Cardinal Secretary of State
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See and the Vatican City; the Secretary of State is sometimes described as the prime minister of the Holy See though the nominal head of government of Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. The Secretary of State is Cardinal Pietro Parolin; the Cardinal Secretary is appointed by the Pope, serves as one of his principal advisors. As one of the senior offices in the Roman Catholic Church, the Secretary is required to be a cardinal. If the office is vacant, a non-cardinal may serve as Pro-tem Secretary of State, exercising the powers of the Secretary of State until a suitable replacement is found or the Pro-Secretary is made a cardinal in a subsequent consistory; the Cardinal Secretary's term ends when the Pope who appointed him leaves office.
During the sede vacante period, the former Secretary acts as a member of a commission with the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and the former President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, which exercises some of the functions of the head of state of the Vatican City until a new Pope is elected. Once the new Pope is chosen, the former Secretary's role in the commission expires, though he can be re-appointed as Secretary of State; the office traces its origins to that of secretary intimus, created by Pope Leo X in the early 16th century to handle correspondence with the diplomatic missions of the Holy See, which were just beginning to become permanent postings instead of missions sent on particular occasions. At this stage the secretary was a minor functionary, the Vatican administration being led by the Cardinal Nephew, the Pope's confidant taken from his family; the imprudence of Pope Julius III in entrusting the office of Cardinal Nephew to his alleged lover Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte, a teenaged illiterate street urchin whom his brother had adopted a few years earlier, led to an upgrading of the Secretary's job, as the incumbent had to take over the duties the Cardinal Nephew was unfit for.
By the time of Pope Innocent X the Secretary of State was always himself a Cardinal, Pope Innocent XII abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew in 1692. From onwards the Secretary of State has been the most important of the officials of the Holy See. In 1968, Pope Paul VI's apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae further enhanced the powers of the Secretary, placing him over all the other departments of the Roman Curia. In 1973 Paul further broadened the Secretaryship by abolishing the ancient office of Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and merging its functions into those of the Secretary. Girolamo Dandini Carlo Borromeo Tolomeo Gallio Girolamo Rusticucci Tolomeo Gallio Decio Azzolini Alessandro Peretti di Montalto Paolo Emilio Sfondrati Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce Pierbenedetto Peretti Pietro Aldobrandini and Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini Roberto Ubaldini Erminio Valenti Lanfranco Margotti Porifrio Feliciani Giovanni Battista Agucchi Lorenzo Magalotti Lorenzo Azzolini Pietro Benessa Francesco Adriano Ceva Giovanni Battista Spada Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli Fabio Chigi.
The Papal nobility is the nobility of the Holy See. Few Pontifical titles, other than personal nobility granted by individual entry into the several Pontifical equestrian orders, have been granted since the election of Pope John XXIII, though Pope John Paul II ennobled several distinguished individuals during his pontificate, as did Pope Benedict XVI, through the Vatican Secretariat of State; those granted included prince, marquis and baron. The papal nobility are, as such, part of the Papal Court reformed via the 1968 apostolic letter Pontificalis Domus, which reorganized the Court into the Pontifical Household. Papal titles of nobility were recognized by Italy in the 1929 Lateran Treaty establishing the Vatican City State and recognizing the sovereignty of the Holy See. In 1969 the Italian Council of State determined that the provision of the Lateran Treaty concerning the recognition of papal titles, incorporated into the Italian Constitution was still valid and therefore that their use in Italy was still licit.
No provision, has been made for their use in Italian passports, identity cards or civil state registries. The Papal States under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope had a territorial nobility and intermarried with the nobility of other Italian states. During this period, throughout Italy, various influential families came to positions of power through the election to the papacy of a family member or were elevated into the ranks of nobility through ecclesiastic promotion; these families intermarried with aristocratic nobility. Like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke and Prince of various 16th- and 17th-century principalities. According to Ranke: Under Innocent X, there existed for a considerable time, as it were, two great factions, or associations of families; the Orsini, Borghese, Aldobrandini and Giustiniani were with the Pamphili.
Popes elevated members of prominent families to the position of cardinal. Popes elevated their own family members – nephews – to the special position of cardinal-nephew. Prominent families could purchase curial offices for their sons and did, hoping that the son would rise through Church ranks to become a bishop or a cardinal, from which position they could dispense further titles and positions of authority to other family members; the period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, benefited from having a papal relative. Families, limited to agricultural or mercantile ventures found themselves, sometimes within only one or two generations, elevated to the Roman nobility when a relative was elected to the papal throne. Modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. After the Kingdom of Italy annexed the Papal States and captured Rome in 1870, the pope remained a self-described "prisoner in the Vatican", supported by the "black nobility" of families who remained loyal to the papacy rather than the Italian monarchy.
