of the tawny frogmouth are recognised: P. s. phalaenoides is found throughout Northern Australia southwards to the Great Sandy Desert, Barkly Tableland, the Gulf of Carpentaria in Queensland. P. s. brachypterus is found in Western Australia northwards to the Great Sandy Desert, north-eastwards to the Channel Country of Queensland, south-eastwards to the Murray Mallee in Victoria. P. s. strigoides is found in Eastern and South Eastern Australia from north of Cooktown, westwards to the inland fringes of the Great Dividing Range, in Tasmania. Tawny frogmouths are big-headed birds that can measure from 34 to 53 cm long. Weights have been recorded up to 680 g in the wild. In the nominate race, 55 males were found to weigh a mean of 354 g, while 39 females weighed a mean of 297 g, with a range between both of 157 to 555 g. Among the subspecies P. s. brachypterus, 20 unsexed birds were found to average 278 g with a range of 185 to 416 g.

In P. s. phalaenoides, a weight range of 205 to 364 g was reported. Thus, in terms of average if not maximal body mass, the tawny is a bit smaller than its relative, the Papuan frogmouth. Tawny frogmouths are compact with rounded wings and short legs, they have wide, olive-grey to blackish bills that are hooked at the tip and topped with distinctive tufts of bristles. Their eyes are large and yellow, a trait shared by owls; however they are not forward facing like an owls. Tawny frogmouths have three distinct colour morphs, grey being the most common in both sexes. Males of this morph have silver-grey upperparts with black streaks and paler underparts with white barring and brown to rufous mottling. Females of this morph are darker with more rufous mottling. Females of the subspecies P. s. strigoides have a chestnut morph and females of the subspecies P. s. phalaenoides have a rufous morph. Leucistic or albinistic all-white aberrant plumage for this species has been documented. One of the best examples of cryptic plumage and mimicry in Australian birds is seen in the tawny frogmouth, which perch low on tree branches during the day camouflaged as part of the tree.

Their silvery-grey plumage patterned with white and brown streaks and mottles allows them to freeze into the form of a broken tree branch and become invisible in broad daylight. The tawny frogmouth chooses a broken part of a tree branch and perches upon it with its head thrust upwards at an acute angle using its large, broad beak to emphasise the resemblance. A pair sits together and points their heads upwards, only breaking cover if approached to take flight or warn off predators; when threatened, adult tawny frogmouths make an alarm call that signals to chicks to remain silent and immobile, ensuring that the natural camouflage provided by the plumage is not broken. Tawny frogmouths and owls both have mottled patterns, wide eyes, anisodactyl feet. However, owls possess strong legs, powerful talons, toes with a unique flexible joint they use to catch prey. Tawny frogmouths prefer to catch their prey with their beaks and have weak feet, they roost out in the open, relying on camouflage for defence, build their nests in tree forks, whereas owls roost hidden in thick foliage and build their nests in tree hollows.

Tawny frogmouths have wide, forward-facing beaks for catching insects, whereas owls have narrow, downwards-facing beaks used to tear prey apart. The eyes of tawny frogmouths are to the side of the face, while the eyes of owls are forward on the face. Furthermore, owls have full or partial face discs and large, asymmetrical ears, while tawny frogmouths do not. Tawny frogmouths are found throughout most of the Australian mainland except in far western Queensland, the central Northern Territory, most of the Nullabor Plain. In Tasmania, they are common throughout the eastern parts of the state, they can be found in any habitat type, including forests and woodlands and heathland vegetation, savannahs. However, they are seen in heavy rainforests and treeless deserts, they are seen in large numbers in areas populated with many river gums and casuarinas, can be found along river courses if these areas are timbered. Tawny frogmouths are common in suburbs, they have been reported nesting in gardens with trees.

Tawny frogmouths are carnivorous and are considered to be among Australia's most effec

Belton, South Australia

Belton is a rural locality in South Australia, located in the District Council of Orroroo Carrieton. It is traversed by the Carrieton-Belton Road and the Weira Creek; the locality was established on 26 April 2013 in respect to “the long established local name.” The European settlement of the area which now forms the modern locality of Belton was first formalised as three cadastral hundreds when the area was opened up for pastoral purposes: the Hundred of Eurilpa, the Hundred of McCulloch, the Hundred of Bendleby. The Hundred of Eurilpa and the Hundred of Bendelby were proclaimed in January 1877 by Governor Anthony Musgrave, followed by the Hundred of McCulloch in February 1886 by Governor William C. F. Robinson, named for state MP Alexander McCulloch; the latter two hundreds remained entirely pastoral, although a Bendelby Post Office opened on 17 February 1891 and closed on 22 May 1919. A former unbounded locality in the Hundred of Eurilpa, Uroonda now lies within the boundaries of Belton. Uroonda Post Office opened on 1 April 1883 and closed around 1908.

The government town of Belton was proclaimed in 1882 by Governor William Jervois in the Hundred of Eurilpa. A school closed a short time after; the town had a branch of the South Australian Farmers Association from 1885 to 1887. Drought was a perennial problem. Belton Post Office opened on 1 April 1883, provisionally closed on 31 December 1968, closed permanently on 31 March 1969; the town possessed a store for a number of years. The locality of Belton includes the site of the government town of Cobham, proclaimed on 1 February 1883 and, cancelled on 8 July 1915