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Hermosa Beach, California

Hermosa Beach is a beachfront city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its population was 19,506 at the 2010 U. S. Census; the city is located in the South Bay region of the Greater Los Angeles area. Hermosa Beach is bordered by the other two, Manhattan Beach to the north and Redondo Beach to the south and east. Hermosa is a Spanish word meaning "beautiful"; the city's beach is popular for sunbathing, beach volleyball, paddleboarding, bars and running. The city itself extends only about 15 blocks from east to west and 40 blocks from north to south, with Pacific Coast Highway running down the middle. Situated on the Pacific Ocean, Hermosa's average temperature is 70 °F in the summer and 55 °F in the winter. Westerly sea breezes lessen what can be high summertime temperatures in Los Angeles and elsewhere in the county and help keep the smog away 360 days of the year. A paved path, called The Strand, runs along Hermosa's beach from Torrance Beach in the south twenty miles north to Santa Monica; the Hermosa Beach Pier is at the end of Pier Avenue, one of the beach community's main shopping and partying areas.

Hermosa Beach was part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that became the ten-mile ocean frontage of Rancho Sausal Redondo. In 1900 a tract of 1,500 acres was purchased for $35 per acre from A. E. Pomroy owner of the greater part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Messrs. Burbank and Baker, bought this land for Sherman and Clark who organized and retained the controlling interest in the Hermosa Beach Land and Water Company, In early days, Hermosa Beach — like so many of its neighboring cities — was one vast sweep of rolling hills covered with fields of grain barley. During certain seasons of the year large herds of sheep were grazed over this land, corrals and large barns for storing the grain, as well as providing shelter for horses and farm implements, were located on the ranch between Hermosa and Inglewood; the Spanish words Rancho Sausal Redondo mean a large circular ranch of pasture of grazing land, with a grove of willow on it. The first official survey was made in the year 1901 for the board walk on the Strand, Hermosa Avenue and Santa Fe Avenue.

In 1904 the first pier was built. It was constructed of wood to the pilings and it extended five hundred feet out into the ocean; the pier was constructed by the Hermosa Beach Water Company. In 1913 this old pier was washed away and torn down and a new one built to replace it; this pier was built of concrete 1,000 feet long, paved with asphalt its entire length. Small tiled pavilions were erected at intervals along the sides to afford shade for fishermen and picnic parties. A bait stand was built out on the end. Soon after, about 1914, an auditorium building was constructed; this pier is municipally owned. The Los Angeles Pacific Railway, a trolley system, was the first trolley service in Hermosa Beach, running the entire length of Hermosa Ave. on its way from L. A. to Redondo Beach. A few years it was merged with most other trolley companies in the region to form the new Pacific Electric Railway Company, informally called the Red Cars; the Santa Fe Railway was the first railroad to run through Hermosa Beach.

It was seven blocks from the beach. The street that led to the tracks was called Santa Fe Avenue, but was renamed Pier Avenue. There was no Santa Fe railway station for Hermosa, but Burbank and Baker built a railway platform on the west side of the tracks near Santa Fe Avenue, the railroad company donated an old boxcar to be used as a storage place for freight. In 1926, the Santa Fe built a modern stucco depot and installed Western Union telegraph service in it; the first city election for city officers was held December 24, 1906. On January 14, 1907, Hermosa Beach became the nineteenth incorporated city of Los Angeles County. Hermosa Beach is located at 33°51′59″N 118°23′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all of it land. Average air temperature - Average water temperature - 60 °F Hermosa Beach has an average of 325 days of sunshine a year; because of its location, nestled on a vast open bay, morning fog and haze is a common phenomenon in May and early July.

Locals have a particular terminology for this phenomenon: the "May Gray" and the "June Gloom". Overcast skies are common for June mornings, but the strong sun burns the fog off by noon. Nonetheless, it will sometimes stay cloudy and cool all day during June as other parts of the Los Angeles area will enjoy sunny skies and warmer temperatures. At times, the sun shines east of PCH; as a general rule, the temperature is from 5 to 10 °F cooler. A typical spring day is sunny and about 68 °F. In the summer, which stretches from May to late October, temperatures can reach to the mid-80s Fahrenheit at the beach. In early November, it is about 68 °F. In late January, temperatures are around 63 °F, it is winter, when the hot, dry Santa Ana winds are most common. In mid-December 2004, temperatures soared to 84 °F in Santa M

Exercise Reforger

Exercise Campaign Reforger was an annual exercise and campaign conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact. Although most troops deployed were from the United States, the operation involved a substantial number of troops from other NATO countries including Canada and the United Kingdom; the Reforger exercise itself was first conceived in 1967. During the ongoing Vietnam War, the President Lyndon Johnson administration announced plans to withdraw two divisions from Europe in 1968; as a demonstration of its continuing commitment to the defense of NATO and to illustrate its capability of rapid reinforcement, a large scale force deployment was planned that would deploy a division or more to West Germany in a regular annual exercise. The first such exercise was conducted beginning on 6 January 1969; these exercises continued annually past the end of the Cold War, except for the year 1989, until 1993.

