A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. The soils consist of levees and sands deposited during floods. Levees are the heaviest materials and they are deposited first. Floodplains are formed; when a river breaks its banks, it leaves behind layers of alluvium. These build up to create the floor of the plain. Floodplains contain unconsolidated sediments extending below the bed of the stream; these are accumulations of sand, loam, and/or clay, are important aquifers, the water drawn from them being pre-filtered compared to the water in the river. Geologically ancient floodplains are represented in the landscape by fluvial terraces; these are old floodplains that remain high above the present floodplain and indicate former courses of a stream. Sections of the Missouri River floodplain taken by the United States Geological Survey show a great variety of material of varying coarseness, the stream bed having been scoured at one place and filled at another by currents and floods of varying swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel, sometimes of fine sand or of fine silt.
It is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character. The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, is completely covered with water; when the drainage system has ceased to act or is diverted for any reason, the floodplain may become a level area of great fertility, similar in appearance to the floor of an old lake. The floodplain differs, because it is not altogether flat, it has a gentle slope downstream, for a distance, from the side towards the center. The floodplain is the natural place for a river to dissipate its energy. Meanders form over the floodplain to slow down the flow of water and when the channel is at capacity the water spills over the floodplain where it is temporarily stored. In terms of flood management the upper part of the floodplain is crucial as this is where the flood water control starts. Artificial canalisation of the river here will have a major impact on wider flooding.
This is the basis of sustainable flood management. Floodplains can support rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity. Tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains in Central Asia, they are a category of riparian systems. A floodplain can contain 100 or 1,000 times as many species as a river. Wetting of the floodplain soil releases an immediate surge of nutrients: those left over from the last flood, those that result from the rapid decomposition of organic matter that has accumulated since then. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle. Opportunistic feeders move in to take advantage; the production of nutrients falls away quickly. This makes floodplains valuable for agriculture. River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change; this change is a threat to other floodplain forests. These forests have over time synced their seedling deposits after the spring peaks in flow to best take advantage of the nutrient rich soil generated by peak flow.
Many towns have been built on floodplains, where they are susceptible to flooding, for a number of reasons: access to fresh water. The worst of these, the worst natural disaster were the 1931 China floods, estimated to have killed millions; this had been preceded by the 1887 Yellow River flood, which killed around one million people, is the second-worst natural disaster in history. The extent of floodplain inundation depends in part on the flood magnitude, defined by the return period. In the United States the Federal Emergency Management Agency manages the National Flood Insurance Program; the NFIP offers insurance to properties located within a flood prone area, as defined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map, which depicts various flood risks for a community. The FIRM focuses on delineation of the 100-year flood inundation area known within the NFIP as the Special Flood Hazard Area. Where a detailed study of a waterway has been done, the 100-year floodplain will include the floodway, the critical portion of the floodplain which includes the stream channel and any adjacent areas that must be kept free of encroachments that might block flood flows or restrict storage of flood waters.
Another encountered term is the Special Flood Hazard Area, any area subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. A problem is that any alteration of the watershed upstream of the point in question can affect the ability of the watershed to handle water, thus affects the levels of the periodic floods. A large shopping center and parking lot, for example, may raise the levels of the 5-year, 100-year, other floods, but the maps are adjusted, are rendered
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Grundy County, Iowa
Grundy County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,453; the county seat is Grundy Center. The county is named for Felix Grundy, former U. S. Attorney General. Grundy County is included in IA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Grundy County was formed on January 15, 1851, became self-governing in 1856, it was named after Felix Grundy of Tennessee, a statesman, member of the House of Representatives and Attorney General under President James K. Polk; the first courthouse was built in 1861. The wooden, two-story building contained a courtroom, but was used for other purposes, including housing the office of the sheriff, county treasurer, the judge, as well as a chamber for the jury; the cornerstone for a second courthouse was laid on November 11, 1891. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 502 square miles, of which 502 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 20 Iowa Highway 14 Iowa Highway 57 Iowa Highway 175 Butler County Black Hawk County Tama County Marshall County Hardin County Franklin County The 2010 census recorded a population of 12,453 in the county, with a population density of 24.7816/sq mi.
