St Edward's Crown
St Edwards Crown is one of the oldest Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and the centrepiece of the coronation regalia. Named after Edward the Confessor, it has traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronation ceremonies. The current version was made for the coronation of Charles II in 1661, Edward the Confessor wore the first crown of this name at Easter and Christmas. It may have incorporated elements of a crown that belonged to Alfred the Great, in 1066, St Edwards Crown was reputedly used at the coronation of William the Conqueror. It was subsequently used for the coronations of William II, Henry I, Henry II, Richard I, at the first coronation of Henry III in 1216, a chaplet was used instead of the crown. From this it was inferred by the German historian, Reinhold Pauli, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley maintained that the original crown and regalia were kept in the Treasury until the time of Henry VIII, and survived until 1642. It was supposedly used in 1533 to crown the wife of Henry VIII.
During the English Civil War in 1642, Parliament sold the medieval St Edwards Crown, the British monarchy was eventually restored in 1661, and in preparation for the coronation of Charles II, a new St Edwards Crown was made by Sir Robert Vyner. It is 30 cm tall and weighs 2.23 kg and its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine. In 1671, Colonel Thomas Blood briefly stole the crown from the Tower of London, a new monde was created for the coronation of James II, and for William III the base was changed from a circle to an oval. St Edwards Crown was placed on the coffin of Edward VII for his lying in state, imitation pearls on the arches and base were replaced with golden beads. It was smaller to fit George V, the first monarch to be crowned with St Edwards Crown in over 200 years. When not used to crown the monarch, St Edwards Crown was placed on the altar during the coronation, however, it did not feature at all at the coronation of Queen Victoria. Before 1649, it was usual for a monarch to be crowned with the original St Edwards Crown, images based on the crown are used in coats of arms, badges and various other insignia throughout the Commonwealth realms to symbolise the monarchs royal authority.
In these contexts, it replaced the Tudor Crown in 1953 by order of Queen Elizabeth II, use of the crowns image in this way is by permission of the monarch. Coronation crown Canadian royal symbols St Edwards Crown at the Royal Collection, the Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. It has the formula MgAl2O4 in the crystal system. Its name comes from Latin spina, balas ruby is an old name for a rose-tinted variety of spinel. Spinel crystallizes in the system, common crystal forms are octahedra. It has an imperfect cleavage and a conchoidal fracture. Its hardness is 8, its gravity is 3. 5–4.1. It may be colorless, but is usually shades of red, green, brown, black. There is a natural white spinel, now lost, that surfaced briefly in what is now Sri Lanka. The Samarian Spinel is the largest known spinel in the world, the transparent red spinels were called spinel-rubies or balas rubies. In the past, before the arrival of modern science, after the 18th century the word ruby was only used for the red gem variety of the mineral corundum and the word spinel came to be used. Balas is derived from Balascia, the ancient name for Badakhshan, mines in the Gorno Badakhshan region of Tajikistan was for centuries the main source for red and pink spinels.
Spinel has long been found in the gravel of Sri Lanka and in limestones of the Badakshan Province in modern-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Recently gem quality spinels found in the marbles of Luc Yen and Matombo, Tsavo and in the gravels of Tunduru and this is why spinel and ruby are often found together. Spinel, 2O4, is common in peridotite in the uppermost Earths mantle, Spinel, Al2O4, is a common mineral in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions in some chondritic meteorites. Synthetic spinel, accidentally produced in the middle of the 18th century, has described more recently in scientific publications in 2000 and 2004. By 2015, transparent spinel was being made in sheets and other shapes through sintering, synthetic spinel which looks like glass but has notably higher strength against pressure, can have applications in military and commercial use. Spinel group Ceylonite The Samarian Spinel, the largest known spinel in the world, part of the Iranian Crown Jewels Black Princes Ruby Deer, Howie, an Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, Longman, pp. 424–433, ISBN 0-582-44210-9.
Gemstones of the World 3rd edition, Sterling, pp. 116–117, Spinel structure at the University of Wisconsin - Green Bay Spinel structure at the Institut for materials science of the University of Kiel Value of Spinel
It was commissioned in 1296 by King Edward I to contain the coronation stone of Scotland – known as the Stone of Scone – which had been captured from the Scots who kept it at Scone Abbey. The chair was named after Edward the Confessor, and was kept in his shrine at Westminster Abbey. The high-backed, Gothic-style armchair was carved from oak at some point between the summer of 1297 and March 1300 by the carpenter Walter of Durham. At first, the king ordered for the chair to be made of bronze, the chair is the oldest dated piece of English furniture made by a known artist. Monarchs used to sit on the Stone of Scone itself until a wooden platform was added in the 17th century, gilded lions added in the 16th century form the legs to the chair, they were all replaced in 1727. One of the four lions was given a new head for George IVs coronation in 1821, a lost image of a king, maybe Edward the Confessor or Edward I, with his feet resting on a lion was painted on the back. Today, its appearance is of aged and brittle wood, in the 18th century, tourists could sit on the chair for a small payment to one of the vergers.