Reforger 1975 marked the operational presence of the United States Marine Corps in Europe for the first time since World War I when the 2nd Marine Division's 32nd Marine Amphibious Unit was deployed from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, as part of that exercise. Reforger 1988 was billed as the largest European ground maneuver since the end of World War II as 125,000 troops were deployed. Reforger was not a show of force—in the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, the Civil Reserve Air Fleet; the U. S. Army increased its rapid-reinforcement capability by prepositioning huge stocks of equipment and supplies in Europe at POMCUS sites; the maintenance of this equipment has provided extensive on-the-job training to reserve-component support units. Operation Bright Star, the biannual deployment of American army and air force units to Egypt, serves much the same purpose as Reforger did.

The following units were earmarked to return to West Germany in case of war: III US Corps, Fort Hood, TX 1st Cavalry Division, Ft. Hood, TX, POMCUS Set at 5 depots in Belgium and the Netherlands and ammunition depot in Zutendaal in Belgium. 2nd Armored Division, Ft. Hood, TX, POMCUS Set at 4 depots in the Federal Republic of Germany and ammunition depot in Kevelaer. 5th Infantry Division, Fort Polk, LA, POMCUS Set at 6 depots in the Netherlands and ammunition depot in Coevorden. 212th Field Artillery Brigade, Fort Sill, OK, POMCUS Set at 4 depots in the Federal Republic of Germany and ammunition depot in Kevelaer. 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Bliss, TX, POMCUS Set at 4 depots in the Federal Republic of Germany and ammunition depot in Kevelaer V Corps, Frankfurt, FRG 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, CO, POMCUS Set at 2 depots at Kaiserslautern. 194th Armored Brigade, Fort Knox, KY, POMCUS Set at 3 depots in the Federal Republic of Germany at Pirmasens 197th Infantry Brigade, Fort Benning, GA, POMCUS Set at 3 depots in the Federal Republic of Germany at Pirmasens VII Corps, Stuttgart, FRG 1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley, KS, POMCUS Set at 1 depot at Mannheim.

1st Canadian Division, CFB Kingston, ON, Canadian Forces War Stocks at CFB Baden–Soellingen and CFB Lahr. Newcomb's military service records and Newcomb's "History Book" REFORGER, GlobalSecurity.org

Clare Leighton

Clara Ellaline Hope Leighton, sometimes Clare Veronica Hope Leighton, was an English/American artist and illustrator, best known for her wood engravings. Clare Leighton was born in London on 12 April 1898, the daughter of Robert Leighton and Marie Connor Leighton, both authors. Clare lived her early life in the shadow of her older brother, Roland - her mother's favorite. So, her early efforts at painting were encouraged by her parents and her uncle Jack Leighton, an artist and illustrator. In 1915, Leighton began formal studies at the Brighton College of Art and trained at the Slade School of Fine Art and the Central School of Arts and Crafts, where she studied wood engraving under Noel Rooke. After completing her studies, Leighton took time to travel through Europe, stopping in Italy and the Balkans, she sketched lower-class workers, developing an affinity for portraying rural life. During the late 1920s and 1930s, Leighton visited the United States on a number of lecture tours, emigrating to the US in 1939.

In 1930, the Art Institute of Chicago awarded her with the Mr. And Mrs. Frank G. Logan Medal for her talents, she became friends with H. L. Mencken. Leighton became a naturalized citizen in 1945. From 1943 to 1945 she was a member of the Department of Art and Music at Duke University. In 1945 she was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member and became a full Academician in 1949. Over the course of a long and prolific career, Leighton wrote and illustrated numerous books praising the virtues of the countryside and the people who worked the land, she was the first woman to produce a book on wood-engraving. This played an important part in popularizing the medium. During the 1920s and 1930s, as the world around her became technological and urban, Leighton continued to paint rural working men and women; these included a 1938 poster design for London Transport promoting week-end walks in the countryside. In the 1950s she created designs for Steuben Glass, Wedgwood plates, several stained glass windows for churches in New England, for the transept windows of Worcester Cathedral, England.

