Ardmillan is a residential suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland. The boundary north of Ardmillan is bordered by the area of Dalry. To the west is the area of Gorgie, to the east is the area of Fountainbridge. Polwarth and North Merchiston are to the south of Ardmillan; the name means the "high bare place" in Scottish Gaelic. The area contains many tenements as well as "Diggers" pub, so called because the gravediggers from the large graveyard in the Ardmillan-Dalry area would go in there after work. Another pub in the area, the Caledonian Sample Room, is mistakenly assumed to be owned by the nearby Caledonian Brewery. Ardmillan has two churches; the first is St Michael's Parish Church, an ecumenical church. Building of the church began in 1879 and was completed for services in 1883. There is an old congregation of Wesleyan Methodists in the area. Ardmillan is home to a large, modern health centre called Ardmillan House; the health centre is the location of the South East Scotland Breast Screening Centre. On the southern boundary with North Merchiston is a large public park - Harrison Park.
The origins of the park lie with a public purchase of land by Edinburgh City Council in 1886, with additional land expanding the park being bought in 1930
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era, her son and successor, Edward VII, was the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe. Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, the sun never set on the British flag."The Liberals returned to power in 1906 and made significant reforms. Below the upper class, the era was marked by significant shifts in politics among sections of society, excluded from power, such as common labourers, the industrial working class, the Irish. Women started to play more of a role in politics; the Edwardian period is sometimes portrayed as a romantic golden age of long summer afternoons and garden parties, basking in a sun that never sets on the British Empire.
This perception was created in the 1920s and by those who remembered the Edwardian age with nostalgia, looking back to their childhoods across the abyss of the Great War. The Edwardian age was seen as a mediocre period of pleasure between the great achievements of the preceding Victorian age and the catastrophe of the following war. Recent assessments emphasise the great differences between the wealthy and the poor during this period and describe the age as heralding great changes in political and social life. Historian Lawrence James has argued that the leaders felt threatened by rival powers such as Germany and the United States; the sudden arrival of world war in summer 1914 was unexpected. There was a growing political awareness among the working class, leading to a rise in trade unions, the Labour movement and demands for better working conditions; the aristocracy remained in control of top government offices. The Conservatives – at the time called "Unionists" – were the dominant political party from the 1890s until 1906.
The party had many strengths, appealing to voters supportive of imperialism, the Church of England, a powerful Royal Navy, traditional hierarchical society. There was a powerful leadership base in the landed aristocracy and landed gentry in rural England, plus strong support from the Church of England and military interests. Historians have used election returns to demonstrate that Conservatives did well in working-class districts, they had an appeal as well to the better-off element of traditional working-class Britons in the larger cities. In rural areas, the national headquarters made effective use of paid traveling lecturers, with pamphlets and lantern slides, who were able to communicate with rural voters – the newly enfranchised agricultural workers. In the first years of the twentieth century, the Conservative government, with Arthur Balfour as Prime Minister, had numerous successes in foreign policy and education, as well as solutions for the issues of alcohol licensing and land ownership for the peasants of Ireland.
The weaknesses were accumulating, proved so overwhelming in 1906 that they did not return to complete power until 1922. The Conservative Party was losing its drive and enthusiasm after the retirement of the charismatic Joseph Chamberlain. There was a bitter split on "tariff reform", that drove many of the free traders over to the Liberal camp. Tariff reform was a losing issue. Conservative support weakened among the top tier of the working-class and lower middle-class, there was dissatisfaction among the intellectuals; the 1906 general election was a landslide victory for the Liberal Party, which saw its total vote share increase by 25%, while the Conservative total vote held steady. The Liberal Party lacked a unified ideological base in 1906, it contained numerous contradictory and hostile factions, such as imperialists and supporters of the Boers. Non-Conformist Dissenters – Protestants outside the Anglican fold – were a powerful element, dedicated to opposing the established church in terms of education and taxation.
