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Black Hawk War

The Black Hawk War was a brief conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader. The war erupted soon after Black Hawk and a group of Sauks and Kickapoos, known as the "British Band", crossed the Mississippi River, into the U. S. state of Illinois, from Iowa Indian Territory in April 1832. Black Hawk's motives were ambiguous, but he was hoping to avoid bloodshed while resettling on tribal land, ceded to the United States in the disputed 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. U. S. officials, convinced that the British Band was hostile, mobilized a frontier militia and opened fire on a delegation from the Native Americans on May 14, 1832. Black Hawk responded by attacking the militia at the Battle of Stillman's Run, he led his band to a secure location in what is now southern Wisconsin and was pursued by U. S. forces. Meanwhile, other Native Americans conducted raids against forts and settlements unprotected with the absence of U. S. troops. Some Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi warriors with grievances against European-Americans took part in these raids, although most tribe members tried to avoid the conflict.

The Menominee and Dakota tribes at odds with the Sauks and Meskwakis, supported the U. S. Commanded by General Henry Atkinson, the U. S. troops tracked the British Band. Militia under Colonel Henry Dodge caught up with the British Band on July 21 and defeated them at the Battle of Wisconsin Heights. Black Hawk's band was weakened by hunger and desertion and many native survivors retreated towards the Mississippi. On August 2, U. S. soldiers attacked the remnants of the British Band at the Battle of Bad Axe, killing many and capturing most who remained alive. Black Hawk and other leaders escaped, but surrendered and were imprisoned for a year; the Black Hawk War gave the young captain Abraham Lincoln his brief military service, although he never saw combat. Other participants who became famous included Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, Jefferson Davis; the war gave impetus to the U. S. policy of Indian removal, in which Native American tribes were pressured to sell their lands and move west of the Mississippi River and stay there.

In the 18th century, the Sauk and Meskwaki Native American tribes lived along the Mississippi River in what are now the U. S. states of Iowa. The two tribes had become connected after having been displaced from the Great Lakes region in conflicts with New France and other Native American tribes after the so-called Fox Wars ended in the 1730s. By the time of the Black Hawk War, the population of the two tribes was about 6,000 people; as the United States expanded westward in the early 19th century, government officials sought to buy as much Native American land as possible. In 1804, territorial governor William Henry Harrison negotiated a treaty in St. Louis in which a group of Sauk and Meskwaki leaders sold their lands east of the Mississippi for more than $2,200, in goods and annual payments of $1,000 in goods; the treaty became controversial because the Native leaders had not been authorized by their tribal councils to cede lands. Historian Robert Owens argued that the chiefs did not intend to give up ownership of the land, that they would not have sold so much valuable territory for such a modest price.

Historian Patrick Jung concluded that the Sauk and Meskwaki chiefs intended to cede a little land, but that the Americans included more territory in the treaty's language than the Natives realized. According to Jung, the Sauks and Meskwakis did not learn the true extent of the cession until years later; the 1804 treaty allowed the tribes to continue using the ceded land until it was sold to American settlers by the U. S. government. For the next two decades, Sauks continued to live at Saukenuk, their primary village, located near the confluence of the Mississippi and Rock Rivers. In 1828, the U. S. government began to have the ceded land surveyed for white settlement. Indian agent Thomas Forsyth informed the Sauks that they should vacate Saukenuk and their other settlements east of the Mississippi; the Sauks were divided about. Most Sauks decided to relocate west of the Mississippi rather than become involved in a confrontation with the United States; the leader of this group was Keokuk, who had helped defend Saukenuk against the Americans during the War of 1812.

Keokuk was not a chief, but as a skilled orator, he spoke on behalf of the Sauk civil chiefs in negotiations with the Americans. Keokuk regarded the 1804 treaty as a fraud, but after having seen the size of American cities on the east coast in 1824, he did not think the Sauks could oppose the United States. Although the majority of the tribe decided to follow Keokuk's lead, about 800 Sauks—roughly one-sixth of the tribe—chose instead to resist American expansion. Black Hawk, a war captain who had fought against the United States in the War of 1812 and was now in his 60s, emerged as the leader of this faction in 1829. Like Keokuk, Black Hawk was not a civil chief, but he became Keokuk's primary rival for influence within the tribe. Black Hawk had signed a treaty in May 1816 that affirmed the disputed 1804 land cession, but he insisted that what had been written down was different from what had been spoken at the treaty conference. According to Black Hawk, the "whites were in the habit of saying one thing to the Indians and putting another thing down on paper."

Black Hawk was determined to hold onto Saukenuk, a village at the confluence of the Rock River with the Mississippi, where he lived and had been born. When the Sauks returned to the village in 1829 after their annual winter hunt in the west, they found that it had been occupie

Bielefeld Hauptbahnhof

Bielefeld Hauptbahnhof is the main station in the region of Ostwestfalen-Lippe in German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is an important station because of the size of the city of Bielefeld and its location at the Bielefeld Pass, which makes it a node for long-distance and regional traffic, it was opened in 1847 with the opening of the Cologne-Minden trunk line. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 2 station. Bielefeld Hauptbahnhof is located in the north-west of Bielefeld between the Neue Bahnhofsviertel and the city centre. Not far from the station building is the entrance to the underground station on the Stadtbahn line running through the inner city. Opposite is the Stadthalle Bielefeld conference centre, it is a through station on the Hamm–Minden railway, which runs through the city from the north-east to the south-west. Since it has no train shed, the platforms have individual canopies. At the opening of the Hamm–Minden railway section of the Cologne-Minden Railway Company’s trunk line on 15 October 1847, Bielefeld station had only a temporary wooden building.

