Pink is a pale red color, named after a flower of the same name. It was first used as a color name in the late 17th century. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, pink is the color most associated with charm, sensitivity, sweetness, childhood and the romantic. A combination of pink and white is associated with chastity and innocence, whereas a combination of pink and black links to eroticism and seduction; the color pink is named after the flowers, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus, derives from the frilled edge of the flowers. The verb "to pink" dates from the 14th century and means "to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern". While the word "pink" was first used as a noun to refer to a color in the 17th century, the verb "pink" continues to be reflected today as the name of hand-held scissors that cut a zig-zagged line to prevent fraying that are referred to as pinking shears; the color pink has been described in literature since ancient times. In the Odyssey, written in 800 BCE, Homer wrote "Then, when the child of morning, rosy-fingered dawn appeared..." Roman poets described the color.
Roseus is the Latin word meaning "rosy" or "pink." Lucretius used the word to describe the dawn in his epic poem On the Nature of Things. Pink was not a common color in the fashion of the Middle Ages. However, it did appear in women's fashion, in religious art. In the 13th and 14th century, in works by Cimabue and Duccio, the Christ child was sometimes portrayed dressed in pink, the color associated with the body of Christ. In the high Renaissance painting the Madonna of the Pinks by Raphael, the Christ child is presenting a pink flower to the Virgin Mary; the pink was a symbol of marriage, showing a spiritual marriage between the child. During the Renaissance, pink was used for the flesh color of faces and hands; the pigment used for this was called light cinabrese. In his famous 15th century manual on painting, Il Libro Dell'Arte, Cennino Cennini described it this way: "This pigment is made from the loveliest and lightest sinopia, found and is mixed and mulled with St. John’s white, as it is called in Florence.
And when these two pigments have been mulled together, make little loaves of them like half walnuts and leave them to dry. When you need some, take however much of it seems appropriate, and this pigment does you great credit if you use it for painting faces and nudes on walls..." The zenith of the color pink was the 18th century, when pastel colors became fashionable in all the courts of Europe. Pink was championed by Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France, who wore combinations of pale blue and pink, had a particular tint of pink made for her by the Sevres porcelain factory, created by adding nuances of blue and yellow. While pink was quite evidently the color of seduction in the portraits made by George Romney of Emma, Lady Hamilton, the future mistress of Admiral Horatio Nelson, in the late 18th century, it had the opposite meaning in the portrait of Sarah Barrett Moulton painted by Thomas Lawrence in 1794. In this painting, it symbolized childhood and tenderness. Sarah Moulton was just eleven years old when the picture was painted, died the following year.
In 19th century England, pink ribbons or decorations were worn by young boys. In fact the clothing for children in the 19th century was always white, before the invention of chemical dyes, clothing of any color would fade when washed in boiling water. Queen Victoria was painted in 1850 with her seventh child and third son, Prince Arthur, who wore white and pink. In late nineteenth-century France, Impressionist painters working in a pastel color palette sometimes depicted women wearing the color pink, such as Edgar Degas’ image of ballet dancers or Mary Cassatt’s images of women and children; the US presidential inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953 when Eisenhower's wife Mamie Eisenhower wore a pink dress as her inaugural gown is thought to have been a key turning point to the association of pink as a color associated with girls. Mamie's strong liking of pink led to the public association with pink being a color that "ladylike women wear." The 1957 American musical Funny Face played a role in cementing the color's association with women.
In the 20th century, pinks became bolder and more assertive, in part because of the invention of chemical dyes which did not fade. The pioneer in the creation of the new wave of pinks was the Italian designer Elsa Schiaparelli, aligned with the artists of the surrealist movement, including Jean Cocteau. In 1931 she created a new variety of the color, called shocking pink, made by mixing magenta with a small amount of white, she launched a perfume called Shocking, sold in a bottle in the shape of a woman's torso, said to be modelled on that of Mae West. Her fashions, co-designed with artists such as Cocteau, featured the new pinks. In Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, inmates of Nazi concentration camps who were accused of homosexuality were forced to wear a pink triangle; because of this, the pink triangle has become a symbol of the modern gay rights movement. The transition to pink as a sexually differentiating color f
Transparency and translucency
In the field of optics, transparency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale, the photons can be said to follow Snell's Law. Translucency is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not follow Snell's law. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. Transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color; the opposite property of translucency is opacity. When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in several different ways; these interactions depend on the nature of the material. Photons interact with an object by some combination of reflection and transmission; some materials, such as plate glass and clean water, transmit much of the light that falls on them and reflect little of it.