The Lateran Treaty ended the dispute and made the Papal nobility a part of the Italian nobility until the 1946 abolition of the Italian monarchy. As most of the Papal States were annexed by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870, the new kingdom recognized the existing nobility in its new territory. On the occasion of the signing of the Lateran Accords of 1929, the Italian government recognized and confirmed the pope's power to grant noble titles, recognized the titles granted by the Pope until that date and all future titles as equivalent to the noble titles of the Kingdom of Italy. With Paul VI, declaring in 1968 that the papal nobility would no longer be a constituent body in the papal court, the custom of conferring noble titles such as Count, Duke or Prince disappeared. Pope John Paul II did grant several noble titles to Polish compatriots at the beginning of his pontificate and without their being published in the Acts of The Apostolic See; the popes continue to award knighthoods and medals of merit on a regular basis, which do not confer titled-nobility status with the exception of Count of the Sacred Palace of Lateran.
Count/Countess is one of the noble titles granted by the Pope as a temporal sovereign, the title's holder is sometimes informally known as a papal count/papal countess or less so as a Roman count/Roman countess, but as count/countess. The comital title, which can be for life or hereditary, has been awarded in various forms by popes and Holy Roman Emperors since the Middle Ages, infrequently before the 14th century, the pope continued to grant the comital and other noble titles after 1870, when the Papal States were taken from the pope. Recipients of such honours included both Italians those close to the papacy, prominent non-Italian Catholics, including Irish tenor John McCormack, American financier George MacDonald, Rose Kennedy. American Francis Augustus MacNutt was a papal marquis, in the 1920s, Genevieve and Nicholas Frederic Brady of New York were granted papal dukedoms. Pontifical noble titles, like entry motu proprio into Pontifical Equestrian Orders of Chivalry, are in the personal gift of the pope, the grant of these titles is not recorded in the Acts of The Holy See.
The title "Count of the Sacred Palace
Vatican Radio is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican. Set up in 1931 by Guglielmo Marconi, today its programs are offered in 47 languages, are sent out on short wave, medium wave, FM, satellite and the Internet. Since its inception, Vatican Radio has been maintained by the Jesuit Order. Vatican Radio preserved its independence during the rise of Nazi Germany. Following the outbreak of World War II, a week after Pope Pius XII ordered the programming, Vatican Radio broadcast the news that Poles and Jews were being rounded up and forced into ghettos. Today, programming is produced by over two hundred journalists located in 61 different countries. Vatican Radio produces more than 42,000 hours of simultaneous broadcasting covering international news, religious celebrations, in-depth programs, music; the current general director is Father Federico Lombardi, S. J. On 27 June 2015, Pope Francis, in a motu proprio apostolic letter, established the Secretariat for Communications in the Roman Curia, which absorbed Vatican Radio effective 1 January 2017, ending the organization's 85 years of independent operation.
Vatican Radio began broadcasting with the callsign HVJ on two shortwave frequencies using 10 kilowatts of power on 12 February 1931, with the pontificial message "Omni creaturae" of Pope Pius XI. In attendance was Guglielmo Marconi and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, who would become Pope Pius XII Its first director was physicist Giuseppe Gianfranceschi, the president of the Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei. In 1933, a permanent microwave link was established between the Vatican Palace and the summer residence of the papacy, Castel Gandolfo. In 1936, the International Telecommunication Union recognized Vatican Radio as a "special case" and authorized its broadcasting without any geographical limits. On 25 December 1937 two directional antennas were added. Vatican Radio broadcast over 10 frequencies. Following a December 1939 report from Cardinal August Hlond of Poznań detailing the oppression of the Catholic Church in Poland, Pope Pius XII decided, among other measures, to use Vatican Radio to provide "information regarding the condition of the church in Poland."
