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Black Speech

The Black Speech is a fictional language created by J. R. R. Tolkien. One of the languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien in Tolkien's legendarium, it was spoken in the realm of Mordor. Tolkien describes the language as being created by Sauron as a constructed language to be the sole language of all the servants of Mordor, thereby replacing the many different varieties of Orkish and other languages used by his servants. Tolkien describes the language as existing in two forms, the ancient "pure" forms used by Sauron himself, the Nazgûl, the Olog-hai, the more "debased" form used by the soldiery of Barad-dûr at the end of the Third Age; the Black Speech is one of the more fragmentary languages in the novels. Unlike Elvish, Tolkien did not write songs or poems in the Black Speech, apart from the One Ring inscription. Tolkien stated The Black Speech was not intentionally modelled on any style, but was meant to be self consistent different from Elvish, yet organized and expressive, as would be expected of a device of Sauron before his complete corruption.

It was evidently an agglutinative language.... I have tried to play fair linguistically, it is meant to have a meaning not be a mere casual group of nasty noises, though an accurate transcription would nowadays only be printable in the higher and artistically more advanced form of literature. According to my taste such things are best left to Orcs and modern. From a fan, Tolkien received a goblet with the Ring inscription on it in Black Speech; because the Black Speech in general is an accursed language, the Ring inscription in particular is a vile spell, Tolkien never drank out of it, used it only as an ashtray. Sauron attempted to impose Black Speech as the official language of the lands he dominated and all his servants, but he was only successful; the Nazgûl, the Olog-hai, several of Sauron's major lieutenants and officers learned and used the Black Speech, but it never caught on with the Orcs, or the various groups of Men from the east and south that Sauron conquered. The Orcs tended to corrupt and debase any language they were exposed to, so while Black Speech influenced their vocabulary and grammar, it soon mutated into the myriad Orkish dialects, which are not mutually intelligible.

By the end of the Third Age, while Orc vocabulary was peppered with certain terms from Black Speech they communicated using Westron, albeit debased. The Elves refuse to utter Black Speech; the only example of "pure" Black Speech is the inscription upon the One Ring: Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul, ash nazg thrakatulûk agh burzum-ishi krimpatul. Translated into English: One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them; these are the last two lines of a verse about the Rings of Power. This corresponds to the following table as explained by J. R. R. Tolkien. A few Black Speech words are known, given by Tolkien in Appendix F of The Return of the King; these include Lugbúrz, meaning "Dark Tower", meaning "slave", ghâsh "fire". The name Nazgûl is a combination of "nazg" meaning "ring" and "gûl" meaning "wraith", therefore giving the translation "ringwraiths"; the only known sample of debased Black Speech/Orkish can be found in The Two Towers, where a "yellow-fanged" Mordor Orc curses the Isengard Uruk Uglúk: Uglúk u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob búbhosh skai!

In The Peoples of Middle-earth, Christopher Tolkien gives the translation: "Uglúk to the cesspool, sha! the dungfilth. However, in a note published in the journal Vinyar Tengwar, this alternative translation is given: "Uglúk to the dung-pit with stinking Saruman-filth, pig-guts, gah!" For The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, the linguist David Salo used what little is known of the Black Speech to invent two phrases: Gû kîbum kelkum-ishi, burzum-ishi. Akha gûm-ishi ashi gurum; the word burzum-ishi is taken from the Ring Verse, three other abstract nouns are invented with the same ending –um. The word ashi, meaning'only', is taken from ash in the Ring Verse; the other words were made up by Salo. Russian historian Alexander Nemirovski claimed a strong similarity to Hurrian, deciphered at the time of the writing of The Lord of the Rings, E. A. Speiser's Introduction to Hurrian appearing in 1941. Fictional languages Constructed languages Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes Black Speech analysis by Craig Daniel

2018 West Virginia Senate election

The 2018 West Virginia Senate elections were held on November 6, 2018, as part of the biennial United States elections. Seventeen of West Virginia's 34 state senators were up for election. West Virginia Senate districts each have two elected representatives. State senators serve staggered four-year terms in West Virginia, with one senator from each district up in even-numbered years corresponding to presidential election years, the other up in even-numbered years corresponding to presidential midterm years. Primary elections in the state were held on May 8. After the previous 2016 state elections, Republicans held a majority in the Senate, holding 22 seats to the Democrats' 12; the Republican Party had long been the minority party in the Mountain State, but the decline of the strength of coal worker unions, the Democratic Party's increasing focus on environmentalism, the unpopularity of President Barack Obama, the increasing social conservatism of the Republican Party have helped the GOP solidify power in the state since 2000.

