The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group, who lived in the region of what is now Green Bay, when first encountered by the French in 1667. Their autonym is oθaakiiwaki, their exonym is Ozaagii in Ojibwe; the latter name was transliterated into English by colonists of those cultures. Today they have three federally recognized tribes, together with the Meskwaki, located in Iowa and Kansas; the Sauk, an Algonquian languages people, are believed to have developed as a people along the St. Lawrence River, they were driven by pressure from other tribes the powerful Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee. It is believed by some historians that they migrated to what is now eastern Michigan, where they settled around Saginaw Bay; this leads to the theory that, due to the yellow-clay soils found around Saginaw Bay, they called themselves the autonym of Oθaakiiwaki Some native Ojibwe oral histories place the Sauk in the Saginaw Valley some time before the arrival of Europeans.
However, this location near Lake Huron for the Sauk at that time may be in error. In the early 17th century, when natives told French explorer Samuel de Champlain that the Sauk nation was located on the west shore of Lake Michigan, Champlain mistakenly placed them on the western shore of Lake Huron; this mistake was copied on subsequent maps, future references identified this as the place of the Sauks. Champlain himself never visited. There is little archaeological evidence; the neighboring Anishanabeg Ojibwe and Ottawa peoples referred to them by the exonym Ozaagii, meaning "those at the outlet". French colonists transliterated that as Sac and the English as "Sauk". Anishinaabe expansion and the Huron attempt to gain regional stability drove the Sac out of their territory; the Huron were armed with guns supplied by their French trading partners. The Sac moved south to territory in parts of what are now Wisconsin. A allied tribe, the Meskwaki, were noted for resisting French encroachment, having fought two wars against them in the early 18th century.
After a devastating battle of September 9, 1730, in Illinois, in which hundreds of warriors were killed and many women and children taken captive by French allies, Fox refugees took shelter with the Sac, making them subject to French attack. The Sac continued moving west to Kansas. Two important leaders arose among the Sac: Black Hawk. At first Keokuk accepted the loss of land as inevitable in the face of the vast numbers of white soldiers and settlers coming west, he tried to preserve tribal land and his people, to keep the peace. Having failed to receive expected supplies from the Americans on credit, Black Hawk wanted to fight, saying his people were "forced into war by being deceived". Led by Black Hawk in 1832, the Sac band resisted the continued loss of lands Their warfare with United States forces resulted in defeat at the hands of General Edmund P. Gaines in the Black Hawk War. About this time, one group of Sac moved into Missouri, to Kansas and Nebraska. In 1869 the larger group of Sac moved into reservations in Oklahoma, where they merged with the Meskwaki as the federally recognized Sac and Fox Nation.
A smaller number returned to the Midwest from Oklahoma They joined the Mesquakie at the Mesqwaki Settlement, Iowa. The Sauk had a patrilineal clan system, in which descent and inheritance was traced through the father. Clans which continue are: Fish, Ocean/Sea, Bear, Potato, Beaver and Wolf; the tribe was governed by a council of sacred clan chiefs, a war chief, the head of families, the warriors. Chiefs were recognized in three categories: civil and ceremonial. Only the civil chiefs were hereditary; the other two chiefs were recognized by bands after they demonstrated their ability or spiritual power. This traditional manner of selecting historic clan chiefs and governance was replaced in the 19th century by the United States appointing leaders through their agents at the Sac and Fox Agency, or reservation in Indian Territory. In the 20th century, the tribe adopted a constitutional government patterned after the United States form, they elect their chiefs. Today the federally recognized Sac and Fox tribes are: Sac and Fox Nation, headquartered in Stroud, Oklahoma.
Sauk is one of the many Algonquian languages. It is closely related to the varieties spoken by the Meskwaki and the Kickapoo tribes; each of the dialects contains innovations that distinguish them from each other. Sauk and Meskwaki appear to be the most related of the three, reflecting the peoples' long relationship. Sauk is considered to be mutually intelligible, to a point, with Fox. In their own language, the Sauk at one time called themselves asakiwaki, "people of the outlet"; the Sauk people have a syllabic orthography for their language. They published a Primer Book in 1975, based on a "traditional" syllabary that existed in 1906, it is intended to help modern-day Sauk to learn to speak their ancestral tongue. A newer orthography was proposed around 1994 to aid in language revival; the former syllabary was aimed at remaining native speakers of Sauk.
