The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Coriander known as Chinese parsley, the stems and leaves of which are called cilantro in North America, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste, but a smaller group of about 4–14% of people tested think the leaves taste like bath soap, as linked to a gene which detects aldehyde chemicals present in both. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia, it is a soft plant growing to 50 cm tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems; the flowers are borne in small umbels, white or pale pink, with the petals pointing away from the center of the umbel longer than those pointing toward it. The fruit is dry schizocarp 3 -- 5 mm in diameter. First attested in English in the late 14th century, the word "coriander" derives from the Old French: coriandre, which comes from Latin: coriandrum, in turn from Ancient Greek: κορίαννον, derived from Ancient Greek: κόρις, kóris, was given on account of its foetid, bed bug-like smell.
The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na written in Linear B syllabic script which evolved to koriannon or koriandron, koriander. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander deriving from coriandrum, it is the common term in North American English for coriander leaves, due to their extensive use in Mexican cuisine. Although native to Iran, coriander grows wild over a wide area of Western Asia and Southern Europe, prompting the comment: "It is hard to define where this plant is wild and where it only established itself." Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemar Cave in Israel, which may be the oldest archaeological find of coriander. About half a litre of coriander mericarps was recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamen, because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC.
One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves. This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking, Coriander is used in cuisines throughout the world; the leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro. Coriander may be confused with culantro, an Apiaceae like coriander, but from a different genus. Culantro has a distinctly different spiny appearance, a more potent volatile leaf oil and a stronger aroma; the leaves have a different taste with citrus overtones. The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods. In Portugal, chopped coriander is used in the bread soup Açorda, in India, chopped coriander is a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal.
As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are used raw or added to the dish before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes; the leaves spoil when removed from the plant, lose their aroma when dried or frozen. The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds; the word "coriander" in food preparation may refer to these seeds, rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes pinene, it is described as warm, nutty and orange-flavoured. The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm, while var. C. s. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm. Large-fruited types are grown by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco and Australia, contain a low volatile oil content, they are used extensively for blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and have a volatile oil content around 0.4-1.8%, so are valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.
Coriander is found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Roasting or heating the seeds in a dry pan heightens the flavour and pungency. Ground coriander seed loses flavour in storage and is best ground fresh. Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries which employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin, acting as a thickener in a mixture called dhana jeera. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack, they are the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes rasam. Outsid
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the range of diversity in soil type, culture, ethnic groups, occupations, these cuisines vary from each other and use locally available spices, herbs and fruits. Indian food is heavily influenced by religion, in particular Hindu, cultural choices and traditions; the cuisine is influenced by centuries of Islamic rule the Mughal rule. Samosas and pilafs can be regarded as examples. Historical events such as foreign invasions, trade relations, colonialism have played a role in introducing certain foods to this country. For instance, potato, a staple of the diet in some regions of India, was brought to India by the Portuguese, who introduced chillies and breadfruit. Indian cuisine has shaped the history of international relations. Spices were traded around Europe and Asia. Indian cuisine has influenced other cuisines across the world those from Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, the British Isles and the Caribbean.
Indian cuisine reflects an 8,000-year history of various groups and cultures interacting with the Indian subcontinent, leading to diversity of flavours and regional cuisines found in modern-day India. Trade with British and Portuguese influence added to the diverse Indian cuisine. Early diet in India consisted of legumes, fruits, dairy products, honey. Staple foods eaten today include a variety of lentils, whole-wheat flour and pearl millet, cultivated in the Indian subcontinent since 6200 BCE. Over time, segments of the population embraced vegetarianism during the Śramaṇa movement while an equitable climate permitted a variety of fruits and grains to be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorised any item as saatvic, raajsic, or taamsic developed in Yoga tradition; the Bhagavad Gita proscribes certain dietary practices. Consumption of beef is taboo, due to cows being considered sacred in Hinduism. Beef is not eaten by Hindus in India except for Kerala, parts of southern Tamil Nadu and the north east.
While many Ancient Indian recipes have been lost one can look at ancient texts to see what was eaten in Ancient and pre historic India. Rice Rice Cake Curd Sugar Ghee Cashew nut Bread Fruit Pomegranate Mango Rose Apple Sweet Potato Barley Mustard Figs Betel Leaves Honey Salt Saffron Sesame Oil Grape Wine Turmeric During the Middle Ages, several Indian dynasties were predominant, including the Gupta dynasty. Travel to India during this time introduced new cooking methods and products to the region, including tea. India was invaded by tribes from Central Asian cultures, which led to the emergence of Mughlai cuisine, a mix of Indian and Central Asian cuisine. Hallmarks include seasonings such as saffron. Staple foods of Indian cuisine include pearl millet, whole-wheat flour, a variety of lentils, such as masoor, tuer and moong. Lentils may be dehusked -- for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad -- or split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively; some pulses, such as channa or cholae and lobiya are common in the northern regions.