Despite the high popularity of President Donald Trump within the state and his 42-point margin of victory there in 2016, the Democrats gained two seats in the West Virginia Senate in 2018. This can be attributed to the competitive U. S. Senate race at the top of the ticket, the increasing insulation of the West Virginia Democratic Party from the national Democratic Party, a strong year for the Democratic Party nationally, in which they gained control of the U. S. House of Representatives. Following the 2018 state's Senate elections, Republicans maintained control of the Senate with 20 seats to the Democrats' 14. All results are certified by the Secretary of State of West Virginia

Heuberg Training Area

The Truppenübungsplatz Heuberg is a training ground of the Bundeswehr in the districts of Sigmaringen and Zollernalbkreis in Baden-Württemberg. Since the establishment of the Wilhelmine Empire it has always been a reflection of German history. On the Großer Heuberg, a plateau in the southwest of the Swabian Jura in an altitude of 800–970 metres, is the area between Albstadt in the north, Stetten am kalten Markt with army installations at Lager Heuberg and Albkaserne to the southeast, Schwenningen on the south and Meßstetten with the Zollernalb air force barracks and air traffic control to the northwest; the barracks, the training area and the proving ground comprise 47.9 square kilometres. Of these, 2,480 hectares are exercise area, of which 1,245 hectares are suitable for tracked vehicles; the two sites of the Bundeswehr in Stetten am kalten Markt - Lager Heuberg and Albkaserne - account for 141.8 hectares, where 1,620 hectares are within the boundaries of the municipality Stetten am kalten Markt and 129 hectares in the municipality Schwenningen are omitted.

In 1909 the city of Meßstetten had to sell nearly 40% of their district area to the Reich Treasury. The training area is the hub of the federal armed forces in the Sigmaringen district, the last military training center still in use in southern Germany. Construction and expansion measures cost tens of millions of marks. In connection with the Heuberg training area are a radome on the "Weichenwang" and the following external firing positions: "Sieben Jauchert" "Wachtbühl" and "Wanne" "Vogelbühl" "Bol" and "Wiedenäcker" "Blumersberg" The Heuberg training area originated from the requirements of the XIV Army Corps in 1885, which had expressed a need for a new maneuver area, large enough for military exercises according to the new military principles. In August 1899 the Grand Duchy of Baden's Ministry of Finance was informed by the General Command in Karlsruhe of the requirements for a future training area. In addition to many other criteria, the future area should not have a high elevation, should have a railway terminal and should be as circular as possible.

The agency assigned to conduct the search determined that the wishes of the military could not be met by any of the candidates. In 1905, the interest of the agency focused on the Heuberg. Since both the terrain and the purchase presented the fewest difficulties, the site was chosen, despite the fact that the future training area was only one-third in Baden and would not have a railway connection. Plans for a military station below the outer firing position Blumersberg in Meßstetten were worked out in detail for 8000 gold marks. From 1908 on purchase negotiations were held for the areas in Baden, Württemberg und Prussia, which dragged on for some time. In some cases forced expropriations by the Reich Treasury was necessary, since not all prospective sellers were in agreement with the land prices offered by the military. By 1910 the first military exercises by the XIV Army Corps could take place at the training course, only purchased at this time; because there were not enough fixed accommodations, the soldiers were housed in tents or quartered in the surrounding communities.

Between 1912 and 1916 Camp Heuberg was built in the district of Stetten am kalten Markt. The establishment of the training area forced the destruction of several settlements, built to improve the economic situation of the population in the former territory of Straßberg, Zollernalbkreis. for example and Lenzenhütte— called Glashüttehof— in Straßberg and Waldhof in Kaiseringen, Knobelhof in Heinstetten, Sebastiansweiler with the Sebastian Chapel and Weinitz and Hardt in Frohnstetten. A special challenge was supplying water for 6000 soldiers in 2500 horses. For this purpose, on February 19, 1910, the National Military Treasury acquired the so-called Hammermühle, an old ironworks in Thiergarten in Beuron with channel and weir from the House of Fürstenberg for 35.000 Reichsmarks. They bought a water source, Rainbrunnenquelle, which originated in Falkenstein between Neidingen and Thiergarten. After the demolition of the Hammerschmiede a pumping station was erected at its place. Along the more than 300 metres higher training area three elevated tanks and a pressure line were built from 1909.