Early tourists and choirboys of the abbey carved their initials and other graffiti into the chair, sir Gilbert Scott, the Gothic revival architect and antiquary, described the chair as a magnificent piece of decoration, but sadly mutilated. At 5,40 pm on 11 June 1914, the chair was the object of a bomb thought to have been organised by the Suffragettes. A corner of the chair was broken off in the explosion, over the eight centuries of its existence the chair has only been removed from Westminster Abbey twice. On Christmas Day 1950, Scottish Nationalists broke into the abbey and it was recovered in time for Queen Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953. Since 1996, it has kept at Edinburgh Castle in Scotland on the proviso that it be returned to England for use at coronations. Between 2010 and 2012, the chair was cleaned and restored by a team of experts in full view of the public at the abbey and it may be noted that other chairs are used throughout the coronation ceremony. On occasions when the wife of a king – a queen consort – is crowned, unlike the Coronation Chair, these other chairs and thrones tend to be made new for each coronation.
Afterwards, they have often placed in the Throne Rooms of royal palaces. The Chair of Estate from the 1953 coronation can be found in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace, along with those of George VI and his consort Queen Elizabeth. The 1953 Homage Throne is kept in the Garter Throne Room of Windsor Castle and those of George V and Queen Mary may be seen in the Throne Room at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. Westminster Stone theory Chair of St Peter Media related to Coronation Chair at Wikimedia Commons History of the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey
Imperial State Crown
The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and symbolises the sovereignty of the monarch. It has existed in various forms since the 15th century, the current version was made in 1937 and is worn by the monarch after a coronation ceremony and during his or her speech at the annual State Opening of Parliament. It contains 2,901 precious stones, including Cullinan II – the second-largest clear cut diamond in the world. St Edwards Crown, used to crown English monarchs, was considered to be a relic, kept in the saints shrine at Westminster Abbey. The Tudor Crown had more pearls and jewels than its predecessor, and the centre petals of each of the fleurs-de-lis had images of Christ. The crown weighed 3.3 kg and was set with 168 pearls,58 rubies,28 diamonds,19 sapphires and 2 emeralds. Following the abolition of the monarchy and the execution of Charles I in 1649, upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, a new state crown was made for Charles II by Sir Robert Vyner.
About 10 versions of the crown have existed since the restoration, the one made for Queen Victoria in 1838 is the basis for todays crown. At the State Opening of Parliament in 1845, the Duke of Argyll was carrying the crown before Queen Victoria when it fell off the cushion, Victoria wrote in her diary, it was all crushed and squashed like a pudding that had sat down. The gems in the crown were remounted for the coronation of George VI in 1937 by Garrard & Co, the crown was adjusted for Queen Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953, with the head size reduced and the arches lowered by 25 mm to give it a more feminine appearance. The Imperial State Crown is 31.5 cm tall and weighs 1.06 kg and its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine. The frame is made of gold and platinum, and decorated with 2,868 diamonds,273 pearls,17 sapphires,11 emeralds, and 5 rubies. In 1909, the 104-carat Stuart Sapphire, set in the front of the crown, was moved to the back, three of the pearls belonged to Elizabeth I. The crown is worn by the monarch on leaving Westminster Abbey at the end of his or her coronation ceremony and it is worn at the annual State Opening of Parliament.
When not in use, it is on display with the rest of the Crown Jewels in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. Kenneth J. Mears, Simon Thurley, Claire Murphy, the Imperial State Crown at the Royal Collection. The Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland. Cromwell was born into the gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIIIs minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life as only four of his letters survive alongside a summary of a speech he delivered in 1628. He became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a conversion in the 1630s. He was a religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and he entered the English Civil War on the side of the Roundheads or Parliamentarians. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles Is death warrant in 1649 and he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwells forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, during this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated.
Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651, as a ruler, he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. He died from natural causes in 1658 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, the Royalists returned to power in 1660, and they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, sponsored by military historian Richard Holmes was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised as genocidal or near-genocidal, Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. Katherine married Morgan ap William, son of William ap Yevan of Wales, Henry suggested to Sir Richard Williams, who was the first to use a surname in his family, that he use Cromwell, in honour of his uncle Thomas Cromwell. They had ten children, but Oliver, the child, was the only boy to survive infancy. Jasper was the uncle of Henry VII and great uncle of Henry VIII, Cromwells paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire.
Cromwells father Robert was of modest means but still a part of the gentry class, as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes, Cromwell himself in 1654 said, I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity. He was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St Johns Church and he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, a recently founded college with a strong Puritan ethos
Henry II of Castile
Henry II, called the Fratricidal or the one of las Mercedes, was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara. He became king in 1369 by defeating his half-brother, Peter the Cruel, after numerous rebellions, as king he was involved in the Ferdinand Wars and the Hundred Years War. Henry was the fourth of ten children of King Alfonso XI of Castile and Eleanor de Guzmán. He was born a twin to Fadrique Alfonso, Lord of Haro, at birth, he was adopted by Rodrigo Álvarez de las Asturias. Rodrigo died the year and Henry inherited his lordship of Noreña. It made him the head of the new Trastámara dynasty, arising from the branch of Burgundy-Ivrea. While Alfonso XI lived, his lover Eleanor gave a great many titles and privileges to their sons and this caused discontent among many of the noblemen and in particular the queen, Maria of Portugal, and her son, known as Pedro the Cruel and the Just. They had a chance for revenge when Alfonso XI died unexpectedly from a fever in the siege of Gibraltar in March,1350 and they pushed Eleanor, her sons and their supporters aside, and Henry and his brothers fled and scattered.
They were fearful of what their brother, the new king Pedro I of Castile, the late king had not even been buried. Although Eleanor and her sons reached an agreement with Pedro to live peacefully in his court and his brothers Fadrique and Sancho staged numerous rebellions against the new king. In 1351, the King took counsel from Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque and he became convinced that his fathers lover was the instigator of the uprisings, so he ordered Eleanor to be incarcerated and finally executed in Talavera de la Reina. After that, Henry fled to Portugal and he was pardoned by Pedro and returned to Castile, revolted in Asturias in 1352. He reconciled with his brother, only to rebel against him again in a long, intermittent war, which ended with Henrys flight to France, shortly after and his men spent time in Peter IV of Aragons army in their war against Castile. During that conflict, he was defeated and held prisoner in Nájera and he was liberated and exiled himself to France once more.
Then Peter IV of Aragon attacked Castile again, Henry agreed to help him on condition that he would lend his support to destroying his brother, Pedro of Castile. This became the Castilian Civil War, the attack combined Henrys Castillian allies, the Aragonese and the French. Henry was proclaimed king in Calahorra, in return, he had to reward his allies with titles and riches for the help they had provided. This earned him the nickname el de las Mercedes, Pedro of Castile fled north to Bordeaux, the capital of the English dominions in France, where Edward, the Black Prince held court
Battle of Agincourt
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years War. The battle took place on Friday,25 October 1415 in the County of Saint-Pol, Henry V led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation, the French were commanded by Constable Charles dAlbret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, the battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare. The Battle of Agincourt is well documented by at least seven contemporary accounts, the approximate location of the battle has never been in dispute and the place remains relatively unaltered even after 600 years. Two of the most frequently cited accounts come from Burgundian sources, one from Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, who was present at the battle, Henry V invaded France following the failure of negotiations with the French.
He initially called a Great Council in the spring of 1414 to discuss going to war with France, Henry would marry Princess Catherine, the young daughter of Charles VI, and receive a dowry of 2 million crowns. The French responded with what they considered the terms of marriage with Princess Catherine, a dowry of 600,000 crowns. By 1415, negotiations had ground to a halt, with the English claiming that the French had mocked their claims and ridiculed Henry himself. In December 1414, the English parliament was persuaded to grant Henry a double subsidy, on 19 April 1415, Henry again asked the Great Council to sanction war with France, and this time they agreed. The siege took longer than expected, the town surrendered on 22 September, and the English army did not leave until 8 October. The campaign season was coming to an end, and the English army had suffered many casualties through disease and he intended the manoeuvre as a deliberate provocation to battle aimed at the dauphin, who had failed to respond to Henrys personal challenge to combat at Harfleur.
