Black Sabbath

Black Sabbath were an English rock band formed in Birmingham in 1968 by guitarist Tony Iommi, drummer Bill Ward, bassist Geezer Butler and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne. They are cited as pioneers of heavy metal music; the band helped define the genre with releases such as Black Sabbath and Master of Reality. The band had multiple line-up changes following Osbourne's departure in 1979, with Iommi being the only constant member throughout its history. After previous iterations of the group called the Polka Tulk Blues Band and Earth, the band settled on the name Black Sabbath in 1969, they distinguished themselves through occult themes with horror-inspired lyrics and tuned-down guitars. Signing to Philips Records in November 1969, they released their first single, "Evil Woman" in January 1970, their debut album, Black Sabbath, was released the following month. Though it received a negative critical response, the album was a commercial success, leading to a follow-up record, Paranoid in 1970; the band's popularity grew, by 1973's Sabbath Bloody Sabbath, critics were starting to respond favourably.

Osbourne's regular use of drugs and alcohol led to his firing in 1979. He was replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio. Following two albums with Dio, Black Sabbath endured many personnel changes in the 1980s and 1990s that included vocalists Ian Gillan, Glenn Hughes, Ray Gillen and Tony Martin, as well as several drummers and bassists. In 1991, Iommi and Butler rejoined drummer Vinny Appice to record Dehumanizer; the original line-up released a live album Reunion. Black Sabbath's final studio album and nineteenth overall, 13, features all of the original members except Ward. During their farewell tour, the band played their final concert in their home city of Birmingham on 4 February 2017. Black Sabbath were ranked by MTV as the "Greatest Metal Band" of all time, placed second in VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock" list. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them number 85 on their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", they have sold over 70 million records worldwide. Black Sabbath were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006.

They have won two Grammy Awards for Best Metal Performance, in 2019 the band were presented a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Following the break-up of their previous band Mythology in 1968, guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward sought to form a heavy blues rock band in Aston, Birmingham, they enlisted bassist Geezer Butler and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, who had played together in a band called Rare Breed, Osbourne having placed an advertisement in a local music shop: "OZZY ZIG Needs Gig – has own PA". The new group was named the Polka Tulk Blues Band, the name taken either from a brand of talcum powder or an Indian/Pakistani clothing shop; the Polka Tulk Blues Band included slide guitarist Jimmy Phillips, a childhood friend of Osbourne's, saxophonist Alan "Aker" Clarke. After shortening the name to Polka Tulk, the band again changed their name to Earth and continued as a four-piece without Phillips and Clarke. Iommi became concerned that Phillips and Clarke lacked the necessary dedication and were not taking the band seriously.

Rather than asking them to leave, they instead decided to break up and quietly reformed the band as a four-piece. While the band was performing under the Earth title, they recorded several demos written by Norman Haines such as "The Rebel", "Song for Jim", "When I Came Down"; the demo titled. Simpson was a manager for the bands Bakerloo Blues Line and Tea & Symphony, as well as being trumpet player for the group Locomotive. Simpson had started a new club named Henry's Blueshouse at The Crown Hotel in Birmingham and offered to let Earth play there after they agreed to waive the usual support band fee in return for free t-shirts; the audience response was positive and Simpson agreed to manage Earth. In December 1968, Iommi abruptly left Earth to join Jethro Tull. Although his stint with the band would be short-lived, Iommi made an appearance with Jethro Tull on The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus TV show. Unsatisfied with the direction of Jethro Tull, Iommi returned to Earth in January 1969.

"It just wasn't right, so I left", Iommi said. "At first I thought Tull were great, but I didn't much go for having a leader in the band, Ian Anderson's way. When I came back from Tull, I came back with a new attitude altogether, they taught me that to get on, you got to work for it."While playing shows in England in 1969, the band discovered they were being mistaken for another English group named Earth. They decided to change their name again. A cinema across the street from the band's rehearsal room was showing the 1963 horror film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff and directed by Mario Bava. While watching people line up to see the film, Butler noted that it was "strange that people spend so much money to see scary movies". Following that and Butler wrote the lyrics for a song called "Black Sabbath", inspired by the work of horror and adventure-story writer Dennis Wheatley, along with a vision that Butler had of a black silhouetted figure standing at the foot of his bed. Making use of the musical tritone known as "the Devil's Interval", the song's ominous sound and dark lyrics pushed the band in a darker direction, a stark contrast to the popular music of the late 1960s, dominated by flower power, folk music, hippie culture.