The best known of her books are The Farmer's Year, Four Hedges - A Gardener's Chronicle and Tempestuous Petticoat. Autobiographical text and illustrations are available in Clare Leighton: The growth and shaping of an artist-writer, published 2009. Leighton had two brothers: the elder, Roland Leighton, was killed in action in December 1915, is immortalized in Vera Brittain's memoir, Testament of Youth. Clare Leighton met the radical journalist H. N. Brailsford in 1928, they lived together for several years, he was separated from Jane Esdon Brailsford. When Brailsford's wife died in 1937, leaving the way clear for the couple to marry, he suffered an emotional breakdown, destroying his relationship with Leighton who left for a new life in the US in 1939, she never married. Leighton died 4 November 1989, her ashes are buried in a cemetery in Connecticut. Colin Campbell, ‘Leighton, Clara Ellaline Hope ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 NMWA biography Gallery of works at the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco Maier Museum at Randolph College, Clare Leighton Guide to the Clare Leighton Papers at Duke University Works by or about Clare Leighton at Internet Archive

2004 Campeonato Carioca

The 2004 edition of the Campeonato Carioca kicked off on January 24 and ended on April 18, 2004. It is the official tournament organized by FFERJ (Federação de Futebol do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, or Rio de Janeiro State Football Federation. Only clubs based in the Rio de Janeiro State are allowed to play. Twelve teams contested this edition. Flamengo won the title for the 28th time. Bangu was relegated; the tournament was divided in two stages: Taça Guanabara: The 12 clubs were divided into two groups. Teams from each group played in single round-robin format against the others in their group. Top two teams in each group advanced to semifinal and to the final, played in a single match. Taça Rio: The teams from one group play against teams from the other group once. Top two teams in each group qualify to final, to be played in a single match. Finals: Taça Guanabara and Taça Rio winners play twice at Maracanã Stadium. If the same club wins both stages, they will be declared champions and the final won't be necessary

List of municipalities in Tennessee

Tennessee is a state located in the Southern United States. There are 346 municipalities in the state of Tennessee. Municipalities in the state are designated as "cities" or "towns"; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, 3,564,494 Tennesseans, or just over 56% of the state's total population of 6,346,105, lived in municipalities; the remainder lived in unincorporated areas. Before 1954, all Tennessee municipalities were established by private act of the state legislature and operated under charters established by private act of the legislature; as of 2007, 212 of the state's municipalities were operating under charters established by private act of the legislature. In 1953, amendments to the Tennessee Constitution prohibited subsequent incorporations by private act and provided for several new forms of municipal charter. Fourteen cities, including Memphis and Chattanooga, three of the state's four largest cities, are "home rule cities" organized under charters approved by referendum of the citizens. Home rule charters are authorized by Article XI, Section 9, of the Tennessee State Constitution, as amended in 1953.

Other municipalities are incorporated under one of several standardized types of charter authorized by state statute: 67 cities use a mayor-aldermanic charter under Tennessee Code Annotated §6-1-101 et seq. Hendersonville is the largest city using this type of charter. 49 cities use a uniform city manager-commission charter under TCA §6-18-101 et seq. Brentwood is the largest city operating with a uniform manager-commission charter. Two cities are incorporated under a modified city manager-council charter under TCA §6-30-101 et seq. Consolidated city-county governments exist in three places: Nashville and Davidson County and Moore County, Hartsville and Trousdale County. City-county government consolidation is authorized by the Tennessee Constitution as amended in 1953 and TCA Title 7; some Tennessee municipalities are called "cities" and others are called "towns." These terms do not have legal significance in Tennessee and are not related to population, date of establishment, or type of municipal charter.

Under current state law, a minimum of 1,500 residents are required to incorporate as a new municipality under the mayor-alderman or city manager-commission charter, a minimum of 5,000 residents are required to incorporate under a modified city manager-council charter. In general, unincorporated areas within three miles of an existing municipality are not permitted to incorporate as new municipalities. Provisions for incorporation were less restrictive in the past; the capital of Tennesse is Nashville County seat A^ All but one of Tennessee's county seats are municipalities. The exception is county seat of Sullivan County. B ^. Tennessee Code Annotated Constitution of the State of Tennessee Getting to Know and Maybe Love Your Municipal Charter, by Sidney D. Hemsley, Municipal Technical Advisory Service, 1992, revised 2008