In 1912 a power plant was built, which supplied the training ground with electricity via a power line from Thiergarten. In 1911 the planning of a wastewater treatment plant began. 1925 Stetten was connected to the sewage treatment plant with the western center part, 1981 the district Glashütte was added. To build and supply the facility, a freight funicular was inaugurated in 1912, it went from train station in Kaiseringen to the Alb plateau with a length of 2.4 kilometres, from there an additional 1.5 kilometres of railroad, of which only some concrete remains. After many repairs the railroad, completed in 1915, continued to suffer may accidents and was soon abandoned. At the end of World War I in 1918 the training ground could no longer be used because of the Treaty of Versailles; this treaty demanded the demilitarization of military proving grounds. The funicular was never rebuilt. In 1985 a tank loading facility was built on the Zollernalb Railway in Storzingen. In May 1914, shortly before the war began, the training area was opened.

The Pru


Nvidia Corporation, more referred to as Nvidia, is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California. It designs graphics processing units for the gaming and professional markets, as well as system on a chip units for the mobile computing and automotive market, its primary GPU product line, labeled "GeForce", is in direct competition with Advanced Micro Devices' "Radeon" products. Nvidia expanded its presence in the gaming industry with its handheld Shield Portable, Shield Tablet, Shield Android TV. Since 2014, Nvidia has diversified its business focusing on four markets: gaming, professional visualization, data centers, auto. Nvidia is now focused on artificial intelligence. In addition to GPU manufacturing, Nvidia provides parallel processing capabilities to researchers and scientists that allow them to efficiently run high-performance applications, they are deployed in supercomputing sites around the world. More it has moved into the mobile computing market, where it produces Tegra mobile processors for smartphones and tablets as well as vehicle navigation and entertainment systems.

In addition to AMD, its competitors include Intel and Arm. In the early 1990s, the three co-founders hypothesized that the proper direction for the next wave of computing would be accelerated or graphics based, they believed that this model of computing could solve problems that general-purpose computing fundamentally couldn't. They observed that video games were some of the most computationally challenging problems, but would have high sales volume. With a capital of $40,000, the company was born; the company had no name and the co-founders named all their files NV, as in "next version". The need to incorporate the company prompted the co-founders to review all words with those two letters, leading them to "invidia", the Latin word for "envy"; the company went public on January 22, 1999. Three people co-founded Nvidia on April 5, 1993: Jensen Huang, a Taiwanese American director of CoreWare at LSI Logic and a microprocessor designer at Advanced Micro Devices Chris Malachowsky, an electrical engineer who worked at Sun Microsystems Curtis Priem a senior staff engineer and graphics chip designer at Sun MicrosystemsThe company received $20 million of venture capital funding from Sequoia Capital and others.

The release of the RIVA TNT in 1998 solidified Nvidia's reputation for developing capable graphics adapters. In late 1999, Nvidia released the GeForce 256, most notably introducing on-board transformation and lighting to consumer-level 3D hardware. Running at 120 MHz and featuring four pixel pipelines, it implemented advanced video acceleration, motion compensation and hardware sub-picture alpha blending; the GeForce outperformed existing products by a wide margin. Due to the success of its products, Nvidia won the contract to develop the graphics hardware for Microsoft's Xbox game console, which earned Nvidia a $200 million advance. However, the project took many of its best engineers away from other projects. In the short term this did not matter, the GeForce2 GTS shipped in the summer of 2000. In December 2000, Nvidia reached an agreement to acquire the intellectual assets of its one-time rival 3dfx, a pioneer in consumer 3D graphics technology leading the field from mid 1990s until 2000; the acquisition process was finalized in April 2002.