Many liquids and aqueous solutions are transparent. Absence of structural defects and molecular structure of most liquids are responsible for excellent optical transmission. Materials which do not transmit light are called opaque. Many such substances have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. Many substances are selective in their absorption of white light frequencies, they absorb certain portions of the visible spectrum while reflecting others. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected or transmitted for our physical observation; this is. The attenuation of light of all frequencies and wavelengths is due to the combined mechanisms of absorption and scattering. Transparency can provide perfect camouflage for animals able to achieve it; this is easier in turbid seawater than in good illumination. Many marine animals such as jellyfish are transparent. With regard to the absorption of light, primary material considerations include: At the electronic level, absorption in the ultraviolet and visible portions of the spectrum depends on whether the electron orbitals are spaced such that they can absorb a quantum of light of a specific frequency, does not violate selection rules.
For example, in most glasses, electrons have no available energy levels above them in range of that associated with visible light, or if they do, they violate selection rules, meaning there is no appreciable absorption in pure glasses, making them ideal transparent materials for windows in buildings. At the atomic or molecular level, physical absorption in the infrared portion of the spectrum depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds, on selection rules. Nitrogen and oxygen are not greenhouse gases because there is no absorption, but because there is no molecular dipole moment. With regard to the scattering of light, the most critical factor is the length scale of any or all of these structural features relative to the wavelength of the light being scattered. Primary material considerations include: Crystalline structure: whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit the'long-range order' evidenced in crystalline solids. Glassy structure: scattering centers include fluctuations in density or composition.
Microstructure: scattering centers include internal surfaces such as grain boundaries, crystallographic defects and microscopic pores. Organic materials: scattering centers include fiber and cell structures and boundaries. Diffuse reflection - Generally, when light strikes the surface of a solid material, it bounces off in all directions due to multiple reflections by the microscopic irregularities inside the material, by its surface, if it is rough. Diffuse reflection is characterized by omni-directional reflection angles. Most of the objects visible to the naked eye are identified via diffuse reflection. Another term used for this type of reflection is "light scattering". Light scattering from the surfaces of objects is our primary mechanism of physical observation. Light scattering in liquids and solids depends on the wavelength of the light being scattered. Limits to spatial scales of visibility therefore arise, depending on the frequency of the light wave and the physical dimension of the scattering center.
Visible light has a wavelength scale on the order of a half a micrometer. Scattering centers as small. Optical transparency in polycrystalline materials is limited by the amount of light, scattered by their microstructural features. Light scattering depends on the wavelength of the light. Limits to spatial scales of visibility therefore arise, depending on the frequency of the light wave and the physical dimension of the scattering center. For example, since visible light has a wavelength scale on the order of a micrometer, scattering centers will have dimensions on a similar spatial scale. Primary scattering centers in polycrystalline materi
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral. The word traces its origins back to the Latin lux, meaning "light", implies radiance, gloss, or brilliance. A range of terms are used to describe lustre, such as earthy, metallic and silky; the term vitreous refers to a glassy lustre. A list of these terms is given below. Lustre varies over a wide continuum, so there are no rigid boundaries between the different types of lustre; the terms are combined to describe intermediate types of lustre. Some minerals exhibit unusual optical phenomena, such as asterism or chatoyancy. A list of such phenomena is given below. Adamantine minerals possess a superlative lustre, most notably seen in diamond; such minerals are transparent or translucent, have a high refractive index. Minerals with a true adamantine lustre are uncommon, with examples being cerussite and cubic zirconia. Minerals with a lesser degree of lustre are referred to as subadamantine, with some examples being garnet and corundum.
Dull minerals exhibit little to no lustre, due to coarse granulations which scatter light in all directions, approximating a Lambertian reflector. An example is kaolinite. A distinction is sometimes drawn between dull minerals and earthy minerals, with the latter being coarser, having less lustre. Greasy minerals resemble grease. A greasy lustre occurs in minerals containing a great abundance of microscopic inclusions, with examples including opal and cordierite, jadeite. Many minerals with a greasy lustre feel greasy to the touch. Metallic minerals have the lustre of polished metal, with ideal surfaces will work as a reflective surface. Examples include galena and magnetite. Pearly minerals consist of thin transparent co-planar sheets. Light reflecting from these layers give them a lustre reminiscent of pearls; such minerals possess perfect cleavage, with examples including stilbite. Resinous minerals have the appearance of chewing gum or plastic. A principal example is amber, a form of fossilized resin.
Silky minerals have a parallel arrangement of fine fibres, giving them a lustre reminiscent of silk. Examples include asbestos and the satin spar variety of gypsum. A fibrous lustre has a coarser texture. Submetallic minerals are duller and less reflective. A submetallic lustre occurs in near-opaque minerals with high refractive indices, such as sphalerite and cuprite. Vitreous minerals have the lustre of glass; this type of lustre is one of the most seen, occurs in transparent or translucent minerals with low refractive indices. Common examples include calcite, topaz, beryl and fluorite, among others. Waxy minerals have a lustre resembling wax. Examples include chalcedony. Asterism is the display of a star-shaped luminous area, it is seen in some rubies, where it is caused by impurities of rutile. It can occur in garnet and spinel. Aventurescence is a reflectance effect like that of glitter, it arises from minute, preferentially oriented mineral platelets within the material. These platelets are so numerous that they influence the material's body colour.
