Black and Tans

The Black and Tans were constables recruited into the Royal Irish Constabulary as reinforcements during the Irish War of Independence. Recruitment began in Great Britain in January 1920 and about 10,000 men enlisted during the conflict; the vast majority were unemployed former soldiers from Britain who fought in the First World War, although some were from Ireland. The British administration in Ireland promoted the idea of bolstering the RIC with British recruits, they were to help the overstretched RIC maintain control and suppress the Irish Republican Army, although they were less well trained in ordinary policing. The nickname "Black and Tans" arose from the colours of the improvised uniforms they wore, a mixture of dark green RIC and khaki British Army, they served in all parts of Ireland, but most were sent to southern and western regions where fighting was heaviest. By 1921, Black and Tans made up half of the RIC in County Tipperary, for example; the Black and Tans gained a reputation for police brutality and became notorious for reprisal attacks on civilians and civilian property, including extrajudicial killings and looting.

Their actions further swayed Irish public opinion against British rule. The Black and Tans were sometimes confused with the Auxiliary Division, a counter-insurgency unit of the RIC recruited during the conflict and made up of former British officers. However, sometimes the term "Black and Tans" covers both groups. A similar force, the Ulster Special Constabulary, was founded to reinforce the RIC in Northern Ireland; some sources say the Black and Tans were named the "Royal Irish Constabulary Special Reserve", but this is denied by other sources, which say they were "recruits to the regular RIC" and "enlisted as regular constabulary". The early 20th century in Ireland was dominated by Irish nationalists' pursuit of Home Rule from the United Kingdom; the issue of Home Rule was shelved with the outbreak of World War I, in 1916 Irish republicans staged the Easter Rising against British rule in an attempt to establish an independent republic. Growing support amongst the Irish populace for the republican Sinn Féin party saw it win a majority of Irish seats in the 1918 general election.

On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin followed through on its manifesto and founded an independent Irish parliament, which declared an independent Irish Republic. The Dáil called on the public to boycott the RIC, while the Irish Republican Army began attacking police barracks and ambushing police patrols. In September 1919 David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, outlawed the Dáil and augmented the British Army presence in Ireland. After the First World War, there were many unemployed ex-servicemen in Britain. British Unionist leader Walter Long had suggested recruiting these men into the RIC in a May 1919 letter to the John French, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; the idea was promoted by French as well as by Frederick Shaw, Commander of the British Army in Ireland. The RIC's Inspector General, Joseph Byrne, was against it, he resisted the militarization of the police and believed ex-soldiers could not be controlled by police discipline. In December 1919, Byrne was replaced by an Orangeman. On 27 December, Smith issued an order authorizing recruitment in Britain.

The advertisements appeared in major cities calling for men willing to "face a rough and dangerous task". The first British recruits joined the RIC six days on 2 January 1920. About 10,000 were recruited between the end of the conflict. About 100 were recruited each month from January to June 1920; the recruitment rate rose from July. The RIC began losing men at a high rate in the summer of 1920, due to the IRA campaign. On an average week, about 100 men resigned or retired while only 76 recruits enlisted to replace them. More police were needed; the intake of British recruits rose and surged from late September, following the publicized Sack of Balbriggan. This sudden influx of men led to a shortage of RIC uniforms, the new recruits were issued with khaki army uniforms and dark green RIC tunics and belts; these uniforms differentiated them from both the regular RIC and the British Army, gave rise to their nickname: "Black and Tans". Christopher O'Sullivan wrote in the Limerick Echo on 25 March 1920 that, meeting a group of recruits on a train at Limerick Junction, the attire of one reminded him of the Scarteen Hunt, whose "Black and Tans" nickname derived from the colours of its Kerry Beagles.

Ennis comedian Mike Nono elaborated the joke in Limerick's Theatre Royal, the nickname soon took hold, persisting after the men received full RIC uniforms. The new recruits were trained at Gormanstown Camp near Dublin, most spending two or three weeks there before being sent to RIC barracks around the country. In general, the recruits were poorly trained for police duties and received much less training than the existing Irish RIC constables; the vast majority of Black and Tans were unemployed First World War veterans in their twenties, most of whom joined for economic reasons. The RIC offered men good wages, a chance for promotion, the prospect of a pension. According to historian David Leeson, "The typical Black and Tan was in his early twenties and short in stature, he was an unmarried Protestant from London or the Home Counties who had fought in the British Army He was a working-class man with few skills". The popular Irish claim made at the time that most Black and T

Ilija (kefalija)

Ilija was a Serbian nobleman who served kings Stefan Milutin and Stefan Dečanski with the titles of knez and kefalija. At the end of Milutin's reign, Ilija governed Zeta, instead of the Young King, Stefan Dečanski, held in Constantinople since 1314, he first held the title of knez, received the title of kefalija by 1321. There existed two types of kefalija in local ones and provincial ones. Ilija was a royal deputy; the Republic of Ragusa paid a tax to the Kingdom of Serbia, called the "St. Demetrius income". In a document dated 4 November 1318, the collectors were bishop Stefan of Skadar and knez Ilija of Zeta, he is mentioned in a document dated 23 September 1321, being ordered along with bishop Petar of Skadar to raise the income from Ragusa. He is mentioned in 27 October 1321, regarding bishop Petar, authorized by Stefan Milutin to travel to Dubrovnik, but was unable to, he is mentioned as Stefan Dečanski's minister in Ragusan documents dating to 24 August 1322. His father Đuraš Vrančić served King Stefan Milutin with the court title of stavilac.