In July 2002, Nvidia acquired Exluna for an undisclosed sum. Exluna made the personnel were merged into the Cg project. In August 2003, Nvidia acquired MediaQ for US$70 million. On April 22, 2004, Nvidia acquired iReady a provider of high performance TCP/IP and iSCSI offload solutions. In December 2004, it was announced that Nvidia would assist Sony with the design of the graphics processor in the PlayStation 3 game console. On December 14, 2005, Nvidia acquired ULI Electronics, which at the time supplied third-party southbridge parts for chipsets to ATI, Nvidia's competitor. In March 2006, Nvidia acquired Hybrid Graphics. In December 2006, along with its main rival in the graphics industry AMD, received subpoenas from the U. S. Department of Justice regarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry. Forbes named Nvidia its Company of the Year for 2007, citing the accomplishments it made during the said period as well as during the previous five years. On January 5, 2007, Nvidia announced that it had completed the acquisition of Inc..

In February 2008, Nvidia acquired Ageia, developer of the PhysX physics engine and physics processing unit. Nvidia announced. In November 2011, after unveiling it at Mobile World Congress, Nvidia released its Tegra 3 ARM system-on-chip for mobile devices. Nvidia claimed that the chip featured the first-ever quad-core mobile CPU. In May 2011, it was announced that Nvidia had agreed to acquire Icera, a baseband chip making company in the UK, for $367 million. In January 2013, Nvidia unveiled the Tegra 4, as well as the Nvidia Shield, an Android-based handheld game console powered by the new system-on-chip. On July 29, 2013, Nvidia announced. On May 6, 2016, Nvidia unveiled the first GeForce 10 series GPUs, the GTX 1080 and 1070, based on the company's new Pascal microarchitecture. Nvidia claimed.

North Bend Ranger Station

The North Bend Ranger Station is a collection of buildings operated by the USDA Forest Service in the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1936, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991; the multiple buildings indicate the expansion of Forest Service responsibilities from custodial supervision to extensive resource management. North Bend Ranger Station is considered historic both for its distinctive rustic architecture and for its association with the federal New Deal programs. North Bend Ranger Station consists of eight buildings that contribute to the historical designation, as well as eight additional buildings; the architectural style of the buildings is descrbed as "distinctive Pacific Northwest rustic". The historical buildings are: The recreation office is a one-story wood frame building, 28 by 55.6 feet, built in 1936. The equipment repair shop is a one-story wood frame building built in 1936 and joined to an adjacent 3-bay shop in 1938.

The fire office is a one-story wood frame building, 29 by 38 feet, built in 1937. The warehouse is a ​1 1⁄2-story wood frame building, 50 by 50 feet known as Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Fire Warehouse The crew house is a one-story wood frame building, built in 1936. Two residences with garages are both ​1 1⁄2-story wood frame buildings/ The storage building is a one-story wood frame building, built in 1935; the CCC was a federal emergency work program dedicated to the stewardship of America's natural resources which provided work for unemployed young men and used the enrollees to work on conservation projects. Managed by the United States Army, individual camps and work projects were directed by cooperating agencies; the men of Camp North Bend, directed by the National Forest Service, built the North Bend Ranger Station. The warehouse building is now a visitor information center and an entrance pass sales outlet for Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest and other federal lands; the conference hall is used for training and public meetings

Phantom India

L'Inde fantôme: Reflexions sur un voyage is a 1969 French seven part television documentary miniseries about India, directed by Louis Malle. It was shown on BBC television as Phantom India. Malle said that the film was his most personal work and the one he was most proud of, it is regarded as the crowning achievement of his career, it was inspired by a two-month trip to India in late 1967 that Malle made on behalf of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs to present a selection of "new French cinema" throughout the country. Filming took place between January 5, 1968, May 1, 1968, with a crew of two, a cameraman and a sound recordist. Malle financed the trip himself; the resulting 30 hours of footage was edited down to the 363 minutes of Phantom India. The 105-minute-long Calcutta used the footage. Phantom India was shown on French television and the BBC in the UK in 1969. Many British Indians and the Indian Government felt that Malle had shown a one-sided portrait of India, focussing on the impoverished, rather than the developing, parts of the country.

A diplomatic incident occurred when the Indian government asked the BBC to stop broadcasting the programme. The BBC refused and were asked to leave their New Delhi bureau. Phantom India on IMDb