The German broadcast on 21 January 1940 compared German activities to "what the Communists imposed on Spain in 1936". During World War II, Vatican Radio's news broadcasts were banned in Germany. During the war, the radio service operated in four languages. While some critics have said Pope Pius XII was too quiet regarding the Holocaust, Jacques Adler examined the transcripts of wartime broadcasts over the Vatican Radio. Adler argues that it opposed collaboration with Nazism, it appealed to Catholics to remain true to their faith's injunctions: to defend the sanctity of life and the unity of humankind. In so doing the Pope pursued a policy of spiritual resistance to Nazi racism. In 1948, services expanded to 18 languages; because of space purposes, the Holy See acquired a 400-hectare area located 18 kilometres north of Rome at Santa Maria di Galeria. The Italian Republic granted the site extraterritorial status in 1952. In 1957, a new broadcasting center was placed into operation, with a Philips 100 kW shortwave transmitter, two 10 kW shortwave transmitters, one 120 kW mediumwave transmitter, with 21 directional and one omnidirectional antenna.
The next phase involved two 100 kW transmitters aimed at Africa and Oceania, a 250 kW mediumwave transmitter for Europe, a 500 kW transmitter for the Far East and Latin America. Radio Vaticana was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. In the 21st century, Vatican Radio has experimented with digital transmission technologies and has used electronic newsletters and other new technologies to distribute its programming. Vatican Radio and CTV began their own YouTube channel in 2010, operating in four languages, operates six Twitter accounts. In May 2009 it was announced that Vatican Radio would begin broadcasting commercial advertisements for the first time in July; the decision was made so as namely 21.4 m euros a year. All advertisements would have to meet "high moral standards". Vatican Radio stopped transmitting short- and medium-wave broadcasts to North America, South America, Europe on Sunday 1 July 2012; the Vatican Press Office closed Vatican Information Service in August 2012.
In 2014 Michael Gannon, from Ireland, became the first person with Down Syndrome to work at any Vatican office, which he did as an intern at Vatican Radio. As of 2016, Vatican Radio had a staff of 355 people who produce more than 66 hours of daily programming in 45 languages on air, 38 languages on the website. Programs are broadcast via medium wave, FM and satellite. Vatican Radio has been losing between € € 30 million annually. With its absorption into the Curia's Secretariat for Communications on 1 January 2017 Vatican Radio director Msgr. Dario Viganò has indicated that he plans to pare down short-wave radio operations and institute cost control measures in the service's other broadcast operations. On 24 March 2017, Vatican Radio made its final English-language shortwave transmission to Asia after 59 years of service. Vatican Radio's English Service for Asia has continued online. During the 1930s, the station made experimental television broadcasts. However, apart from a brief experimental revival in the 1950s, it was not until the 1990s that a regular'satellite' television servic
Crime in Vatican City
Crime in the Vatican City consists of purse snatching, pick-pocketing and shoplifting by tourists. The tourist foot-traffic in St. Peter's Square is one of the main locations for pickpockets in Vatican City; the Vatican's small size results in a few statistical oddities. There are 18 million visitors to the state each year, the most common crime is petty theft — purse snatching, pick-pocketing and shoplifting, perpetrated — and suffered — by outsiders. Based on a population of 455 in 1992, the 397 civil offences in that year represent a crime rate of 0.87 crimes per capita, with 608 penal offences or 1.33 per capita. The Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano is the gendarmerie, or police and security force, of Vatican City and the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See; the corps is responsible for security, public order, border control, traffic control, criminal investigation, other general police duties in Vatican City including providing security for the pope outside of Vatican City.
The corps has 130 personnel and is a part of the Security and Civil Defence Services Department, an organ of the Governorate of Vatican City. In accordance with article 3 of the 1929 Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, St. Peter's Square, although part of the Vatican City State, is patrolled by the Italian police, up to but not including the steps leading to the basilica. Article 22 of the Lateran Treaty provides that the Italian government, when requested by the Holy See, seeks prosecution and detention of criminal suspects, at the expense of the Vatican; the Vatican has no prison system, apart from a few cells for pre-trial detention. People sentenced to imprisonment by the Vatican serve time in Italian prisons, with costs covered by the Vatican. In 1969, the Vatican state abolished capital punishment, it had been envisaged in legislation the Vatican adopted in 1929 based on Italian law, but the power was never exercised. A few major criminal events have occurred in recent decades within Vatican territory.