In aventurine quartz, chrome-bearing fuchsite makes for a green stone and various iron oxides make for a red stone. Chatoyant minerals display luminous bands; such minerals are composed of parallel fibers, which reflect light into a direction perpendicular to their orientation, thus forming narrow bands of light. The most famous examples are tiger's eye and cymophane, but the effect may occur in other minerals such as aquamarine and tourmaline. Color change is most found in alexandrite, a variety of chrysoberyl gemstones. Other gems occur in color-change varieties, including sapphire, spinel. Alexandrite displays a color change dependent upon light, along with strong pleochroism; the gem results from small-scale replacement of aluminium by chromium oxide, responsible for alexandrite's characteristic green to red color change. Alexandrite from the Ural Mountains in Russia is green by red by incandescent light. Other varieties of alexandrite may be yellowish or pink in daylight and a columbine or raspberry red by incandescent light.
The optimum or "ideal" color change would be fine emerald green to fine purplish red, but this is rare. Iridescence is the'play' or'fire' of rainbow-coloured light caused by thin regular structures or layers beneath the surface of a gemstone. Similar to a thin film of oil on water, these layers interfere with the rays of reflected light, reinforcing some colours and cancelling others. Iridescence is seen at its best in precious opal. Schiller, from German for "color play", is the metallic iridescence originating from below the surface of a stone that occurs when light is reflected between layers of minerals, it is seen in moonstone and labradorite and is similar to adularescence and aventurescence
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of 570–590 nm, it is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, canaries and lemons, as well as egg yolks and bananas, they protect plants from photodamage. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun; because it was available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs in the murals in Roman villas. In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics.
In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, could be worn only by the Emperor and his household. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, yellow is the color people most associate with amusement, gentleness and spontaneity, but with duplicity, jealousy, and, in the U. S. with cowardice. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but wisdom and connection. In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory and wisdom; the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel -, as yell; the English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.
Yellow is found between orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers. In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image.. A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a different way. Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple. Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony. Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."
That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "indigo blue" are complements. Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower.
More with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow. Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet. Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors. In commercial products diode pumped. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and induces it to emit at
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Igneous rock, or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava; the magma can be crust. The melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses. Igneous rocks occur in a wide range of geological settings: shields, orogens, large igneous provinces, extended crust and oceanic crust. Igneous and metamorphic rocks make up 90–95% of the top 16 km of the Earth's crust by volume. Igneous rocks form about 15% of the Earth's current land surface. Most of the Earth's oceanic crust is made of igneous rock. Igneous rocks are geologically important because: their minerals and global chemistry give information about the composition of the mantle, from which some igneous rocks are extracted, the temperature and pressure conditions that allowed this extraction, and/or of other pre-existing rock that melted.
In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either extrusive. Intrusive igneous rocks make up the majority of igneous rocks and are formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet, surrounded by pre-existing rock; the mineral grains in such rocks can be identified with the naked eye. Intrusive rocks can be classified according to the shape and size of the intrusive body and its relation to the other formations into which it intrudes. Typical intrusive formations are batholiths, laccoliths and dikes; when the magma solidifies within the earth's crust, it cools forming coarse textured rocks, such as granite, gabbro, or diorite. The central cores of major mountain ranges consist of intrusive igneous rocks granite; when exposed by erosion, these cores may occupy huge areas of the Earth's surface. Intrusive igneous rocks that form at depth within the crust are termed plutonic rocks and are coarse-grained. Intrusive igneous rocks that form near the surface are termed subvolcanic or hypabyssal rocks and they are medium-grained.
Hypabyssal rocks are less common than plutonic or volcanic rocks and form dikes, laccoliths, lopoliths, or phacoliths. Extrusive igneous rocks known as volcanic rocks, are formed at the crust's surface as a result of the partial melting of rocks within the mantle and crust. Extrusive solidify quicker than intrusive igneous rocks, they are formed by the cooling of molten magma on the earth's surface. The magma, brought to the surface through fissures or volcanic eruptions, solidifies at a faster rate. Hence such rocks are smooth and fine-grained. Basalt is lava plateaus; some kinds of basalt solidify to form long polygonal columns. The Giant's Causeway in Antrim, Northern Ireland is an example; the molten rock, with or without suspended crystals and gas bubbles, is called magma. It rises; when magma reaches the surface from beneath water or air, it is called lava. Eruptions of volcanoes into air are termed subaerial, whereas those occurring underneath the ocean are termed submarine. Black smokers and mid-ocean ridge basalt are examples of submarine volcanic activity.