U.S. Route 20
U. S. Highway 20 is an east–west United States highway that stretches from the Pacific Northwest all the way to New England; the "0" in its route number indicates. Spanning 3,365 miles, it is the longest road in the United States, from Newport, Oregon to Boston, the route is parallel to that of the newer Interstate 90, in turn the longest Interstate Highway in the U. S. There is a discontinuity in the official designation of US 20 through Yellowstone National Park, with unnumbered roads used to traverse the park, it and US 30 break the general U. S. Route numbering rules in Oregon, since US 30 starts north of US 20 and runs parallel to the north throughout the state; the two run continue in the correct positioning near Caldwell, Idaho. This is. US 20 ended at the eastern entrance of Yellowstone Park; the highway's eastern terminus is in Boston, Massachusetts, at Kenmore Square, where it meets Route 2. Its western terminus is in Newport, Oregon, at an intersection with US 101, within a mile of the Pacific Ocean.
The highway passes through the following states: US 20 begins at an intersection with US 101 in Newport and runs eastward towards Idaho. On the way it goes over the Central Oregon Coast Range, through several Willamette Valley cities including Corvallis and Albany, climbs the Cascade Mountains over Santiam Pass, goes through Bend, traverses the Oregon High Desert passing through Burns, it overlaps with US 26 in Vale, the two roads continue concurrently to the Idaho border. US 20 crosses into Idaho from Oregon northwest of Parma, it joins US 95 through Parma. US 20/US 26 leaves US 95 southeast of Parma and runs to Caldwell where US 20/US 26 joins with I-84 and US 30 for a short time; these four highways parallel each other to Boise where US 20/US 26 runs through downtown before joining with I-84 and US 30 again to Mountain Home, where it departs at exit 95 to head east, past Rattlesnake Station, Anderson Ranch Dam road, cresting at Cat Creek summit at 5,527 feet above mean sea level. It continues into and across Camas County through Fairfield to Timmerman Junction, the intersection in Blaine County with State Highway 75, the route to Sun Valley, Galena Summit, Stanley.
US 20 continues east through Picabo and Carey, joined with US 26 and US 93, to Craters of the Moon and Arco, where US 93 splits off and turns north-northwest to climb the Big Lost River valley. US 20/US 26 continues on through the Idaho National Laboratory, where the highways split just west of Atomic City. US 20 climbs through the communities of St. Anthony and Island Park, crosses the Continental Divide at Targhee Pass at 7,072 feet, entering Montana west of West Yellowstone. In the state of Montana, US 20 runs for less than 10 miles, it runs from the Idaho state line to West Yellowstone, the western entrance to Yellowstone National Park. US 20 is known as the Targhee Pass Highway in Montana. In the state of Wyoming, the eastern segment of US 20 starts at the eastern entrance to Yellowstone National Park along with the western termini of US 14 and US 16; these three routes run east to Greybull, where US 14 continues US 16/US 20 turns south. US 20 joins US 26 in Shoshoni. In Casper it joins I-25 and US 87.
These four routes stay combined to Orin. At its intersection with I-25, US 18 begins. US 18 and US 20 are concurrent from Orin to Lusk. US 18 separates US 20 runs east into Nebraska. In the state of Nebraska, US 20 runs from west of Harrison to South Sioux City on the Missouri River. Portions overlap US 385, US 83, US 183, US 275, I-129, US 75. US 20 enters Iowa at Sioux City via the Missouri River crossing with I-129 and US 75. After skirting the southeast side of Sioux City as a freeway with US 75, US 20 continues east as an expressway to Moville. From Moville through north of Early at the junction with U. S. Route 71 and Iowa Highway 471, US 20 was reconstructed from a rural two-lane highway to a four-lane road; this segment re-opened October 19, 2018 and made it so that US 20 is a continuous four-lane highway during its entire time in Iowa. Passing north of Early and Sac City, where it has another interchange with the realigned U. S. Route 71 passing to the south of Fort Dodge and Webster City before intersecting I-35 near Williams.