Channa and moong are processed into flour. Many Indian dishes are cooked in vegetable oil, but peanut oil is popular in northern and western India, mustard oil in eastern India, coconut oil along the western coast in Kerala and parts of southern Tamil Nadu. Gingelly oil is common in the south since it imparts a nutty aroma. In recent decades, safflower and soybean oils have become popular across India. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee, is another popular cooking medium. Butter-based ghee, or deshi ghee, is used though less than in the past. Many types of meat are used for Indian cooking, but chicken and mutton tend to be the most consumed meats. Fish and beef consumption are prevalent in some parts of India, but they are not consumed except for coastal areas, as well as the north east; the most important and used spices and flavourings in Indian cuisine are whole or powdered chilli pepper, black mustard seed, cumin, asafoetida, ginger and garlic. One popular spice mix is garam masala, a powder that includes seven dried spices in a particular ratio, including black cardamom, clove, black peppercorns, coriander seeds and anise star.
Each culinary region has a distinctive garam masala blend—individual chefs may have their own. Goda masala is a comparable, though sweet, spice mix popular in Maharashtra; some leaves used for flavouring include bay leaves, coriander leaves, fenugreek leaves, mint leaves. The use of curry leaves and roots for flavouring is typical of South Indian cuisine. Sweet dishes are seasoned with cardamom, saffron and rose petal essences. Cuisine differs across India's diverse regions as a result of variation in local culture, geographical location, economics, it varies seasonally, depending on which fruits and vegetables are ripe. Seafood plays a major role in the cuisine of the
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
The curry tree known as sweet neem or kadi patta, is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae, native to India. Its leaves are used in many dishes in Indian subcontinent. Used in curries, the leaves are called by the name "curry leaves", although they are literally "sweet neem leaves" in most Indian languages, it is a small tree. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 1 -- 2 cm broad; the plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black drupes containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible—with a sweet but medicinal flavour—in general, neither the pulp nor seed is used for culinary purposes; the species name commemorates the botanist Johann König. The genus Murray commemorates Swedish physician and botanist Johan Andreas Murray who died in 1791; the tree is native to the Indian subcontinent, can be found growing wild throughout the country, in Sri Lanka, east through Thailand. Commercial plantations have been established in India, more Australia.
It grows best in well-drained soils in areas with full sun or partial shade, preferably away from the wind. Growth is more robust when temperatures are at least 65°F; the fresh leaves are valued as seasoning in the cuisines of Southeast Asia. They are most used in southern and west-coast Indian cooking fried along with vegetable oil, mustard seeds and chopped onions in the first stage of the preparation, they are used to make thoran, vada and kadhi. In Cambodia, the leaves are roasted and used as an ingredient in maju kreung. In Java, the leaves are stewed to flavor gulai. Though available dried, the aroma and flavor is inferior; the oil can be used to make scented soaps. The leaves of Murraya koenigii are used as a herb in Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine in which they are believed to possess anti-disease properties, but there is no high-quality clinical evidence for such effects. Seeds must be fresh to plant. One can plant the whole fruit, but it is best to remove the pulp before planting in potting mix, kept moist but not wet.
Stem cuttings can be used for propagation. Compounds found in curry tree leaves, stems and seeds contain cinnamaldehyde, numerous carbazole alkaloids, including mahanimbine and mahanine. Media related to Murraya koenigii at Wikimedia Commons
Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan Province. It has bold flavours the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers, as well as the unique flavour of Sichuan pepper. There are many local variations within Sichuan Province and the neighbouring Chongqing Municipality, part of Sichuan Province until 1997. Four sub-styles of Sichuan cuisine include Chongqing, Chengdu and Buddhist vegetarian style. UNESCO declared Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, to be a city of gastronomy in 2011 to recognise the sophistication of its cooking. Sichuan in the Middle Ages welcomed Middle Eastern crops, such as broad beans and walnuts. Since the 16th century, the list of major crops in Sichuan has been lengthened by New World newcomers; the characteristic chili pepper came from Mexico, but overland from India or by river from Macau, complementing the traditional Sichuan peppercorn. Other newcomers from the New World included maize, which replaced millet.
The population of Sichuan was cut by three quarters in the wars from the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty. Settlers from the adjacent Hunan Province brought their cooking styles with them. Sichuan is colloquially known as the "heavenly country" due to its abundance of food and natural resources. One ancient Chinese account declared that the "people of Sichuan uphold good flavour, they are fond of hot and spicy taste." Most Sichuan dishes are spicy. Sichuan cuisine is composed of seven basic flavours: sour, hot, bitter and salty. Sichuan food is divided into five different types: sumptuous banquet, ordinary banquet, popularised food, household-style food and snacks. Milder versions of Sichuan dishes remain a staple of American Chinese cuisine; the complex topography of Sichuan Province, including its mountains, plains and the Sichuan Basin, has shaped its food customs with versatile and distinct ingredients. Abundant rice and vegetables are produced from the fertile Sichuan Basin, whereas a wide variety of herbs and other fungi prosper in the highland regions.