On May 13, 1981, Pope John Paul II suffered an assassination attempt by Mehmet Ali Ağca. This episode led to a much stronger emphasis on the Swiss Guard's non-ceremonial roles; this has included enhanced training in small arms. The small arms are the same as those used in the Swiss army. On May 4, 1998, the Swiss Guard experienced one of its greatest scandals for over 100 years when the commander of the Guard, Alois Estermann, was murdered in unclear circumstances in Vatican City. According to the official Vatican version and his wife, Gladys Meza Romero, were killed by the young Swiss Guard Cédric Tornay, who committed suicide. Estermann had been named commander of the Swiss Guard the same day; the Vatican Bank was Banco Ambrosiano's main share-holder. Father Paul Marcinkus, head of the Institute for Religious Works from 1971 to 1989, was indicted in Italy in 1981 as an accessory in the $3.5 billion collapse of Banco Ambrosiano, one of the major post-war financial scandals. Banco Ambrosiano was accused of laundering drug money for the Sicilian Mafia.
The Vatican leaks scandal is a scandal involving leaked Vatican documents exposing corruption. The scandal first came to light in January 2012, when Italian journalist Gianluigi Nuzzi published letters from Carlo Maria Viganò the second ranked Vatican administrator to the pope, in which he begged not to be transferred for having exposed alleged corruption that cost the Holy See millions in higher contract prices. Viganò was named Apostolic Nuncio to the United States. Paolo Gabriele, the papal butler, was indicted by Vatican magistrates on 13 August 2012 for aggravated theft. On 6 October, Gabriele was found to be guilty, was sentenced to a reduced sentence of 18 months. Gabriele was ordered to pay legal expenses. However, in a departure from the usual arrangement that sends convicted prisoners to serve time in an Italian prison, Gabriele served his sentence in a detention cell inside the Vatican police barracks, he was pardoned by Pope Benedict XVI on 22 December 2012. Index of Vatican City-related articles
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Acta Apostolicae Sedis cited as AAS, is the official gazette of the Holy See, appearing about twelve times a year. It was established by Pope Pius X on 29 September 1908 with the decree Promulgandi Pontificias Constitutiones, publication began in January 1909, it contains all the principal decrees, encyclical letters, decisions of Roman congregations, notices of ecclesiastical appointments. The laws contained in it are to be considered promulgated when published, effective three months from date of issue, unless a shorter or longer time is specified in the law, it replaced a similar publication that had existed since 1865, under the title of Acta Sanctae Sedis. Though not designated as the official means of promulgating laws of the Holy See, this was on 23 May 1904 declared an organ of the Holy See to the extent that all documents printed in it were considered "authentic and official"; as indicated above, the Acta Sanctae Sedis ceased publication four years later. Acta Apostolicae Sedis is published in Latin.
Since 1929, Acta Apostolicae Sedis carries a supplement in Italian, called Supplemento per le leggi e disposizioni dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, containing laws and regulations of Vatican City, the city-state founded in that year. In accordance with paragraph 2 of the Legge sulle fonti del diritto of 7 June 1929, the laws of the state are promulgated by being included in this supplement. Index of Vatican City-related articles Beal, John P. James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green. New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law: Commissioned by the Canon Law Society of America. Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City
The Gendarmerie Corps of Vatican City State is the gendarmerie, or police and security force, of Vatican City and the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See. The 130-member corps is led by an Inspector General Domenico Giani, who replaced the long-serving Camillo Cibin in June 2006. In 1816, after the dissolution of the Napoleonic empire, Pope Pius VII founded the Papal Carabinieri Corps for the service of the Papal States. In 1849, under Pope Pius IX, it was renamed, first as the Papal Velites Regiment, as the Papal Gendarmerie Corps, it was charged with ensuring public security, passed from dependence on the Ministry of the Army to dependence on the Cardinal Secretary of State. It took an active part in the battles that led to the complete conquest of the Papal States by the victorious Kingdom of Italy. After the capture of Rome in 1870, a small group of members of the Corps continued to serve in the papal residence and the gardens. In 1929, the force was expanded to deal with its duties in the newly founded Vatican City State and in the buildings and other areas over which the Holy See had extraterritorial rights.
When in 1970 Pope Paul VI abolished all the military bodies at his service except the Swiss Guards, the Gendarmerie was transformed into a Central Security Office, with the duties of protecting the Pope, defending Vatican City, providing police and security services within its territory. Its name was changed in 1991 to Security Corps of Vatican City State and in 2002 to Gendarmerie Corps of Vatican City State; the corps is responsible for security, public order, border control, traffic control, criminal investigation, other general police duties in Vatican City. The Vatican Gendarmerie includes two special units, the Rapid Intervention Group and an anti-sabotage unit. Since 2000 an operations and control room, staffed 24 hours a day, coordinates the response of the Vatican security services in the case of an emergency; the Interpol National Central Bureau for Vatican City, tasked with collecting and sharing relevant information on crime and security with Interpol, an organisation of which Vatican City is a full member since 2008, is part of the Vatican Gendarmerie.
