United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, a composition of grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the steppe of Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Lands referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America; the term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of Canada, the United States, Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, hillier land to the east. In the U. S. the area is constituted by most or all of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma, sizable parts of the states of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and western and southern Minnesota. The Palouse of Washington and the Central Valley of California are prairies; the Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba and Alberta. According to Theodore Roosevelt: Prairie is the French word for meadow.
The formation of the North American Prairies started with the uplift of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta. The mountains created a rain shadow; the parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago. The glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain; as the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till. Wind based loess deposits form an important parent material for prairie soils. Tallgrass prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of fire. Native ungulates such as bison and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse grasslands before European colonization of the Americas. For 10,000-20,000 years, native people used fire annually as a tool to assist in hunting and safety. Evidence of ignition sources of fire in the tallgrass prairie are overwhelmingly human as opposed to lightning. Humans, grazing animals, were active participants in the process of prairie formation and the establishment of the diversity of graminoid and forbs species.
Fire has the effect on prairies of removing trees, clearing dead plant matter, changing the availability of certain nutrients in the soil from the ash produced. Fire kills the vascular tissue of trees, but not prairie species, as up to 75% of the total plant biomass is below the soil surface and will re-grow from its deep roots. Without disturbance, trees will encroach on a grassland and cast shade, which suppresses the understory. Prairie and spaced oak trees evolved to coexist in the oak savanna ecosystem. In spite of long recurrent droughts and occasional torrential rains, the grasslands of the Great Plains were not subject to great soil erosion; the root systems of native prairie grasses held the soil in place to prevent run-off of soil. When the plant died, the fungi, bacteria returned its nutrients to the soil; these deep roots help native prairie plants reach water in the driest conditions. Native grasses suffer much less damage from dry conditions than many farm crops grown. Prairie in North America is split into three groups: wet and dry.
They are characterized by tallgrass prairie, mixed, or shortgrass prairie, depending on the quality of soil and rainfall. In wet prairies, the soil is very moist, including during most of the growing season, because of poor water drainage; the resulting stagnant water is conducive to the formation of fens. Wet prairies have excellent farming soil; the average precipitation is 10–30 inches a year. Mesic prairie good soil during the growing season; this type of prairie is the most converted for agricultural usage. Dry prairie has somewhat wet to dry soil during the growing season because of good drainage in the soil; this prairie can be found on uplands or slopes. Dry soil doesn't get much vegetation due to lack of rain; this is the dominant biome in the Southern Canadian agricultural and climatic region known as Palliser's Triangle. Once thought to be unarable, the Triangle is now one of the most important agricultural regions in Canada thanks to advances in irrigation technology. In addition to its high local importance to Canada, Palliser's Triangle is now one of the most important sources of wheat in the world as a result of these improved methods of watering wheat fields.
Despite these advances in farming technology, the area is still prone to extended periods of drought, which can be disastrous for the industry if it is prolonged. An infamous example of this is the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, which hit much of the United States great plains ecoregion - contributing to the Great Depression. Nomadic hunting has been the main human activity on the prairies for the majority of the archaeological record; this once included many now-extinct species of megafauna. After the other extinction, the main hunted animal on the prairies was the plains bison. Using loud noises and waving large signals, Native peoples would drive bison in fenced pens called to be killed with bows and arrows or spears, or drive them off a cliff, to kill or injure the bison en masse. Th
Pinus ponderosa known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most distributed pine species in North America, it grows in various erect forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane. On that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens and coined the name Pinus ponderosa for its heavy wood. In 1836, it was formally described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman, it is the official state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large coniferous pine tree; the bark helps to distinguish it from other species. Mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to broad plates with black crevices.
Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as "blackjacks" by early loggers. Ponderosa pine's five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright-green needles; the Pacific subspecies has the longest—7.8 in —and most flexible needles in plume-like fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—4.7–8.1 in —and flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—3.6–5.7 in —and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 4.4–7.8 in, stout needles in fascicles of three. The central High Plains subspecies is characterized by the fewest needles. Needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa. Some state. Others state that it has no distinctive scent, while still others state that the bark smells like vanilla if sampled from a furrow of the bark. Sources agree that the Jeffrey pine is more scented than the ponderosa pine.
The National Register of Big Trees lists a Ponderosa Pine, 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference. In January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon; the tree was climbed on October 13, 2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high. This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine; this species is grown as an ornamental plant in large gardens. During Operation Upshot–Knothole in 1953, a nuclear test was performed in which 145 ponderosa pines were cut down by the United States Forest Service and transported to Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, where they were planted into the ground and exposed to a nuclear blast to see what the blast wave would do to a forest; the trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the ponderosa shrub forest.