A new segment of freeway between US 65 south of Iowa Falls and Iowa Highway 14 opened in 2003 creating a continuous four-lane route from Moorland to Dubuque. The new segment shaved 16 miles off US 20's length in Iowa. In the Waterloo/Cedar Falls area, the segment of US 20 overlapped by the Avenue of the Saints, designated as Iowa Highway 27. US 20 passes Independence and Dyersville before reaching Dubuque. At Dubuque, US 20 crosses into Illinois over the Julien Dubuque Bridge. In the state of Illinois, US 20 begins in East Dubuque, following southeastward along the Mississippi River, continues into the hilly Driftless Area of northwest Illinois through Galena and Elizabeth; the highway transitions eastward from the Driftless Area to the Interior Plains near Stockton. The road continues as a bypass north of Freeport, runs as a freeway along the southern fringe of Rockford. From Rockford to Chicago, Illinois, US 20 is a mixture of four-lan
Black Hawk (Sauk leader)
Black Hawk, born Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, was a band leader and warrior of the Sauk American Indian tribe in what is now the Midwest of the United States. Although he had inherited an important historic sacred bundle from his father, he was not a hereditary civil chief. Black Hawk earned his status as a war chief or captain by his actions: leading raiding and war parties as a young man, a band of Sauk warriors during the Black Hawk War of 1832. During the War of 1812, Black Hawk had fought on the side of the British against the U. S. hoping to push white American settlers away from Sauk territory. He led a band of Sauk and Fox warriors, known as the British Band, against European-American settlers in Illinois and present-day Wisconsin in the 1832 Black Hawk War. After the war, he was captured by U. S. forces and taken to the eastern U. S, he and other war leaders were taken on a tour of several cities. Shortly before being released from custody, Black Hawk told his story to an interpreter; the first Native American autobiography to be published in the U.
S. his book has gone through several editions. Black Hawk died in 1838 in, he has been honored by an enduring legacy: his book, many eponyms, other tributes. Black Hawk, or Black Sparrow Hawk was born in 1767 in the village of Saukenuk on the Rock River. Black Hawk's father Pyesa was the tribal medicine man of the Sauk people; the Sauk used the village in the summer as a burial site. During the winter, they moved across the Mississippi to present-day Iowa for winter hunts and fur trapping. Little is known about Black Hawk's youth, he was said to be a descendant of Nanamakee, a Sauk chief who, according to tradition, met an early French explorer Samuel de Champlain. At age 15, Black Hawk accompanied his father Pyesa on a raid against the Osage, he won approval by scalping his first enemy. The young Black Hawk tried to establish himself as a war captain by leading other raids, he had limited success until, at age 19, he led 200 men in a battle against the Osage, in which he killed five men and one woman.
Soon after, he joined his father in a raid against Cherokee along the Meramec River in Missouri. After Pyesa died from wounds received in the battle, Black Hawk inherited the Sauk medicine bundle which his father had carried, giving him an important role in the tribe. After an extended period of mourning for his father, Black Hawk resumed leading raiding parties over the next years targeting the traditional enemy, the Osage. Black Hawk did not belong to a clan that provided the Sauk with hereditary civil leaders, or "chiefs", he achieved status through his exploits by leading successful raiding parties. Men like Black Hawk are sometimes called "war chiefs", but historian Patrick Jung writes, "It is more accurate to call them'war leaders' since the nature of their office and the power that it wielded was much different from that of a civil chief." Twenty-first century historians such as John W. Hall have suggested the term "war captain" for this role. During the War of 1812, Black Hawk, now 45, served as a war leader of a Sauk band at their village of Saukenuk, which fielded about 200 warriors.
He supported the invalidity of Quashquame's Treaty of St. Louis between the Sauk and Fox nations and then-Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory that ceded territory, including Saukenuk, to the United States; the Sauk and Fox are consensus-based decision makers and those representatives sent to the meeting with the US government did not have the power to cede tribal territory, although Quashquame did. The lack of the consensus aspect by each of the Sauk and Fox councils meant that the treaty could never be considered valid by Black Hawk and other traditionalists. Black Hawk took part in skirmishes against US forces at the newly constructed Fort Madison in the disputed land. S. Army. During the War of 1812, forces of Great Britain and its colonies in present-day Canada were engaged against those of the U. S. with major battles on the Great Lakes and surrounding remote lands. The British depended upon alliances with the Native American population to wage war in this area since the British were occupied with Napoleon in Europe.