While the protection of the Pope's person is the Swiss Guard's responsibility, the gendarmes ensure public order at the audiences and ceremonies at which he is present. In Italian territory and in other countries, this is done in liaison with the local police authorities. To qualify for enrollment as a gendarme, a person must be an unmarried male between the ages of 21 to 24 of good health and a practising Catholic. There are minimum requirements of height and education; the Gendarmerie's patron saint is Saint Michael the Archangel. Since 1977, the oratory of San Pellegrino in Vaticano serves as the chapel of the Gendarmerie; the church served as the chapel of the Pontifical Swiss Guard. The Band of the Gendarmerie serves as the official marching band of Vatican City; the Commandant of the Gendarmerie Corps is head of the Directorate of Security and Civil Protection Services, which oversees the Vatican fire brigade. Security in Vatican City is provided by the Pontifical Swiss Guard, a military unit of the Holy See, not Vatican City State.
The Swiss Guard are responsible for the security of the Pope and all papal buildings. The Swiss Guard have maintained a centuries long tradition of carrying swords and spears, unlike the Gendarmerie Corps; the Gendarmerie is equipped with the Glock 17 semi-automatic pistol in 9 mm Parabellum as the standard issue weapon. They have more powerful weapons, such as the Beretta M12 and the Heckler & Koch MP5 sub-machine gun, a weapon used by the Italian police. Against possible riots, they are supplied with batons, pepper sprays and tear gas. For the elite-unit Rapid Intervention Group, members are equipped with the Carbon 15 carbine and Heckler & Koch FABARM FP6 shotguns. In September 2012, the Gendarmerie was equipped with one Kangoo Maxi ZE electric car; the Gendarmerie recently received a pair of Ducati police motorbikes. Before 1970, the 180 Pontifical Gendarmes wore elaborate ceremonial uniforms of 19th-century origin; these included bearskin headdresses with red plumes, black coatees with white-fringed epaulettes, white doeskin breeches and knee-high riding boots.
In service dress bicornes and blue trousers were substituted. The present-day Vatican City gendarmes wear dark blue modern police uniforms. Crime in Vatican City Index of Vatican City-related articlesSwiss Guards Papal Army Military of Vatican City Noble Guard Palatine Guard Pontifical Swiss Guard Papal Zouaves Corsican Guard Official website
Vatican City Vatican City State, is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. Established with the Lateran Treaty, it is distinct from yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See. With an area of 44 hectares, a population of about 1,000, it is the smallest state in the world by both area and population; the Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the pope who is, religiously speaking, the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Since the return of the popes from Avignon in 1377, they have resided at the Apostolic Palace within what is now Vatican City, although at times residing instead in the Quirinal Palace in Rome or elsewhere; the Holy See dates back to early Christianity, is the primate episcopal see of the Catholic Church, with 1.3 billion Catholics around the world distributed in the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches.
The independent Vatican City-state, on the other hand, came into existence in 11 February 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States, which had encompassed much of central Italy. Within the Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums, they feature some of sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and souvenirs, fees for admission to museums, sales of publications; the name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state. The name is taken from the geographic location of the state. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, "Vatican territory". The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, meaning "Vatican City State".
Although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ; the name "Vatican" was in use in the time of the Roman Republic for a marshy area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD 40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers, completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis called the Circus of Nero. Before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this uninhabited part of Rome had long been considered sacred, or at least not available for habitation. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby; the low quality of Vatican water after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial.
Tacitus wrote, that in AD 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, when the northern army that brought Vitellius to power arrived in Rome, "a large proportion camped in the unhealthy districts of the Vatican, which resulted in many deaths among the common soldiery. The Vatican Obelisk was taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant; this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds. Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries, increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941.
The Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery. From on, the area became more populated in connection with activity at the basilica. A palace was constructed nearby as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus. Popes came to have a secular role as governors of regions near Rome, they ruled the Papal States, which covered a large portion of the Italian peninsula, for more than a thousand years until the mid-19th century, when all the territory belonging to the papacy was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For most of this time the popes did not live at the Vatican; the Lateran Palace, on the opposite side