The French had raised an army during the siege which assembled around Rouen and this was not strictly a feudal army, but an army paid through a system similar to the English. The French hoped to raise 9,000 troops, but the army was not ready in time to relieve Harfleur, after Henry V marched to the north, the French moved to block them along the River Somme. They were successful for a time, forcing Henry to move south, away from Calais, the English finally crossed the Somme south of Péronne, at Béthencourt and Voyennes and resumed marching north. Without a river obstacle to defend, the French were hesitant to force a battle and they shadowed Henrys army while calling a semonce des nobles, calling on local nobles to join the army. By 24 October, both faced each other for battle, but the French declined, hoping for the arrival of more troops. The two armies spent the night of 24 October on open ground, the English had very little food, had marched 260 miles in two and a half weeks, were suffering from sickness such as dysentery, and faced much larger numbers of well equipped French men at arms
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England from 1483 until his death in 1485, at the age of 32, in the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty and his defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the historical play Richard III by William Shakespeare, when his brother King Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edwards son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. As the young king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to lodgings in the Tower of London, on 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed the claims. The following day, Richard III began his reign, and he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes were not seen in public after August, and accusations circulated that the boys had been murdered on Richards orders, there were two major rebellions against Richard.
The first, in October 1483, was led by allies of Edward IV and Richards former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor landed in southern Wales with a small contingent of French troops and marched through his birthplace, recruiting soldiers. Henrys force engaged Richards army and defeated it at the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, Richard was struck down in the conflict, making him the last English king to die in battle on home soil and the first since Harold Godwinson. Henry ascended the throne as Henry VII, after the battle Richards corpse was taken to Leicester and buried without pomp. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the Reformation, in 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on a city council car park on the site once occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church. Richards remains were reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015 and they returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton and participated in the coronation of Richards eldest brother as King Edward IV in June 1461.
At this time Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made a Knight of the Garter and Knight of the Bath, by the age of seventeen, he had an independent command. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, while at Warwicks estate, he probably met Francis Lovell, a strong supporter in his life, and Warwicks younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match, during Warwicks lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the kings permission. George joined his father-in-laws revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward, in 1468, Richards sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and the brothers could expect a welcome there. Although only eighteen years old, Richard played crucial roles in the battles of Barnet, during his adolescence, Richard developed idiopathic scoliosis.
Following a decisive Yorkist victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Richard married Anne Neville, by the end of 1470 Anne had previously been wedded to Edward of Westminster, only son of Henry VI, to seal her fathers allegiance to the Lancastrian party
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6 and it is a steely-grey, lustrous and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color, Chromium metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness. A major development was the discovery that steel could be highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel. Stainless steel and chrome plating together comprise 85% of the commercial use, trivalent chromium ion is an essential nutrient in trace amounts in humans for insulin and lipid metabolism, although the issue is debated. While chromium metal and Cr ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium is toxic and carcinogenic, abandoned chromium production sites often require environmental cleanup. Chromium is remarkable for its properties, it is the only elemental solid which shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature.
Above 38 °C, it changes to paramagnetic, Chromium metal left standing in air is passivated by oxidation, forming a thin, surface layer. This layer is a structure only a few molecules thick. It is very dense, and prevents the diffusion of oxygen into the underlying metal and this is different from the oxide that forms on iron and carbon steel, through which elemental oxygen continues to migrate, reaching the underlying material to cause incessant rusting. Passivation can be enhanced by short contact with oxidizing acids like nitric acid, passivated chromium is stable against acids. Passivation can be removed with a reducing agent that destroys the protective oxide layer on the metal. Chromium metal treated in this way readily dissolves in weak acids, unlike such metals as iron and nickel, does not suffer from hydrogen embrittlement. However, it suffer from nitrogen embrittlement, reacting with nitrogen from air. Chromium is the 22nd most abundant element in Earths crust with a concentration of 100 ppm.
Chromium compounds are found in the environment from the erosion of chromium-containing rocks, Chromium is mined as chromite ore. About two-fifths of the ores and concentrates in the world are produced in South Africa, while Kazakhstan, Russia. Untapped chromite deposits are plentiful, but geographically concentrated in Kazakhstan, although rare, deposits of native chromium exist
Aluminium oxide or aluminum oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and it is commonly called alumina, and may be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It occurs naturally in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3 as the mineral corundum, varieties of form the precious gemstones ruby. Al2O3 is significant in its use to produce metal, as an abrasive owing to its hardness. Corundum is the most common naturally occurring form of aluminium oxide. Rubies and sapphires are gem-quality forms of corundum, which owe their characteristic colors to trace impurities, rubies are given their characteristic deep red color and their laser qualities by traces of chromium. Sapphires come in different colors given by various other impurities, such as iron, Al2O3 is an electrical insulator but has a relatively high thermal conductivity for a ceramic material.