Colonel Robert Dickson, an English fur trader, amassed a sizable force of Native Americans at Green Bay to assist the British in operations around the Great Lakes. Most were from the Potawatomi, Ho-Chunk and Ottawa tribes. Black Hawk and his band of about 200 Sauk warriors were included in this group of allies. Dickson commissioned Black Hawk at the rank of brevet Brigadier General, with command over all native allies at Green Bay and presented him with a silk flag, a medal, a written certificate of good behavior and alliance with the British; the war leader preserved the certificate for 20 years. During the war, Black Hawk and Native warriors fought in several engagements with Major-General Henry Procter on the borders of Lake Erie. Black Hawk was at the Battle of Frenchtown, Fort Meigs, the attack on Fort Stephenson; the U. S. repulsed the British and the Indian Confederacy led by Tecumseh, with high casualties suffered by the British and their allies. Black Hawk despaired over the many lives lo
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Waterloo is a city in and the county seat of Black Hawk County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census the population decreased by 0.5% to 68,406. The city is part of the Waterloo – Cedar Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the more populous of the two cities. Waterloo was known as Prairie Rapids Crossing; the town was established near two Meskwaki American tribal seasonal camps alongside the Cedar River. It was first settled in 1845 when George and Mary Melrose Hanna and their children arrived on the east bank of the Red Cedar River, they were followed by the Virden and Mullan families in 1846. Evidence of these earliest families can still be found in the street names Hanna Boulevard, Mullan Avenue and Virden Creek. On December 8, 1845, the Iowa State Register and Waterloo Herald was the first newspaper published in Waterloo; the name Waterloo supplanted the original name, Prairie Rapids Crossing, shortly after Charles Mullan petitioned for a post office in the town. Since the signed petition did not include the name of the proposed post office location, Mullan was charged with selecting the name when he submitted the petition.
Tradition has it that as he flipped through a list of other post offices in the United States, he came upon the name Waterloo. The name struck his fancy, on December 29, 1851, a post office was established under that name; the town was called the same, Mullan served as the first postmaster from December 29, 1851 until August 11, 1854. There were two extended periods of rapid growth over the next 115 years. From 1895 to 1915, the population increased from a 290 % increase. From 1925 to 1960, population increased from 36,771 to 71,755; the 1895 to 1915 period was a time of rapid growth in manufacturing, rail transportation and wholesale operations. During this period the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company moved to Waterloo and, shortly after, the Rath Packing Company moved from Dubuque. Another major employer throughout the first two-thirds of the 20th century was the Illinois Central Railroad. Among the others was the less-successful brass era automobile manufacturer, the Maytag-Mason Motor Company.
On June 7, 1934, bank robber Tommy Carroll had a shootout with the FBI when he and his wife stopped to pick up gas. Accidentally parking next to a police car and wasting time dropping his gun and picking it back up, Carroll was forced to flee into an alley, where he was shot, he was taken to Allen Memorial Hospital in Waterloo. Waterloo suffered in the agricultural recession of the 1980s. John Deere, the area's largest employer, cut 10,000 jobs, the Rath meatpacking plant closed altogether, losing 2500 jobs, it is estimated. Today the city enjoys a broader industrial base, as city leaders have sought to diversify its industrial and commercial mix. Deere remains a strong presence in the city, but employs only one-third the number of people it did at its peak. In 1903, African Americans were told to leave Waterloo as it became a sundown town. In 1910, a significant number of black railroad workers were brought in as strikebreakers to the Waterloo area. Black workers were relegated to 20 square blocks in Waterloo, an area that remains the east side to this day.
In 1940, more black strikebreakers were brought in to work in the Rath meat plant. In 1948, a black strikebreaker accidentally killed a white union member as he tried to escape the striker's ire. Instead of a race riot, a strike ensued against the Rath Company; the National Guard was called in to end the 73-day strike. United Packinghouse Workers of America became the main union of the Rath Company, welcoming black workers, but United Auto Workers Local 838 continued to refuse black members. With the power of the union, Anna Mae Weems, Ada Treadwell, Charles Pearson and Jimmy Porter formed an anti-discrimination department at Rath by the 1950s; this department helped organize protests against local places. Porter would go on to organize the first black radio station in Waterloo, KBBG, in 1978. Weems became the head of local NAACP chapter. On May 31, 1966, Eddie Wallace Sallis was found dead in the local jail; the black community felt the death was suspicious, protests were held. On June 4, Weems led a march on city hall to encourage investigation into his death.