Byomkesh Bakshi

Byomkesh Bakshi is an Indian-Bengali fictional detective created by Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay. Referring to himself as a "truth-seeker" in the stories, Bakshi is known for his proficiency with observation, logical reasoning, forensic science which he uses to solve complicated cases murders; the character has been called the Indian version of Sherlock Holmes. Appearing in the 1931 story Satyanweshi, the character's popularity immensely increased in Bengal and other parts of India. Though it gained pan-India popularity 6 decades with a TV series on Doordarshan with Rajit Kapur portraying Byomkesh. Byomkesh is a Hindu and wears a white shirt with a white dhoti, he possess numerous books. He travels and does not own a gun and does not consider himself to be an "expensive helper", his habits include smoking, drinking lots of cups of tea with milk. He fluently speaks Bengali and English. Both of Byomkesh' names have since entered the Bengali language to describe someone, both intelligent and observant.

It is used sarcastically to mean someone who states the obvious. Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay's most well known character Byomkesh Bakshi first appeared as a character in the story Satyanweshi; the story is set in 1931 in the Chinabazar area of Kolkata where a'non-government detective' Byomkesh Bakshi, owing to the permission from the police commissioner, starts living in a mess in that area under the pseudonym of Atul Chandra Mitra to probe a series of murders. Most of the stories are written by Sharadindu under the pen name of Ajit Bandhopadhay, said to have met Byomkesh in the mess at Chinabazar. Byomkesh Bakshi is described in Satyanweshi as "a man of twenty-three or twenty-four years of age who looked well educated." In the story it comes to be known that Byomkesh lives on a three-story rented house at Harrison Road. The only other person living with him, is Putiram. At the request of Byomkesh, Ajit starts living in the house with them, it is mentioned that Byomkesh did not like being called a detective, the word'investigator' was worse.

Thus he fashioned a new name for himself and had it inscribed on a brass plate in front of his house. The plaque read "Byomkesh Bakshi Satyanweshi". Unlike other lead characters in detective stories, Byomkesh Bakshi marries, contemplates buying a car, etc; when Sukumar is charged with murder in the story ‘Arthamanartham’, Byomkesh meets Satyabati, Sukumar's sister, whom he marries. In the story Adim Ripu, there is some information about Byomkesh's early childhood, his father Mahadev Bakshi was a mathematics teacher at a school and practised Sankhya philosophy at home while his mother was the daughter of a Vaishnavite. When Byomkesh was seventeen years old, his parents died of tuberculosis. Byomkesh passed University with scholarship. During the Second World War and after India's independence, Byomkesh and Ajit live in the mess house of Harrison Road, it was the author's imagination, that the detective assisted Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in his secret missions, found to be written in one of the Byomkesh stories.

They decide to buy land in Keyatala in South Kolkata and shift to their new home. Saradindu Bandopadhyay penned 32 Byomkesh stories from 1932 to 1970 prior to his death. In his early stories, Ajit Bandhopadhyay is described as his companion, chronicler of his stories, but in some cases Ajit investigates in absence of Byomkesh. These stories are all written in traditional formal Bengali language but stories shift to more colloquial language. Sometimes the stories are not penned by Ajit, as he is much more engaged in his publication business; the stories are not complicated but engaging, with a long series of surprising events. The stories present a range of crimes, from the first story, where Byomkesh destroys an international drug racket, to household mysteries and crimes like Arthamanartham, Makorshar Rosh, all are enjoyable. Byomkesh ages through the series, he has a son called Khoka in the series. Sharadindu did not want to continue the Byomkesh stories, why he stopped writing Byomkesh stories from 1938 to 1951.

During that time he was busy writing scripts for films in Bombay. After his return to West Bengal, there was still a demand for Byomkesh stories and so he wrote Chitrachor in 1951 and on to 1970, when his last story "Bishupal Badh" was not completed owing to his untimely death. In the Byomkesh series there are 1 unpublished stories; the list is chronologically arranged. Color key indicates "story". Indicates "novel". Indicates unfinished writings; the Byomkesh Bakshi stories have been adapted into several television series, radio programs, audio dramas and video games. The 1993-97 Byomkesh Bakshi television series, created by Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay, starring Rajit Kapur as Bakshi, K. K. Raina as Ajit became the most critically acclaimed and most celebrated adaptation of the character. There have been 20 Bakshi movies, with Abir Chatterjee portraying the character 7 times; the Satyanweshi audio drama series adapted Byomkesh Bakshi novels in the Malayalam language. A Bollywood movie named Detective Byomkesh Bakshy! starring Sushant Singh Rajput and Ashish Rana in lead roles was released.

Parashor Barma Kiriti Roy Feluda