Black comedy known as black humor, dark comedy, dark humor or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Writers and comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, by provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Thus, in fiction, for example, the term black comedy can refer to a genre in which dark humor is a core component. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, discrimination and human sexuality. Black comedy differs from both blue comedy—which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids—and from straightforward obscenity. An archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy; the sash falls and circumcises him. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying.
Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim. In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade.
Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US. The concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman; the paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Céline. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth; the motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner.
Comedians like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud, in his 1927 essay Humour, puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity. Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States.
It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor. The concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most arouses this kind of laughter. In the Weimar era Kabaretts, this genre was common, according to Luttazzi, Karl Valentin and Karl Kraus were the major masters of it. Black comedy is common in professions and environments where workers have to deal with dark subject matter; this includes police officers, ambulance crews, military personnel and funeral directors, where it is an acknowledged coping mechanism. Outsiders can react negatively to discove
Napoleon's problem is a compass construction problem. In it, a circle and its center are given; the challenge is to divide the circle into four equal arcs using only a compass. Napoleon was known to be an amateur mathematician, but it is not known if he either created or solved the problem. Napoleon's friend the Italian mathematician Lorenzo Mascheroni introduced the limitation of using only a compass into geometric constructions, but the challenge above is easier than the real Napoleon's problem, consisting in finding the center of a given circle with compass alone. The following sections will describe solutions to proofs that they work. Georg Mohr's 1672 book "Euclides Danicus" anticipated Mascheroni's idea, though the book was only rediscovered in 1928. Centred on any point X on circle C, draw an arc through O which intersects C at points V and Y. Do the same centred on Y through O, intersecting C at X and Z. Note that the line segments OV, OX, OY, OZ, VX, XY, YZ have the same length, all distances being equal to the radius of the circle C.
Now draw an arc centred on V which goes through Y and an arc centred on Z which goes through X. Note that the distances VY and XZ are 3 times the radius of the circle C. Put the compass radius equal to the distance OT and draw an arc centred on Z which intersects the circle C at U and W. UVWZ is a square and the arcs of C UV, VW, WZ, ZU are each equal to a quarter of the circumference of C. Let be the circle, whose centre is to be found. Let A be a point on. A circle centered at A meets at B and B'. Two circles centered at B and B', with radius AB, cross again at point C. A circle centered at C with radius AC meets at D and D'. Two circles centered at D and D' with radius AD meet at A, at O, the sought center of. Note: for this to work the radius of circle must be neither too small nor too large. More this radius must be between half and double of the radius of: if the radius is greater than the diameter of, will not intersect; the idea behind the proof is to construct, with compass alone, the length b²/a when lengths a and b are known, a/2 ≤ b ≤ 2a.
In the figure on the right, a circle of radius a is drawn, centred at O. Point A' does not need to be constructed. Point C can be determined from B and B', using circles of radius b. Triangle ABA' has a right angle at B and BH is perpendicular to AA', so: A H A B = A B A A ′ Therefore, A H = b 2 2 a and AC = b²/a. In the above construction of the center, such a configuration appears twice: points A, B and B' are on the circle, radius a1 = r. Therefore, O is the centre of circle. Let |AD| be the distance, whose centre is to be found. Two circles centered at A and centered at D with radius |AD| meet at B and B'. A circle centered at B' with radius |B'B| meets the circle at A'. A circle centered at A' with radius |A'A| meets the circle at E and E'. Two circles centered at E and centered at E' with radius |EA| meet at A and O. O is the sought center of |AD|; the design principle can be applied to a line segment AD. The proof described above is applicable for this design. Note: Point A in design is equivalent to A in proof.
Therefore radius: ≙ and points: O ≙ H, B ≙ B, D ≙ O and A' ≙ A'. Napoleon's theorem Napoleon points
Rosewood is an album led by trumpter Woody Shaw, recorded in 1977 and released on the Columbia label in 1978. Scott Yanow of Allmusic stated, "Woody Shaw's first album for a major label, Rosewood features the trumpeter with a sextet... Rosewood was a consensus Jazz Album Of The Year in 1977; this modal music ranks with his best work". The album resulted in Shaw receiving many accolades including nominations as Talent Deserving Wider Recognition in Down Beat's International Jazz Critics Poll, as well as Jazz Album of the Year and Best Trumpeter in Down Beat's Readers Poll. Rosewood received two Grammy Award Nominations for Best Jazz Instrumental Performance and Best Jazz Instrumental Performance. All compositions by Woody Shaw except as indicated "Rosewood" - 7:11 "Everytime I See You" - 7:14 "The Legend of the Cheops" - 6:03 "Rahsaan's Run" - 5:10 "Sunshowers" - 7:48 "Theme for Maxine" - 7:15 "Isabel, the Liberator" - 8:27 Bonus track on CD reissue "Joshua C." - 7:09 Bonus track on CD reissue "Why?"
- 4:50 Bonus track on CD reissueRosewood was reissued on Woody Shaw: The Complete Columbia Albums Collection in 2011. Woody Shaw - trumpet Flugelhorn Carter Jefferson - tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone Joe Henderson - tenor saxophone Frank Wess - flute, piccolo flute Art Webb - flute James Vass - soprano saxophone, alto saxophone Steve Turre - trombone, bass trombone Janice Robinson - trombone Onaje Allan Gumbs - piano, electric piano Clint Houston - bass Victor Lewis - drums Sammy Figueroa - congas Armen Halburian - percussion Lois Colin - harp