However, the Dissenters were losing support and society at large and played a lesser and lesser role in party affairs after 1900. The Party, furthermore included Irish Catholics, secularists from the labour movement; the middle-class business and intellectual communities were strongholds, although some old aristocratic families played important roles as well. The working-class element was moving toward the newly emerging Labour Party. One uniting element was widespread agreement on the use of politics and Parliament as a device to upgrade and improve society and to reform politics; the Labour Party was emerging from the growing trade union movement after 1890. In 1903 it entered the Gladstone–MacDonald pact with the Liberals, allowing for cross-party support in elections, the emergence of a small Labour contingent in Parliament, it was a temporary arrangement until the 1920s, when the Labour Party was strong enough to act on its own, the Liberals were in an irreversible decline. Subtle social changes in the working-class were producing a younger generation that wanted to act independently.
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Bonnington is a district of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The area centres upon an original village which grew up around a ford on the Water of Leith on the old boundary between Edinburgh and the port of Leith. Before the creation of Leith Walk the road via the villages of Broughton and Bonnington, or Wester Road as it appears on some old maps, was one of two roads connecting Edinburgh to Leith; the district lies between the districts of Newhaven. The land and mills of Bonnytoun formed part of the Barony of Broughton mentioned in King David I’s confirmation charter to the Abbey of Holyrood in 1143. Like the nearby village of Canonmills, Bonnington was a milling village making use of the river’s water-power; the village suffered in 1544 when the Earl of Hertford’s army passed through on its way to attack Edinburgh and again in 1547 after the Scottish defeat in the Battle of Pinkie, both events in the period of conflict known as the Rough Wooing. In 1617 the land and mills were sold to the Town Council of Edinburgh by the landowners, the Logans of Restalrig.
At the Council’s invitation, a Dutchman Jeromias van der Heill was installed in 1621 as a dyer to teach his craft locally. The house built for him, named Bonnyhaugh by a occupant, still stands; when the mill buildings were demolished in the face of local protests in the 1980s, the house was saved and converted into private apartments. The low cottage at its side was the original dying room and became a blacksmith’s smiddy. A waterwheel of the ‘undershot’ type, from the Bonnington Mills, has been saved and in the 1980s was moved to a new position on the site of the mill lade; the water level in the lade was controlled by a sluice gate at the nearby weir at Redbraes. The water power generated was used to weave cloth, tan leather and manufacture paper. Bonnington Road became a toll road at the end of the 18th century, hence the name Bonnington Toll at the Newhaven Road junction; the old toll house at the Leith end still exists, an abandoned two storey stone house on the edge of the Swanfield Industrial Estate.
A bridge over the ford was built in 1812 and replaced by the present bridge in 1902-03. In 1832, Robert Burns’ skinworks occupied the site of Bonnington Mills; the Burns tenement, built on Newhaven Road to house the tannery workers, was renovated in the 1970s. A stone tablet on the tenement depicts the tools of the tanner's trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the area on the north side of Bonnington Road stretching eastwards to Leith became one of mixed types of industrial and retail premises, including a major printer’s works, sugar bond and engineering works; some of these premises have been converted to new uses in recent decades. One of the larger developments in the area from the 1980s is the storage depot of the John Lewis Partnership in Bonnington Road Lane; the former Bonnington Church united with North Leith Parish Church in 1968, with the united congregation thenceforth using the North Leith Parish Church building in Madeira Street, Leith. New housing built along the river bank has changed the face of the area around Bonnington Mills and necessitated work on improving flood defences.