There were 5,530 housing units, of which 5,131 were occupied. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,369 people, 4,984 households, 3,583 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 5,304 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.97% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.02% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,984 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.80% were married couples living together, 5.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 19.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,396, the median income for a family was $46,627. Males had a median income of $32,006 versus $22,003 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,142. About 3.30% of families and 4.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.60% of those under age 18 and 5.70% of those age 65 or over. The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Grundy County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Grundy County, Iowa Grundy County, Iowa Official website
Tama County, Iowa
Tama County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,767, its county seat is Toledo. The county was named for Taimah, a leader of the Meskwaki Indians. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 722 square miles, of which 721 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 30 U. S. Highway 63 Iowa Highway 8 Iowa Highway 21 Iowa Highway 96 Iowa Highway 146 Grundy County Black Hawk County Benton County Poweshiek County Marshall County The 2010 census recorded a population of 17,767 in the county, with a population density of 24.5638/sq mi. There were 7,766 housing units, of which 6,947 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 17,767 people, 7,018 households, 4,968 families residing in the county. The population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 7,583 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.38% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 6.09% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.90% from other races, 1.18% from two or more races.
3.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,018 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, 18.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,419, the median income for a family was $43,646. Males had a median income of $30,723 versus $22,597 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,097.
About 7.60% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. Tama County is served by 4 school districts; the largest is South Tama Community School District, at the 3A designation. Second largest is North Tama Community Schools, followed by GMG School District. Lastly is the Meskwaki Settlement School with an 8-man Designation. Buckingham Long Point Meskwaki Settlement Tama County is divided into twenty-one townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Tama County.† county seat George R. Struble. Iowa judge and politician from Toledo. Speaker of the Iowa House of Representatives, 1881-1883. Ardent prohibitionist. Brother of John T. Struble of Johnson County and Congressman Isaac S. Struble of Plymouth County, Iowa. Biography in the Journal of the House, memorial resolution of 3/23/1921. Michael Emerson Born In Cedar Rapids,Iowa and raised in Toledo, Emmerson has been on Broadway and made appearances on Lost in 2004.
Clifford Berry, born in Gladbrook, was a graduate student at Iowa State University when he and John Vincent Atanasoff created the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, the first digital electronic computer, in 1939. National Register of Historic Places listings in Tama County, Iowa IAGenWeb History, Biographies and more
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group, who lived in the region of what is now Green Bay, when first encountered by the French in 1667. Their autonym is oθaakiiwaki, their exonym is Ozaagii in Ojibwe; the latter name was transliterated into English by colonists of those cultures. Today they have three federally recognized tribes, together with the Meskwaki, located in Iowa and Kansas; the Sauk, an Algonquian languages people, are believed to have developed as a people along the St. Lawrence River, they were driven by pressure from other tribes the powerful Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee. It is believed by some historians that they migrated to what is now eastern Michigan, where they settled around Saginaw Bay; this leads to the theory that, due to the yellow-clay soils found around Saginaw Bay, they called themselves the autonym of Oθaakiiwaki Some native Ojibwe oral histories place the Sauk in the Saginaw Valley some time before the arrival of Europeans.
However, this location near Lake Huron for the Sauk at that time may be in error. In the early 17th century, when natives told French explorer Samuel de Champlain that the Sauk nation was located on the west shore of Lake Michigan, Champlain mistakenly placed them on the western shore of Lake Huron; this mistake was copied on subsequent maps, future references identified this as the place of the Sauks. Champlain himself never visited. There is little archaeological evidence; the neighboring Anishanabeg Ojibwe and Ottawa peoples referred to them by the exonym Ozaagii, meaning "those at the outlet". French colonists transliterated that as Sac and the English as "Sauk". Anishinaabe expansion and the Huron attempt to gain regional stability drove the Sac out of their territory; the Huron were armed with guns supplied by their French trading partners. The Sac moved south to territory in parts of what are now Wisconsin. A allied tribe, the Meskwaki, were noted for resisting French encroachment, having fought two wars against them in the early 18th century.
After a devastating battle of September 9, 1730, in Illinois, in which hundreds of warriors were killed and many women and children taken captive by French allies, Fox refugees took shelter with the Sac, making them subject to French attack. The Sac continued moving west to Kansas. Two important leaders arose among the Sac: Black Hawk. At first Keokuk accepted the loss of land as inevitable in the face of the vast numbers of white soldiers and settlers coming west, he tried to preserve tribal land and his people, to keep the peace. Having failed to receive expected supplies from the Americans on credit, Black Hawk wanted to fight, saying his people were "forced into war by being deceived". Led by Black Hawk in 1832, the Sac band resisted the continued loss of lands Their warfare with United States forces resulted in defeat at the hands of General Edmund P. Gaines in the Black Hawk War. About this time, one group of Sac moved into Missouri, to Kansas and Nebraska. In 1869 the larger group of Sac moved into reservations in Oklahoma, where they merged with the Meskwaki as the federally recognized Sac and Fox Nation.