The first stone station building was completed in 1849. It was rebuilt and enlarged in 1885; the station at the time was far to the north of the city, because enough flat land was available there. Southwest of the station, the line passes close to the old town, but is rising to cross the Bielefeld Pass; the one km between the old town and the station stimulated the development of public transport in Bielefeld. In the coming decades, the residential and industrial development of the city extended to the station and beyond. In the first decades not all express train stopped in Bielefeld. Minden as a seat of the provincial government and a fortress with a large garrison was more important to the government of Prussia than the industrial town of Bielefeld; the number of passengers rose so that a new station building was required in Bielefeld. The construction of today's entrance building began in 1907; the Art Nouveau building with natural stone facades was opened on 1 May 1910. In the west wing there was a waiting room for first and second class passengers and a waiting room for third and fourth class passengers, in the east wing rail offices and apartments for rail staff.

In the entrance hall there were a baggage counter. The entrance building had an adjoining platform. During the reconstruction of the Hamm–Minden line to four tracks between 1911 and 1917, six platform tracks were built on three platforms connected to the station building by passenger and baggage tunnels; until the beginning of the 21st century the platforms were hardly changed. This means that track 1 runs directly alongside the station building and all the platforms are only accessible through the tunnel. A freight terminal building, stylistically matched to the entrance building, but without its natural stone facades, was built on the north side of the station's tracks; the heavy air raids on Bielefeld in September 1944 left the station undamaged so that the façade is unchanged despite several modernisations of the building. There is a memorial on the station forecourt in remembrance of the deportation of Jews to the extermination camps from Bielefeld station during the Nazi dictatorship. In 1946 and 1947 Bielefeld station was the headquarters of the railways of the American and British occupation zone, from which Deutsche Bundesbahn emerged in 1949.

The last act of the Deutsche Bundesbahn, Generalbetriebsleitung West, Bielefeld was to publish the official winter timetable for the period from 2 October 1949 to 13 May 1950. The importance of the station in the railway network was consolidated with the electrification of the Hamm–Hanover main line on 29 September 1968 and the introduction of the Intercity-Express connection between Cologne and Berlin in the 1990s, stopping in Bielefeld, with connections at regular-intervals with regional services. During the rebuilding of the central sections of the Bielefeld tramway underground, the underground Stadtbahn station was not built under the Hauptbahnhof for cost reasons; the Hauptbahnhof Stadtbahn station was instead built 150 m to the south-east and is connected to the station forecourt by a covered travelator. At the beginning of the 21st century the old freight yard to the north of the line was demolished to make room for an entrance and exit of the Ostwestfalendamm expressway and the Neue Bahnhofsviertel.

The construction included the widening and extension of the pedestrian tunnel to the north and the provision of barrier-free access to existing platforms and to the heritage-listed station building. Additional tracks and a new platform were built on the north side of the station; the station was expanded to seven platform tracks next to four platforms. The expansion and modernisation of the station were intended to be completed in 2000, but after the bankruptcy of the general contractor, construction work was suspended due to unresolved financial issues for a period of 17 months. Since the reconstruction took place under traffic, this resulted in significant disruptions for passengers. Construction was completed in September 2006; these works cost a total of €26.2 million. The station is now directly connected to the new station district on the north side, increasing the attractiveness of the city; the dining establishments, nightclubs and leisure facilities benefit from the direct access to the station.

The station district and the railway station support each other, as for example the car park of the new district is used by rail passengers. Long-distance and region

Lithium nitride

Lithium nitride is a compound with the formula Li3N. It is the only stable alkali metal nitride; the solid has a high melting point. Lithium nitride is prepared by direct combination of elemental lithium with nitrogen gas: 6 Li + N2 → 2 Li3NInstead of burning lithium metal in an atmosphere of nitrogen, a solution of lithium in liquid sodium metal can be treated with N2. Lithium nitride reacts violently with water to produce ammonia: Li3N + 3 H2O → 3 LiOH + NH3 alpha-Li3N has an unusual crystal structure that consists of two types of layers, one sheet has the composition Li2N− contains 6-coordinate N centers and the other sheet consists only of lithium cations. Two other forms are known: beta-Lithium nitride, formed from the alpha phase at 4,200 bars has the sodium arsenide structure. Lithium nitride shows ionic conductivity for Li+, with a value of c. 2×10−4Ω−1cm−1, an activation energy of c. 0.26eV. Hydrogen doping increases conductivity, whilst doping with metal ions reduces it; the activation energy for lithium transfer across lithium nitride crystals has been determined to be higher at c. 68.5 kJ/mol.

The alpha form is a semiconductor with band gap of c. 2.1 eV. Reaction with hydrogen at under 300 °C produces lithium amide. Lithium nitride has been investigated as a storage medium for hydrogen gas, as the reaction is reversible at 270 °C. Up to 11.5% by weight absorption of hydrogen has been achieved. Reacting lithium nitride with carbon dioxide results in amorphous carbon nitride, a semiconductor, lithium cyanamide, a precursor to fertilizers, in an exothermic reaction. WebElements