The former Bonnington Primary School reopened on 16 August 2013 as Bun-sgoil Taobh na Pàirce: Edinburgh's first Gaelic Medium School. A core of industries and businesses lay on either side of the Water of Leith; the original Chancelot Mill Dofos dog food factory Powderhall Bronze, a modern foundry The Scottish tachometer centre Dulux Paints Farmer Jacks A huge whisky bond at Anderson Place Pringles Woollen Mills A stone and marble yard The cardboard box factory on Bonnington Road. Graham Street was cleared of traditional tenements in the 1960s to build low-grade industry but by 2000 was rebuilt as housing, including an unusual white block for Port of Leith Housing Association. Whilst industrial uses were protected in the area, recent planning changes have led to residential uses being to take over altogether. Leslie Balfour-Melville Robert Keith H Coghill, Discovering The Water of Leith, John Donald 1988 J M Wallace, Historic Houses Of Edinburgh, John Donald 1987
Balgreen is a suburb of Edinburgh, located two miles west of the city centre. It is located to the west of Murrayfield and Saughtonhall, to the east of Corstorphine, to the north of Gorgie, it is bound to the north by Corstorphine Hill, to the west by Carrick Knowe Golf Course, to the east by Water of Leith. The name comes from Balgreen House once situated where Balgreen School now stands and is derived from Scottish Gaelic being Baile na Grèine or Baile Griain from the gravel on the riverbank, or from Baile Grianain, it does not, as some etymologies have suggested, come from "Ball Green". The Gaelic "Bal-" prefix can be found in Balerno and is not unusual in the area; the placename Balgreen is found near Murieston and Ecclesmachanin West Lothian. The Water of Leith flows through here with the Water of Leith Walkway connecting the area to Stockbridge to the north east and Colinton and Balerno to the south west. There is a library, primary school, a large park here, with facilities for football etc. and a children's playpark.
Balgreen tram stop is located off Balgreen Road, adjacently north of the main Glasgow to Edinburgh railway line. 12,26,31 1,2,22,30 38 21 and 22 Balgreen was served by Balgreen Halt railway station, closed in 1968. William Stevenson, Scottish nonconformist preacher and writer, farmed in this area. Bell, Raymond MacKean Literary Corstorphine: A reader's guide to West Edinburgh, Leamington Books, Edinburgh 2017 Cant, Villages of Edinburgh volumes 1 & 2, John Donald Publishers Ltd. Edinburgh, 1986-1987. ISBN 0-85976-131-2 & ISBN 0-85976-186-X Harris, Stuart; the Place Names of Edinburgh. Edinburgh: Gordon Wright Publishing. P. 144. ISBN 0-903065-83-5
Cramond is a village and suburb in the north-west of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth. The Cramond area has a long history, with evidence of Bronze Age and Roman activity. In modern times, it was the birthplace of the Scottish economist John Law. Cramond was incorporated into the City of Edinburgh by Act of Parliament in 1920, it was once believed. A stone altar was dug up in the grounds of Cramond House dedicated "To the Alatervan Mothers and the Mothers of the Parade-ground." Early antiquarians interpreted the inscription as referring to the place where the stone was found, but this idea is no longer accepted among scholars, "Alatervae" is a native name for the Matronae originating with the Tungrian cohort who erected the altar. In the centuries that followed the end of the Roman occupation, Cramond passed into the hands of the Votadini, who spoke Cumbric, a Brythonic Celtic language, gave the settlement its name. Cramond is derived from the compound Caer Amon, meaning'fort on the river', referring to the Roman fort that lay on the River Almond.
Archaeological excavations at Cramond have uncovered evidence of habitation dating to around 8500 BC, making it, for a time, the earliest known site of human settlement in Scotland. The inhabitants of the Mesolithic camp-site were nomadic hunter-gatherers who moved around their territories according to the season of the year. Although no bones survived the acid soil, waste pits and stakeholes that would have supported shelters or windbreaks were excavated. Numerous discarded hazelnut shells, the waste product of the inhabitants' staple food, were found in the pits and used to carbon-date the site, it is thought the site was chosen for its location near the junction of the Firth of Forth and the River Almond, where the rich oyster and mussel beds proved a reliable natural resource. Many microlith stone tools manufactured at the site were found, pre-date finds of similar style in England. Around 142, Roman forces arrived at Cramond by order of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had given them the task of establishing a fort at the mouth of the River Almond.