The march led to the creation of the Waterloo Human Rights Commission, which lasted only a year due to lack of funding. On Sept. 7, 1967, a city report, "Waterloo's Unfinished Business", was released. The report covered the ongoing problems in housing and employment faced by Waterloo's black community, it confirmed the housing bias faced by black residents, that many of the schools were 80% of one race, that 80% of black residents held service jobs. In a 2007 article, the Courier covered some changes in the 40 years since, finding that housing was now divided by socioeconomic status, schools still violated the desegregation plan, black unemployment was still double that of white residents; the Iowa Supreme Court outlawed school segregation in 1868. A 1967 commission found most schools were still segregated and recommended immediate desegregation, which Mayor Lloyd Turner opposed. In 1969, the Waterloo school board voted to allow open enrollment in all their schools to encourage integration. Many parents felt.
Despite the efforts between 1967 and 1970, already-black schools in the area increased in their segregation. By the 1960s, Rath was in decline and jobs there w
Iowa Highway 175
Iowa Highway 175 is a main east–west route in the northern portion of the state. The highway has a length of 221 miles. Iowa Highway 175 enters the state by a Missouri River crossing between Decatur and Onawa; the highway continues westward as Nebraska Highway 51. Iowa 175's eastern terminus is at a T intersection with U. S. Route 63 in southwestern Black Hawk County. Despite Iowa 175's length, it only passes through small communities; the largest city on the route is Onawa, whose 2000 population was 3,091. Iowa Highway 175 begins at the east end of the Burt County Missouri River Bridge west of Onawa. At Onawa, it intersects Interstate 29. At Turin, it meets Iowa Highway 37 and turns northeast to follow an alignment which lies next to the Maple River, it meets Iowa Highway 141 in Mapleton. At Mapleton, Iowa 175 overlaps Iowa Highway 141 through town; this is a wrong-way concurrency, with eastbound Iowa 175 and westbound Iowa 141 routed on one side of the road, vice versa. It continues northeast from Mapleton through Danbury and Battle Creek and meets U.
S. Highway 59 west of Ida Grove. After passing through Ida Grove together with U. S. 59, they separate east of Ida Grove. Iowa 175 passes east through Arthur and at Odebolt, meets Iowa Highway 39. Further east, Iowa 175 meets U. S. Highway 71. Iowa 175 and U. S. 71 run east south east again concurrently through Lake View and Ulmer before separating at Auburn. Iowa 175 leaves Auburn going east passes through Lake City. After Lake City, Iowa 175 meets Iowa Highway 4; the two highways run concurrently through Lohrville before separating. Iowa 175 passes through Farnhamville and Gowrie and intersects Iowa Highway 144 before intersecting U. S. Highway 169 at Harcourt, they continue east together before separating before Dayton. After passing through Stratford, Iowa 175 meets Iowa Highway 17 at Stanhope, it leaves Stanhope going east and meets U. S. Highway 69 south of Jewell, they run together going north into Jewell before Iowa 175 turns east. After passing through Ellsworth, Iowa 175 intersects Interstate 35.
Iowa Highway 175 continues east of I-35 by passing through Radcliffe before meeting U. S. Highway 65 in Hubbard. Iowa 175 and U. S. 65 go north east, together before separating. Iowa 175 goes east through Eldora and meets Iowa Highway 14 west of Grundy Center. Iowa 175 continues east with Iowa 14 before separating in Grundy Center, it turns southeasterly while passing through Morrison and Reinbeck turns east and ends at U. S. Highway 63 south of Hudson. Iowa Highway 175 was nothing more than a short spur from U. S. grew to absorb other routes. By 1955 it had extended westward to Nebraska; the final segment of Highway 175 was commissioned in 1969, extending the highway eastward from Hubbard to its present eastern terminus. The Iowa Highways Page: Highway 175 End of Iowa 175 at Iowa Highway Ends
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti