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Blackballing is a rejection in a traditional form of secret ballot, where a white ball or ballot constitutes a vote in support and a black ball signifies opposition. The system is used where an organisation's rules provide that one or two objections, rather than an at-least-50% share of votes, are sufficient to defeat a proposition. Since the seventeenth century, these rules have applied to elections to membership of many gentlemen's clubs and similar institutions such as Masonic lodges and fraternities. A large supply of black and white balls is provided for voters; each voter audibly casts a single ball into the ballot box under cover of the box, or of a combination of a cloth and the box itself, so that observers can see who votes but not how they are voting. When all voting is complete, the box is opened and the balls displayed: all present can see the result, without any means of knowing which members are objecting; the principle of such election rules in a club is that it is self-perpetuating to preserve the current ethos of the club, by ensuring that candidates are congenial to all the existing members.

A difference of opinions could be divisive, so that an election must be taken secretly as well as correctly. The number of votes in support is irrelevant, except to prove a quorum. Whilst in many such cases a single black ball will be fatal to the candidate's election, rules in larger clubs ensure that a single member cannot exercise a veto to the detriment of the future of the club. For example, two black balls are required to exclude. A variant sometimes used is; the practice found popularity in areas outside of social clubs. In the Soviet Union, dissertation panels would cast their vote on a thesis defense using this system. Robert's Rules of Order notes that the use of black and white balls can be ordered by passing an incidental motion to that effect; the manual notes, "This custom, however, is declining."The term still remains in use for many different electoral systems which have applied from club to club and from time to time: for example, instead of differently coloured balls, ballot-balls may be dropped into separate "yes" or "no" drawers inside the ballot box.

In some Masons' lodges, a black cube is used instead of a black ball so that a black ball can be differentiated from a dirty white ball, as the lighting in the meeting hall is dim during voting. The following example from the rules of election to the Travellers Club, quoted from Dickens's Dictionary of London, provides an illustration of the principle: The members elect by ballot; when 12 and under 18 members ballot, one black ball, if repeated, shall exclude. The presence of 12 members is necessary for a ballot

James Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormond

James Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormond, was a noble in the Peerage of Ireland. He acceded to the title in 1382 and built Gowran Castle three years in 1385 close to the centre of Gowran, making it his usual residence, whence his common epithet, The Earl of Gowran. James died in Gowran Castle in 1405 and is buried in St. Mary's Collegiate Church Gowran together with his father James Butler, 2nd Earl of Ormond, his grandfather James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormond and his great great grandfather Edmund Butler, Earl of Carrick and 6th Chief Butler of Ireland. James the 2nd Earl was called The Noble Earl, being a great-grandson, through his mother, Eleanor de Bohun, of King Edward I of England. In 1391 he purchased Kilkenny Castle from the Despencer family, he built the castle of Dunfert and in 1386 founded a Friary of minorities at Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire. In 1384 he was deputy to Sir Philip Courtenay, the Lieutenant of Ireland, the nephew of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Courtenay; the two men for a time were united in opposition to Robert Wikeford, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, who resented the Butler dynasty's power and influence.

Butler's title was Governor of Ireland. A rift occurred between them over the disagreement between the Archbishop of Canterbury and Richard II with Butler taking the side of the latter. Insurrection followed which prompted Richard II to an expedition under the banner of his close friend Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland to quell it; this enterprise was led by Sir John Stanley, accompanied by Bishop Alexander de Balscot of Meath and Sir Robert Crull. Butler joined them upon their arrival in Ireland; the result of its success was Stanley's appointment as Lieutenant of Ireland, Bishop Alexander as chancellor, Crull as treasurer, Butler again as governor. On 25 July 1392, he was appointed Lord Justice of Ireland as he was again in 1401. On the departure of Sir Stephen Scrope to England on 26 October 1404, by commission, dated at Carlow, 12 February 1388-9, he was appointed keeper of the peace and governor of counties Kilkenny and Tipperary, he was vested with full power to treat with, to execute, to protect, to give safe conduct to any rebels, etc.

In 1397 he assisted Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, the Lord Lieutenant, against O Brien, in 1390 took prisoner Teige O Carrol, Prince of Elye. Some time before 17 June 1386, he married Anne Welles, the daughter of John de Welles, 4th Baron Welles by his spouse Maud. Anne Welles died on 13 November 1397, around the age of 37, they had five children: James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond, married firstly Joan de Beauchamp, daughter of William Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny and Lady Joan FitzAlan, had issue. He married secondly, Lady Joan, widow of Jenico Grey, daughter and heiress of Gerald FitzGerald, 5th Earl of Kildare, but had no children. Sir Richard Butler of Polestown, county Kilkenny, his godfather was King Richard II of England. He married Catherine, daughter of Gildas O'Reilly of Cavar, Lord of East Breffny, had issue. Anne Butler, married John Wogan, had issue. Sir Philip Butler, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Cockayne, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, by his wife Ida de Grey, had issue.

Ancestor of Barons Boteler of Brantfield. Sir Ralph Butler, married Margaret de Berwick, had issue. In 1399 the Earl married Katherine FitzGerald of Desmond, they had four children: James "Gallda" Butler, Edmund Butler Gerald Butler Theobald ButlerBy an unknown mistress he had at least one illegitimate son, Thomas Le Boteller aka Thomas Bacach. Thomas joined the order of Knights Hospitaller, he was Lord Deputy of Prior of Kilmainham. He was a distinguished soldier who led an Irish force of 700 men at the Siege of Rouen in 1419. Butler dynasty Richardson and Kimball G. Everingham. Magna Carta Ancestry A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Royal ancestry series. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Pub. Co, 2005. Accessed November 9, 2007 Doyle, James William Edmund. The Official Baronage of England, Showing the Succession and Offices of Every Peer from 1066 to 1885, with Sixteen Hundred Illustrations. London: Longmans, Green, 1886. Accessed November 9, 2007 Accessed November 9, 2007

Merv Hobbs

Mervyn'Merv' Hobbs is a former Australian rules footballer who played with Footscray in the VFL during the early 1960s. Hobbs joined Footscray as a rover. Hobbs is best remembered for a spectacular mark which he took in the 1961 Preliminary Final where Footscray upset Melbourne to end their streak of seven successive Grand Final appearances, his team lost the 1961 Grand Final comfortably to Hawthorn but he played in back to back Night Series Premierships in 1963 and 1964. Hobbs rested in the forward pocket and was handy near goals. In an era where Footscray lacked big goal-kickers, Hobbs contributed one and a half goals a game, he kicked a career best eight goals in a game against South Melbourne at Western Oval early into his second season. His season tally of 16 goals in 1963 was enough to share Footscray's goal kicking award and his 24 goals in 1965 won it outright. An injury sustained at training in the 1966 pre-season in which he tore his anterior and interior ligaments as well as cartilage in his right knee, ended his VFL career.

Hobbs was 23 when his VFL career was ended through the serious injury In 1966, Hobbs played 4 games for VFA team, Yarraville. This was curtailed with ongoing problems with the injured knee. In 1968, Hobbs Captain-Coached, Seddon, in the Footscray Districts League. In 1971, Hobbs coached Footscray Under 19's to 5th spot on the ladder supplying the Footscray Seniors with many young stars. In 1972, Hobbs missed out on the Footscray Seniors coaching job, only being beaten by last minute applicant, Bob Rose, the champion Collingwood player and coach. Hobbs was appointed in 1972, Captain-Coach of Melton Football Club, on top of the ladder all year and unbeaten. Melton beat Darley by 10 goals in the second semi-final, only to have a tragic loss that night, of their star player and fairest winner, killed in a car accident. Playing Darley again in the Grand Final, Melton were hot favourites for the win, after being unbeaten all year, a win was on track until player Fanning, push Hobbs into the iron fence and broke his jaw.

His brother, on the bench, right where the incident happened, jumped up and knocked out 6'6 Fanning. With the loss of Cahill, the severe injury to Hobbs, their playing coach, Melton played the man and not the ball and lost the Grand Final. In 1973, Hobbs played for Brunswick in a losing Grand Final. In 1974, Hobbs Captain-Coached Unbeaten Newport to the Flag. In 1976, Hobbs was chairman of selectors for Footscray Football Club. In 1977, Hobbs and his brother Dave, kicked 10 goals between them in the Grand Final to win by 8 goals over hot favourites, Benalla All Blacks in a violent Grand Final in the Benalla District League giving Longwood their first premiership in 24 years; the Following year, 1978, Hobbs and his brother were assistant coaches at West Newport to Charlie Menzies, the Coach, who Merv had coached at Footscray Under 19's in 1971. On a windy day for the second semi final, West Newport were beaten by Brooklyn by 2 points, but responded in the Grand Final, by winning at a margin of 39 points and his brother kicked 6 goals between them giving West Newport their first premiership in 9 years.