Judas Priest frontman Rob Halford has called the track "probably the most evil song written". Inspired by the new sound, the band changed their name to Black Sabbath in August 1

Patrick Ryan (author)

Patrick Eugene Ryan is an American novelist and short story writer. His books include The Dream Life of Astronauts and Send Me, as well as three novels for young adults: Saints of Augustine, In Mike We Trust, Gemini Bites. Patrick Ryan was born in Washington, D. C. in 1965 and raised in Florida. He received his bachelor's degree in 1987 from Florida State University and his Master of Fine Arts in 1990 from the Writing Program at Bowling Green State University, he wrote short stories for about 10 years prior to the publication of his first book. His stories have been published or are forthcoming in Crazyhorse, Faultline, One Story, Tin House, The Iowa Review, The Chattahoochee Review, The Nebraska Review, Ontario Review, The Yale Review, Denver Quarterly, other journals, his story "So Much for Artemis" earned him a National Endowment for the Arts in Fiction fellowship and was included in The Best American Short Stories 2006. His story "Getting Heavy With Fate" received the 2005 Smart Family Foundation Award for Fiction.

His first book was Send Me, a collection of linked short stories that looks at four decades in the life of a dysfunctional family. Celebrated author Edmund White compared Ryan's writing to that of John Cheever; the Bay Area Reporter called Send Me "a masterfully eventful novel..." while a reviewer at the Seattle Times said it was "a meticulously crafted, immensely satisfying piece of work."Ryan followed up in 2008 with the young adult novel Saints of Augustine. Two best teenage friends, one gay and one not, struggle with family issues, drug abuse, dating, a rupture in their friendship. In 2009, he published a second young adult novel, In Mike We Trust, which examines a young man's relationship with his hip, con-artist uncle as the older man attempts to lure him into a life of charity scams, his 2011 novel, Gemini Bites, explores the world of a boy and girl who are fraternal twins, their competition for the affections of a goth boy who comes to live for a short period of time with their family.

The Dream Life of Astronauts was published in July 2016. It is a collection of nine short stories set against the backdrop of Florida's space program from the late 1960s to the present. For four years, Ryan worked as an editor at the literary magazine Granta, he is the current editor-in-chief of "One Story" and "One Teen Story."'. The Dream Life of Astronauts Gemini Bites In Mike We Trust Saints of Augustine Send Me

Steven Bernstein (musician)

Steven Bernstein is an American trumpeter, slide trumpeter, arranger/composer and bandleader from New York City. He is best known for his work in The Lounge Lizards, Sex Mob, Spanish Fly and the Millennial Territory Orchestra. Sex Mob's 2006 CD Sexotica was nominated for a Grammy. A ubiquitous figure in New York's downtown jazz scene, Steven Bernstein has been the musical director for the Kansas City Band, Jim Thirlwell's Steroid Maximus and Hal Wilner's Leonard Cohen, Doc Pomus and Bill Withers projects. Bernstein has released four albums under his own name on John Zorn's Tzadik Records: Diaspora Soul, Diaspora Blues, Diaspora Hollywood and Diaspora Suite, he has performed with jazz giants including Roswell Rudd, Sam Rivers, Don Byron and Medeski, Martin & Wood, as well as artists as diverse as Aretha Franklin, Lou Reed, Linda Ronstadt, Digable Planets and Courtney Love. Since 2004 Bernstein has been a member of Levon Helm's Midnight Ramble band, playing in Helm's Woodstock home, as well as touring with the band.

As an arranger Bernstein has written for Bill Frisell, Rufus Wainright, Marianne Faithfull and Elton John among others. He has composed for dance, theatre and television, with composer John Lurie, arranged the scores to many feature films, including Get Shorty. Diaspora Soul, Tzadik Diaspora Blues, Tzadik Diaspora Hollywood, Tzadik Diaspora Suite, Tzadik Baby Loves Jazz: Go Baby Go! Verve Tattoos and Mushrooms, ILK Music - with Marcus Rojas and Kresten Osgood Viper's Drag, Impulse - with Henry Butler Din of Inequity Columbia/Knitting Factoty Solid Sender, Knitting Factory/Rex Sex Mob Does Bond, Atlantic/Ropeadope Dime Grind Palace, Ropeadope Sexotica, Thirsty Ear Sex Mob Meets Medeski/Live in Willisau, Thirsty Ear Sexmob Plays Fellini, Royal Potato Cultural Capital, Rex MTO Volume 1, ADA Global We Are MTO, Mowo Inc MTO Plays Sly, Royal PotatoWith Nels Cline Lovers With Mario Pavone Mythos Orange Deez to Blues SOLOS: the jazz sessions Official website Sex Mob and Way Beyond... interview with Steven Bernstein in