The volume of extrusive rock erupted annually by volcanoes varies with plate tectonic setting. Extrusive rock is produced in the following proportions: divergent boundary: 73% convergent boundary: 15% hotspot: 12%. Magma that erupts from a volcano behaves according to its viscosity, determined by temperature, crystal content and the amount of silica. High-temperature magma, most of, basaltic in composition, behaves in a manner similar to thick oil and, as it cools, treacle. Long, thin basalt flows with pahoehoe surfaces are common. Intermediate composition magma, such as andesite, tends to form cinder cones of intermingled ash and lava, may have a viscosity similar to thick, cold molasses or rubber when erupted. Felsic magma, such as rhyolite, is erupted at low temperature and is up to 10,000 times as viscous as basalt. Volcanoes with rhyolitic magma erupt explosively, rhyolitic lava flows are of limited extent and have steep margins, because the magma is so viscous. Felsic and intermediate magmas that erupt do so violently, with explosions driven by the release of dissolved gases—typically water vapour, but carbon dioxide.
Explosively erupted pyroclastic material is called tephra and includes tuff and ignimbrite. Fine volcanic ash is erupted and forms ash tuff deposits, which ca
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic color a color without hue, like white and gray, it is used symbolically or figuratively to represent darkness, while white represents light. Black and white have been used to describe opposites. Since the Middle Ages, black has been the symbolic color of solemnity and authority, for this reason is still worn by judges and magistrates. Black was one of the first colors used by artists in neolithic cave paintings. In the 14th century, it was worn by royalty, clergy and government officials in much of Europe, it became the color worn by English romantic poets and statesmen in the 19th century, a high fashion color in the 20th century. In the Roman Empire, it became the color of mourning, over the centuries it was associated with death, evil and magic. According to surveys in Europe and North America, it is the color most associated with mourning, the end, magic, violence and elegance.
Black ink is the most common color used for printing books and documents, as it provides the highest contrast with white paper and thus the easiest color to read. Black text on a white screen is the most common format used on computer screens; the word black comes from Old English blæc, from Proto-Germanic *blakkaz, from Proto-Indo-European *bhleg-, from base *bhel-, related to Old Saxon blak, Old High German blach, Old Norse blakkr, Dutch blaken, Swedish bläck. More distant cognates include Latin flagrare, Ancient Greek phlegein; the Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos' could mean both dark black; the Ancient Romans had two words for black: ater was a flat, dull black, while niger was a brilliant, saturated black. Ater has vanished from the vocabulary, but niger was the source of the country name Nigeria the English word Negro and the word for "black" in most modern Romance languages. Old High German had two words for black: swartz for dull black and blach for a luminous black.
These are parallelled in Middle English by the terms swart for dull black and blaek for luminous black. Swart still survives as the word swarthy. In heraldry, the word used for the black color is sable, named for the black fur of the sable, an animal. Black was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. They began by using charcoal, made more vivid black pigments by burning bones or grinding a powder of manganese oxide. For the ancient Egyptians, black had positive associations, it was the color of Anubis, the god of the underworld, who took the form of a black jackal, offered protection against evil to the dead. For the ancient Greeks, black was the color of the underworld, separated from the world of the living by the river Acheron, whose water was black; those who had committed the worst sins were sent to the deepest and darkest level. In the center was the palace of Hades, the king of the underworld, where he was seated upon a black ebony throne.
Black was one of the most important colors used by ancient Greek artists. In the 6th century BC, they began making black-figure pottery and red figure pottery, using a original technique. In black-figure pottery, the artist would paint figures with a glossy clay slip on a red clay pot; when the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. They reversed the process, painting the spaces between the figures with slip; this created magnificent red figures against a glossy black background. In the social hierarchy of ancient Rome, purple was the color reserved for the Emperor; the black they wore was not rich. In Latin, the word for black, ater and to darken, were associated with cruelty and evil, they were the root of the English words "atrocious" and "atrocity". Black was the Roman color of death and mourning. In the 2nd century BC Roman magistrates began to wear a dark toga, called a toga pulla, to funeral ceremonies. Under the Empire, the family of the deceased wore dark colors for a long period.
In Roman poetry, death was called the black hour. The German and Scandinavian peoples worshipped their own goddess of the night, Nótt, who crossed the sky in a chariot drawn by a black horse, they feared Hel, the goddess of the kingdom of the dead, whose skin was black on one side and red on the other. They held sacred the raven, they believed that Odin, the king of the Nordic pantheon, had two black ravens and Muninn, who served as his agents, traveling the world for him and listening. In the early Middle Ages, black was associated with darkness and evil. In Medieval paintings, the devil was depicted as havin