Aluminium oxide is insoluble in water, in its most commonly occurring crystalline form, called corundum or α-aluminium oxide, its hardness makes it suitable for use as an abrasive and as a component in cutting tools. Aluminium oxide is responsible for the resistance of aluminium to weathering. Metallic aluminium is very reactive with oxygen, and a thin passivation layer of aluminium oxide forms on any exposed aluminium surface. This layer protects the metal from further oxidation, the thickness and properties of this oxide layer can be enhanced using a process called anodising. A number of alloys, such as bronzes, exploit this property by including a proportion of aluminium in the alloy to enhance corrosion resistance. Aluminium oxide was taken off the United States Environmental Protection Agencys chemicals lists in 1988, aluminium oxide is on EPAs Toxics Release Inventory list if it is a fibrous form. Al2O3 +6 HF →2 AlF3 +3 H2O Al2O3 +2 NaOH +3 H2O →2 NaAl4 The most common form of aluminium oxide is known as corundum.
The oxygen ions form a hexagonal close-packed structure with aluminium ions filling two-thirds of the octahedral interstices. In terms of its crystallography, corundum adopts a trigonal Bravais lattice with a group of R-3c. The primitive cell contains two units of aluminium oxide. Each has a crystal structure and properties
Rundell and Bridge
Rundell & Bridge were a London firm of jewellers and goldsmiths formed by Philip Rundell and John Bridge. When Edmond Waller Rundell, nephew of Philip Rundell, was admitted as a partner in 1804 and that same year John Gawler Bridge, nephew of John Bridge joined the firm. The firm was appointed as one of the goldsmiths and jewellers to the king in 1797 and Principal Royal Goldsmiths & Jewellers in 1804, amongst its employees were the well-known artists John Flaxman and Thomas Stothard, who both designed and modelled silverware. The Royal Goldsmiths served four monarchs, George III, George IV, William IV, in addition, their name was attributed to the Rundell tiara, made for Princess Alexandra in 1863. After the Congress of Vienna, the firm prepared 22 snuff-boxes to a value of 1000 guineas each to be given as diplomatic gifts. Hartop, with foreword by HRH The Prince of Wales, introduction by Philippa Glanville and essays by Diana Scarisbrick, Charles Truman, David Watkin and Matthew Winterbottom
The Reconquista ended just before the European discovery of the Americas—the New World—which ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires. The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, a landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Nevertheless, the difference between Christian and Muslim kingdoms in early medieval Spain was not seen at the time as anything like the clear-cut opposition that emerged, both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon, blurring distinctions even further were the mercenaries from both sides who simply fought for whoever paid the most. The period is looked back upon today as one of religious tolerance. In fact previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of reconquest and their rebellious pursuit was thus a Crusade for the restoration of Churchs unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid.
Many recent historians dispute the concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A number of historians have called it a myth, One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a reconquest that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century. However, the term is widely in use. In 711, Muslim Moors, mainly North African Berber soldiers with some Arabs, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, from their stronghold of Narbonne, they launched raids into the Duchy of Aquitaine. At no point did the invading Islamic armies exceed 60,000 men and these armies established an Islamic rule that would last 300 years in much of the Iberian Peninsula and 770 years in Granada. After the establishment of a local Emirate, Caliph Al-Walid I, ruler of the Umayyad caliphate, tariq ibn Ziyad, the first governor of the newly conquered province of Al-Andalus, was recalled to Damascus and replaced with Musa bin Nusair, who had been his former superior.
Musas son, Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa, apparently married Egilona, Roderics widow and he was suspected of being under the influence of his wife, accused of wanting to convert to Christianity, and of planning a secessionist rebellion. Apparently a concerned Al-Walid I ordered Abd al-Azizs assassination, Caliph Al-Walid I died in 715 and was succeeded by his brother Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. Sulayman seems to have punished the surviving Musa bin Nusair, who soon died during a pilgrimage in 716. In the end Abd al-Aziz ibn Musas cousin, Ayyub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi became the emir of Al-Andalus, the conquering generals were necessarily acting very independently, due to the methods of communication available. Old rivalries and perhaps even full-fledged conspiracies between rival generals may have had influence over this development, in the end, the old successful generals were replaced by a younger generation considered more loyal by the government in Damascus. A serious weakness amongst the Muslim conquerors was the tension between Berbers and Arabs