Pork is overwhelmingly the most common type of meat consumed. Beef is somewhat more common in Sichuan cuisine than it is in other Chinese cuisines due to the prevalence of oxen in the region. Sichuan cuisine uses various bovine and porcine organs as ingredients, such as intestine, head, tongue and liver, in addition to other used portions of the meat. Rabbit meat is much more popular in Sichuan than elsewhere in China, it is estimated that the Sichuan Basin and Chongqing area consume about 70 percent of China's rabbit meat consumption. Yoghurt, which spread from India through Tibet in medieval times, is consumed among the Han Chinese; this is an unusual custom in other parts of the country. The salt produced from Sichuan salt springs and wells, unlike sea salt, does not contain Iodine, which lead to goiter problems before the 20th century. Sichuan cuisine contains food preserved through pickling and drying. Preserved dishes are served as spicy dishes with heavy application of chili oil; the most unique and important spice in Sichuan cuisine is the Sichuan pepper.
Sichuan peppercorn has an intense fragrant, citrus-like flavour and produces a "tingly-numbing" sensation in the mouth. Other used spices in Sichuan cuisine are garlic, chili peppers and star anise. Broad bean chili paste is one of the most important seasonings, it is an essential component to famous dishes such as double-cooked pork slices. Sichuan cuisine is the origin of several prominent sauces/flavours used in modern Chinese cuisine, including: Yuxiang Mala Guaiwei Common preparation techniques in Sichuan cuisine include stir frying and braising, but a complete list would include more than 20 distinct techniques. Although many dishes live up to their spicy reputation, there is a large percentage of recipes that use little to no hot spices at all, including dishes such as tea-smoked duck. Hunan cuisine Chen Kenmin Chen Kenichi List of Chinese dishes Fuchsia Dunlop. Land of Plenty: A Treasury of Authentic Sichuan Cooking. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003. ISBN 0393051773. Fuchsia Dunlop. Shark's Fin and Sichuan Pepper: A Sweet-Sour Memoir of Eating in China..
ISBN 9780393066579. The author's experience and observations in Sichuan. Jung-Feng Chiang, Ellen Schrecker and John E. Schrecker. Mrs. Chiang's Szechwan Cookbook: Szechwan Home Cooking. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. ISBN 006015828X. Eugene Anderson. "Sichuan Cuisine," in Solomon H. Weaver William Woys Katz. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture.. Vol I pp. 393–395. Lu Yi, Du li. China Sichuan Cuisine Bilingual. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, 2010. ISBN 9787536469649. NPR story on Sichuan cuisine and a cookbook about the cuisine
Zingiberaceae or the ginger family is a family of flowering plants made up of about 50 genera with a total of about 1600 known species of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal or tuberous rhizomes distributed throughout tropical Africa and the Americas. Many of the family's species are spice, or medicinal plants. Ornamental genera include the shell gingers, Siam or summer tulip, ginger lily, torch-ginger Etlingera elatior and ginger. Spices include ginger, galangal or Thai ginger, melegueta pepper, korarima and cardamom. Members of the family are small to large herbaceous plants with distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem; the plants are either epiphytic. Flowers are hermaphroditic strongly zygomorphic, in determinate cymose inflorescences, subtended by conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts; the perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers have two of their stamenoids fused to form a petaloid lip, have only one fertile stamen.
The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped. Some genera yield essential oils used in the perfume industry. Subfamily Siphonochiloideae Tribe Siphonochileae Siphonochilus Subfamily Tamijioideae Tribe Tamijieae Tamijia Subfamily Alpinioideae Siliquamomum Tribe Alpinieae Aframomum - grains of paradise Alpinia - galangal Amomum Aulotandra Cyphostigma Elettaria - cardamom Elettariopsis Etlingera Geocharis Geostachys Hornstedtia Leptosolena Plagiostachys Renealmia Vanoverberghia ×Alpingera F. Luc-Cayol - intergeneric hybrid Tribe Riedelieae Burbidgea Pleuranthodium Riedelia Siamanthus Subfamily Zingiberoideae Caulokaempferia Tribe Zingibereae Boesenbergia Camptandra Cautleya Cornukaempferia Curcuma - turmeric Curcumorpha Distichochlamys Haniffia Haplochorema Hedychium Hitchenia Kaempferia Kedhalia Laosanthus Myxochlamys Nanochilus Newmania Paracautleya Parakaempferia Pommereschea Pyrgophyllum Rhynchanthus Roscoea Scaphochlamys Smithatris Stadiochilus Stahlianthus Zingiber - ginger Tribe Globbeae Gagnepainia Globba Hemiorchis The Zingiberaceae have a pantropical distribution in the tropics of Africa and the Americas, with their greatest diversity in Southeast Asia.
List of Indian medicinal plants from Biodiversity of India The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers: evidence from molecular data Abstracts from the Symposia on the Family Zingiberaceae A New Classification of the Zingiberaceae from the Third Symposium on Zingiberaceae Zomlefer, W. B. Flowering Plant Families; the University of North Carolina Press. 1994