His son, Đuraš Ilijić, served Stefan Dečanski, Stefan Dušan and Stefan Uroš V, from 1326 until his death in 1362, with the title of čelnik, governed Upper Zeta

Marilyn Musgrave

Marilyn Neoma Musgrave, American politician, is a former Republican member of the United States House of Representatives who served from 2003 to 2009, representing the 4th District of Colorado. Musgrave served on the Small Business Committees. In the 110th Congress, she served as Ranking Minority member of the Specialty Crops, Rural Development, Foreign Agriculture subcommittee, she served as the Region Two representative for the Republican Steering Committee. She was the first Republican woman elected to Congress from Colorado. Musgrave lost her seat in 2008 to Democratic challenger Betsy Markey by a 56 to 44 percent margin. Musgrave works for the Susan B. Anthony List, a non-profit that supports pro-life women in politics. Musgrave was born Marilyn Neoma Shuler in Colorado, she graduated from Eaton High School in 1968, attended Colorado State University in Fort Collins, graduating with a B. A. in social studies in 1972. Musgrave married while attending CSU, she and her husband Steve Musgrave settled in Fort Morgan, south of Greeley, where they owned and operated a bale stacking business.

Musgrave taught school. The Musgraves have eight grandchildren. Musgrave's career in elective office began in 1991, when she served one term on the Fort Morgan School Board, where she focused on changing the local sex education curriculum to abstinence-only, she was involved in the Fort Morgan Right To Life chapter, at one time serving as its president. Musgrave was elected to the Colorado State House of Representatives in 1992, served there until after her successful 1998 campaign for a Colorado State Senate seat. While serving in the state senate, Musgrave was selected the Senate Republican Caucus Chairman. In 2002, Musgrave ran for the Fourth Congressional District seat being vacated by Bob Schaffer. Musgrave is a devout Pentecostal, was one of three Pentecostals serving in the 110th Congress; the others -- Republicans -- were Todd Tiahrt of Kansas. Musgrave was one of the most conservative members of the state legislature sparring with more moderate and liberal legislators, she focused her time on social issues.

She staunchly opposed granting civil unions and marriage for same-sex couples. In another area she was active on small business and agricultural issues authoring bills to exempt farm equipment dealers from sales tax and lowering taxes on small business. In 2002, after Congressman Bob Schaffer retired, Musgrave ran for and won the Republican nomination to succeed him, her opponent was businessman Jeff Bedingfield. She received a big boost in the primary when she gained the endorsements of Schaffer and former Senator William Armstrong. In November 2002 Musgrave defeated Democratic State Senate President Stan Matsunaka 55% to 42%, she had been favored most of the way due to her large campaign war chest and the district's traditional Republican lean. In 2004, Musgrave faced Matsunaka again. Matsunaka attacked Musgrave as a "one-trick pony," referring to her focus on outlawing same-sex marriage, he claimed that Musgrave neglected the 4th's needs and provided poor constituent services. In the end, Musgrave held her seat by taking 51% of the vote to Matsunaka's 45%.

Musgrave won most of the counties in this large and rural district by margins of 2-to-1 or more. However, 85% of the district's vote is cast in two counties which account for only a third of its land—Larimer and Weld. Musgrave lost Larimer County by 4,100 votes, she lost the district's share of Boulder County, including Longmont. She was only able to hold onto her seat by winning Weld County by 15 points —far larger than the overall margin of victory, she was undoubtedly helped by George W. Bush's 58% win in the district. While Matsunaka only entered the race in May and raised around $800,000, Musgrave was targeted by a 527 group funded by Colorado activists such as Tim Gill; the ads featured an actress dressed up like Musgrave picking a corpse's pocket and stealing from a soldier in combat. In 2006, Musgrave faced Democratic state representative Angie Paccione. Running was Reform Party candidate Eric Eidsness, who had considered a Republican Party primary challenge to Musgrave but decided to become a Democrat.

The election was tighter than the last. Musgrave won a third term by only 5,984 votes, taking 45.61% of the vote to Paccione's 43.12% and Eidsness' 11.28%. She lost Larimer County by an larger margin than in 2004. However, Musgrave won Weld County by just under 6,700 votes/ Musgrave ran for a fourth term in the 2008 election, held on November 4, 2008, her opponent was the regional director for Senator Ken Salazar in the 4th. Musgrave was soundly defeated, taking only 44 percent of the vote to Markey's 56 percent—the second-largest margin of defeat for a Republican incumbent in 2008 cycle, after Florida's Tom Feeney. In a repeat of 2004 and 2006, she won most of the rural counties in her district while losing badly in Larimer County—this time by 32,300 votes, she lost Weld County by 5,700 votes after having carried it in her previous bids, sealing her defeat. After her defeat, Musgrave would not comment on the election results with the media, nor would she concede the race or contact Markey to congratulate her.

She recorded a robocall for Republican Georgia senator Saxby Chambliss, saying that she was defeated by "leftist special interests" who "smothered the truth with vicious attacks and lies." The American Conservative Union ranked Musgrave as the most conservative member of the House, with a 99 li