Like most western pines, the ponderosa is associated with mountainous topography. However, it is found on banks of the Niobrara River in Nebraska. Scattered stands occur in the Willamette Valley of Oregon and in the Okanagan Valley and Puget Sound areas of Washington. Stands occur throughout low level valleys in British Columbia reaching as far north as the Thompson and Columbia watersheds. In its Northern limits, it is most common below 800m. Ponderosa covers 80 %, of the Black Hills of South Dakota, it is found on foothills and mid-height peaks of the northern and southern Rocky Mountains, in the Cascade Range, in the Sierra Nevada, in the maritime-influenced Coast Range. In Arizona, it predominates on the Mogollon Rim and is scattered on the Mogollon Plateau and on mid-height peaks in Arizona and New Mexico, it does not extend into Mexico. The fire cycle for ponderosa pine is 5 to 10 years, in which a natural ignition sparks a low-intensity fire. Pinus ponderosa needles are the only known food of the caterpillars of the gelechiid moth Chionodes retiniella.
Blue stain fungus, Grosmannia clavigera, is introduced in sapwood of P. ponderosa from the galleries of all species in the genus Dendroctonus, which has caused much damage. Modern forestry research has identified five different taxa of P. ponderosa, with differing botanical characters and adaptations to different climatic conditions. Four of these have been termed "geographic races" in forestry literature; some botanists treated some races as distinct species. In modern botanical usage, they have been formally published. Pinus ponderosa subsp. Brachyptera Engelm. — southwestern ponderosa pine. Four corners transition zone including southern Colorado, southern Utah and central New Mexico and Arizona, westernmost Texas, a single disjunct population in the far northwestern Oklahoma panhandle; the Gila Wilderness conta
Spearfish Canyon is a deep but narrow gorge carved by Spearfish Creek located in Lawrence County, South Dakota, U. S. just south of Spearfish. The canyon is located within the Black Hills, located on the northern edge of the Black Hills National Forest; the Spearfish Canyon Scenic Byway travels through the Canyon from Spearfish to Cheyenne Crossing along U. S. Route 14A; the highway follows an old railroad grade, abandoned after massive flooding in 1933. 600 million years ago in the Precambrian, the area was covered by a sea. As waters subsided and land masses began to appear 60 to 30 million years ago, drainages such as Spearfish Canyon formed as softer rock was eroded away. Today, a National Scenic Byway, U. S. Highway 14A, winds through the canyon; this area is a crossroads, trees and plants from Rocky Mountains, eastern woodlands, northern forests, the Great Plains areas can be found here. Of the 1,585 plant species found in South Dakota, 1,260 species are in the Black Hills, many of which can be found in Spearfish Canyon.
Ponderosa pines are the most prominent vegetation in the Black Hills. As for bird species, bluejays, cliff swallows and golden or bald eagles are seen in the area; the canyon supports a cross-section of four-footed animal life. White-tail and mule deer can be found throughout the drive. Porcupines, raccoons and chipmunks might be spotted as well as a bobcat or a yellow-bellied marmot, it is studied by geologists due to the extreme old age of the Precambrian rocks exposed by the creek bed. The canyon's high walls are of three dominant rock types; the Cambrian to Ordovician Deadwood Shale at the bottom lies on an unconformity above Precambrian rock and can be identified by its brown color. It is multi-layered in appearance and ranges from 10 to 400 feet thick. Englewood Limestone in the middle is 30 to 60 feet thick; the Paleogene Paha Sapa Limestone, the top layer, is the thickest and is buff-colored and weathered gray in appearance. Caves and fossils are found in the Paha Sapa Limestone. Roughlock Falls Nature Area Homestake Mine Black Hills Gold Rush Peter Norbeck Scenic Byway Basic information and pictures of Spearfish Canyon and tourism info Geologic information and pictures of Spearfish Canyon Information about the Scenic BywayBlack Hills National Forest
Sundance is a town in and the county seat of Crook County, United States. The population was 1,182 at the 2010 census; the town is named after the Sun Dance ceremony practiced by several American Indian tribes. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,182 people, 532 households, 326 families residing in the town; the population density was 387.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 606 housing units at an average density of 198.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.8% White, 0.2% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.4% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 532 households of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.7% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.76. The median age in the town was 47.5 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,161 people, 476 households, 318 families residing in the town; the population density was 582.2 people per square mile. There were 545 housing units at an average density of 273.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.64% White, 1.64% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population. There were 476 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91.