A smaller number returned to the Midwest from Oklahoma They joined the Mesquakie at the Mesqwaki Settlement, Iowa. The Sauk had a patrilineal clan system, in which descent and inheritance was traced through the father. Clans which continue are: Fish, Ocean/Sea, Bear, Potato, Beaver and Wolf; the tribe was governed by a council of sacred clan chiefs, a war chief, the head of families, the warriors. Chiefs were recognized in three categories: civil and ceremonial. Only the civil chiefs were hereditary; the other two chiefs were recognized by bands after they demonstrated their ability or spiritual power. This traditional manner of selecting historic clan chiefs and governance was replaced in the 19th century by the United States appointing leaders through their agents at the Sac and Fox Agency, or reservation in Indian Territory. In the 20th century, the tribe adopted a constitutional government patterned after the United States form, they elect their chiefs. Today the federally recognized Sac and Fox tribes are: Sac and Fox Nation, headquartered in Stroud, Oklahoma.
Sauk is one of the many Algonquian languages. It is closely related to the varieties spoken by the Meskwaki and the Kickapoo tribes; each of the dialects contains innovations that distinguish them from each other. Sauk and Meskwaki appear to be the most related of the three, reflecting the peoples' long relationship. Sauk is considered to be mutually intelligible, to a point, with Fox. In their own language, the Sauk at one time called themselves asakiwaki, "people of the outlet"; the Sauk people have a syllabic orthography for their language. They published a Primer Book in 1975, based on a "traditional" syllabary that existed in 1906, it is intended to help modern-day Sauk to learn to speak their ancestral tongue. A newer orthography was proposed around 1994 to aid in language revival; the former syllabary was aimed at remaining native speakers of Sauk.
Cedar Falls, Iowa
Cedar Falls is a city in Black Hawk County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 39,260, it is home to the University of a public university. Cedar Falls was founded in 1845 by William Sturgis, it was named Sturgis Falls, for the first family who settled the site. The Sturgis family lived in Sturgis Falls for years until the city was merged with Cedar City, another city on the other side of the Cedar River creating Cedar Falls; the city's founders are honored each year with a week long community-wide celebration named in their honor – the Sturgis Falls Celebration. Because of the availability of water power, Cedar Falls developed as a milling and industrial center prior to the Civil War; the establishment of the Civil War Soldiers' Orphans Home in Cedar Falls changed the direction in which the city developed when, following the war, it became the first building on the campus of the Iowa State Normal School. Cedar Falls is located at 42°31′24″N 92°26′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.61 square miles, of which, 28.75 square miles is land and 0.86 square miles is water.
Natural forest and wetland areas are found within the city limits at the Hartman Reserve Nature Center. Cedar Falls is part of the Waterloo-Cedar Falls metropolitan area; as of the census of 2010, there were 39,260 people, 14,608 households, 8,091 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,365.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,477 housing units at an average density of 538.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.4% White, 2.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 14,608 households of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.6% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 26.8 years. 17.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 36,145 people, 12,833 households, 7,558 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,277.2 people per square mile. There were 13,271 housing units at an average density of 468.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.14% White, 1.57% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 1.08 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 12,833 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.1% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.91. Age spread: 18.0% under the age of 18, 30.6% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $70,226, the median income for a family was $85,158. Males had a median income of $60,235 versus $50,312 for females; the per capita income for the city was $27,140. About 5.6% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18, 6.1% of those age 65 or over. In 1986, the City of Cedar Falls established the Cedar Falls Art and Culture Board, which oversees the operation of the City's Cultural Division and the James & Meryl Hearst Center for the Arts; the Cedar Falls Public Library is housed in the Adele Whitenach Davis building located at 524 Main Street.
The 47,000 square foot structure, designed by Struxture Architects, replaced the Carniege-Dayton building in early 2004. As of the 2016 fiscal year, the library's holdings included 8,000 audio materials, 12,000 video materials, 104,000 books and periodicals for a grand total of 124,000 items. Patrons made 245,000 visits which took advantage of circulation services, adult and youth programming. Circulation of library materials for fiscal year 2016 was 543,134; the library provides public access to more than 30 public computers which provide Internet access, office software suites, high resolution color printing, wi-fi, various games. The mission of the Cedar Falls Public Library is to promote literacy and provide open access to resources which facilitate lifelong learning; the library is a member of the Cedar Valley Library Consortium. Cedar Falls Public Library shares an Integrated Library System with the Waterloo Public Library. Library management is provided by Director of the Cedar Falls Public Library.
The Cedar Falls Historical Society has its offices in Carriage House Museum. It preserves Cedar Falls' history through its five museums, collection and public programs. Besides the Victorian Hous