In 1979 & 1980, Hobbs coached Williamstown in the VFA Second Division, playing in the finals in both years, supplying a 15 year old, Ian Fairley to North Melbourne in the VFL. Hobbs went on to being President of Williamstown Football Club for many years. Merv Hobbs's playing statistics from AFL Tables Merv Hobbs at

Dalian Naval Academy

Dalian Naval Academy is one of the higher education institutes of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy and is located in Dalian, Liaoning. It was established in 1949 as the first naval academy of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and was changed to the current name in 1986, its address is 667, Jiefang Road, Zhongshan District, is just north of Laohutan, a popular resort place that houses the Dalian Laohutan Ocean Park. Zhang Zhannan, Wu Shengli and others are in the list of the former heads of this academy. Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Dalian Naval Academy Dalian Naval Academy Dalian Naval Academy Visiting Dalian Naval Academy with a picture of the entrance gate Turkish Naval Academy Delegation Visited Dalian Naval Academy in May'10

Bruno Crastes

Bruno Crastes is a French fund manager specializing in absolute return/global bond strategies and CEO of H2O Asset Management. Bruno Crastes is born on May 1965 in the suburbs of Lyon, he received a BA in mathematics from the University of Lyon and graduated in actuary from Institut de Science Financière et d’Assurances. After graduation, he started his career at Bank Louis Dreyfus as a proprietary trader on bond market, he moved to Indosuez Asset Management, a French asset management company. He began managing global fixed income portfolios at Crédit Agricole Asset Management and rose through the ranks and from 1994 on, he headed the global fixed income desk, he was appointed CIO of CAAM London in 2002 and CEO in 2005. The same year, he was the top manager in the Citywire Fund Manager ratings for France, he topped the league again in 2006. In 2007, he was nominated for the "CIO of the Year" award. In 2010, following the creation of Amundi, he was appointed member of the executive committee and Deputy Head of the Institutional Investment Division.

"Top fund manager and fixed income specialist for over 20 years", Bruno Crastes has been made famous developing an innovative range of absolute return range of open-ended funds called VaR funds from March 1999. One of the VaR funds, CAAM Invest VaR 20 I EUR fund, won the Lipper award for Global macro in Europe in 2010. In 2010, he co-founded H2O AM LLP with Vincent Chailley, focusing on liquid absolute return strategies, he was nominated "Best global bond manager of the past five years" in June 2013 with a performance of 89.71% vs. 33.65% for the peergroup. In December 2014, he arrived second in the Top 100 European fund managers ranking of l'Agefi Suisse, he is acting as CEO of H2O AM and Vincent Chailley as CIO. He received the "Prix spécial BFMTV" on behalf of H2O AM in February 2015, his fund H2O AM Multi Bond won the absolute return bond fund award at the Investment Week Specialist awards ceremony in Autumn 2015. 2.2 billion-euro of H2O Allegro fund are linked to Lars Windhorst and slumped due to illiquidity in 2019.

He is on the board of a vehicle owned by Lars Windhorst. H2O has emerged as among the biggest buyers of this Tennor bonds After more than 7 billion in withdraws from H2O, the fund announced in June 2019, that it would move its toxic debt to a new fund. Significant shareholders of H2O AM LLP include H2O's employees. Natixis Global Asset Management#Subsidiaries and strategic partnership H2O AM LLP Official Website

Elm River Township, Michigan

Elm River Township is a civil township of Houghton County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 169 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 93.3 square miles, of which 91.3 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. Donken is an unincorporated community in the township. Elm River was an area around the operations of the Elm River Copper Company, it had a post office from 1900 until 1907. Lake Roland is an unincorporated community in the township at 46°53′04″N 88°51′50″W. Twin Lakes is an unincorporated community in the township at 46°53′50″N 88°51′03″W. Winona is an unincorporated community in the township at 46°52′28″N 88°54′26″W. A copper mine was first opened in 1864 by the Winona Copper Mining Company identified by a line of Indian pits; the mine could not be profitably operated at the time and little was done with it until the Winona Copper Company was organized in 1898 and assumed ownership of the earlier mine.

A post office operated from April 5, 1899 until September 12, 1975, after which it was a Community Post Office of Toivola until January 1, 1982. Wyandotte is an unincorporated community in the township at 46°53′24″N 88°52′31″W; as of the census of 2000, there were 169 people, 70 households, 56 families residing in the township. The population density was 1.9 per square mile. There were 319 housing units at an average density of 3.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 96.45% White, 0.59% Native American, 1.18% Pacific Islander, 1.78% from two or more races. 41.4% were of Finnish, 21.4% Irish, 6.9% German, 6.2% English and 5.5% French ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 70 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.63. In the township the population was spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 34.9% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $27,813, the median income for a family was $30,313. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,024. About 18.2% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 18.8% of those sixty five or over. Romig, Walter. Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and the Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities. Great Lakes Books Series. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1838-6.

Elm River Township official web site