In the town, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 21.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,029, the median income for a family was $50,598. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,300. About 3.2% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over. Sundance is located at 44°24′19″N 104°22′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.06 square miles, of which, 3.05 square miles of it is land and 0.01 square miles is water. The town is directly south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, part of the Black Hills National Forest. Sundance experiences a humid continental climate with higher precipitation than the semi-arid regions surrounding it due to its location in the Black Hills.
Public education in the town of Sundance is provided by Crook County School District #1. Zoned campuses include Sundance Elementary School, Sundance Secondary School. Devils Tower National Monument, a 1,267-foot high igneous rock intrusion or laccolith in the Bear Lodge Mountains, is a short drive north of Sundance via US‑14 and Wyoming Highway 585, it rises above the surrounding terrain, with its summit 5,114 feet above sea level. It was the first United States National Monument, established on September 24, 1906, by President Theodore Roosevelt, it has 400,000 visitors annually. I-90 I-90 Bus. - Alternate I-90 Business Loop US 14 WYO 585 After his release from the town jail in 1888, Harry Longabaugh, an outlaw and member of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch in the American Old West, acquired the moniker, "the Sundance Kid". His nickname entered the popular culture with release of the 1969 movie Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, which won several Academy Awards, including Best Original Screenplay.
Robert Redford, who portrayed Longabaugh in the movie named his Sundance Ski Resort near Provo and the Sundance Film Festival after this character. The town of Sundance is the primary setting of Scumble, a children's novel by Ingrid Law, a sequel to her earlier children's book, Savvy. Sundance, Wyoming is the primary setting for Lorelei James' novels in her "Rough Riders" series of 16 books involving the fictional McKay family, eking out a living as multi generational ranchers and the younger generation's accepting who they are individually, the ins and outs of working with family every day and finding love. List of municipalities in Wyoming Official website Sundance Chamber of Commerce Crook County School District
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Custer State Park
Custer State Park is a South Dakota State Park and wildlife reserve in the Black Hills, United States. The park is South Dakota's largest and first state park, named after Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer; the area started out as sixteen sections, but was changed into one block of land because of the challenges of the terrain. The park began to grow in the 1920s and gained new land. During the 1930s the Civilian Conservation Corps built miles of roads, laid out parks and campgrounds, built three dams that set up a future of water recreation at the park. In 1964 an additional 22,900 acres were added to the park; the park is home to many wild animals. The park is home to a famous herd of 1500 free roaming bison. Elk, mule deer, white tailed deer, mountain goats, prairie dogs, bighorn sheep, river otters, pronghorn and feral burros inhabit the park; the park is famous for its scenery, its scenic drives, with views of the bison herd and prairie dog towns. This park is accessible by road from Rapid City.
Other nearby attractions are Wind Cave National Park, Mount Rushmore, Jewel Cave National Monument, Crazy Horse Memorial, Badlands National Park. The popularity of the park grew in 1927, when U. S. President Calvin Coolidge made it his "summer White House" and announced from the Black Hills that he would not seek a second full term in office in the election of 1928; the park has an annual bison roundup and auction in September, in which the bison in the park are rounded up, with several hundred sold at auction so that the remaining number of animals will be compatible with the rangeland forage. The annual roundups began in 1965; the Peter Norbeck Center is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is located on U. S. Route 16A in Custer. Exhibits focus on the park's natural history and cultural heritage, include wildlife dioramas, a CCC bunkhouse and a gold prospecting display; the center is named for Senator Peter Norbeck. Many of the park's naturalist programs begin at the center. Badger Hole known as Badger Clark Historical Site, was the home of Charles Badger Clark, named South Dakota's first Poet Laureate in 1937 and was noted for his cowboy poetry.
The house is maintained. Visitors can hike the adjacent Badger Clark Historic Trail. Opened in May of 2016, Custer State Park's visitor center offers guests a plethora of information on the animals of the park. Visitors can see a 20-minute film about the park. Begging Burros is a name used to refer to the donkeys in Custer State Park. For many years, these donkeys have earned this nickname as they approach various passing cars through the park begging for food. After earning this reputation, the burros have become famous, now garnering the attention of most travelers through the park inside and outside of cars. Many people bring food to the park for the purpose of feeding these animals; the Begging Burros inhabit one area of the park upon a hill where 50 of them try to obtain any food they can. Custer State Park's roadway is blocked off by these animals so use patience. Various movies have been filmed in Custer State Park, including The Last Hunt, How the West Was Won and A Man Called Horse. List of South Dakota state parks Custer State Park - Official Site Custer State Park Resort Tatanka: The 2011 Guide to Custer State Park Badger Clark Memorial Society