This fort would guard the eastern flank of the frontier that the Romans had established across Scotland. Nearly five hundred men worked on the site, building a fort that covered nearly six acres and a harbour for communication. However, the fort was only inhabited for a short time fifteen years, before it was abandoned by the troops who were ordered to retreat south to Hadrian's Wall. Pottery and coins of date indicate that the fort and harbour were reinhabited and used as a base for the army and navy of the Emperor Septimius Severus, sometime between 208 and 211; the medieval parish church of Cramond parish, was built within the Roman fort. Though knowledge of the Roman presence at Cramond was recorded afterwards, the remains of the fort itself were only rediscovered in 1954. Substantial archaeological research was carried out upon its discovery to build up a reasonably accurate picture of the site in Roman times; the fort was rectangular with walls fifteen feet high on all sides. A gatehouse was set in every wall.
Inside, there were barracks, granaries and the commander's house. Excavations revealed other constructions outside the boundary of the fort, including a bath-house, further industrial workshops and a native settlement. In 1997 the Cramond Lioness was uncovered in the harbour mud by a local boatman, was identified as a sandstone statue of a lioness devouring a hapless male figure one of a pair at the tomb of a military commander. After conservation, the statue was displayed in the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, it is one of the most ambitious pieces of Roman sculpture to have survived in Scotland. After the departure of the Romans, little is known about the state of Cramond for several centuries; the historiography of the period is best summed up by the historian J. Wood, who wrote'a dark cloud of obscurity again settled over the parish of Cramond, of which I cannot find the smallest memorial in any historian till the year 995.'A tower house, Cramond Tower built in the early 15th century, part of a now-demolished larger establishment, was once a manor house of the Bishops of Dunkeld, of whose diocese Cramond was a part.
It was converted to a private dwelling in the 1980s. Cramond developed over the centuries, with Cramond Kirk being founded in 1656. After a brief period spent as an industrial village in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the late 19th century it became a desirable suburb of Edinburgh, which it remains to this day. Cramond is located at 55°58.78′N 3°18.04′W in northwest Edinburgh, about 5 miles from the city centre, at the mouth of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth. The parish of Cramond extended from the shore of the Firth of Forth in the north to the parish of Corstorphine in the south, was bounded on the west by the parishes of Dalmeny and Kirkliston and on the east by the parish of St Cuthbert's, it covered an area of fifteen square miles, encompassed the villages of Granton, Muirhouse, Davidson's Mains, Ravelston, Craigcrook and Craigiehall. The area has a low undulating topography that drops down from the top of Corstorphine hill to the shore in three gradual stages and is intersected by the River Almond which flows northward into the Forth.
During the last ice age
Alnwickhill is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is on the southern edge of the city four miles from the city centre, it neighbours the areas of Kaimes. The area is now residential, but was the site of Backside Lee Farm until the 1970s when the land was sold to Crudens for development
Barnton is a suburb of Edinburgh, located in the north-west of the city, between Cramond and Corstorphine Hill and west of Davidsons Mains. Part of the area was traditionally known as "Cramond Muir" in reference to Cramond to the north, it is home to the Royal High School of Edinburgh deigned by Reid and Forbes in 1964. Braehead House, a complex house centred on a 15th c remodelled Scottish tower house hides amongst modern housing; the Royal Burgess Golfing Society, one of the oldest golf societies in the world with a clubhouse dating from 1896. Cargilfield Preparatory School lies to the north; the most notable landmark is the former Barnton Hotel at the junction of Whitehouse Loan and Queensferry Road which dates from 1895 and was converted to flats in 2016. The White House dates from 1615, it was extended and remodelled by MacGibbon and Ross in 1895. The area centres on the paired streets of West Barnton Avenue; these stand on the former estate of Barnton House. All that remains is the ornate west gate pillars, designed by David Hamilton in 1810, on Whitehouse Loan at the west end of West Barnton Avenue.
Both halves of the avenue possess a series of large villas dating from the early 20th century. The west avenue in particular has several modern blocks of flats. Barnton Quarry, a former stone quarry in the area, is the site of an underground bunker which, in the event of nuclear war, would have served as the regional seat of government for Scotland from 1961 until its abandonment in 1985. Robert Barton of Over Barnton Alexander Carmichael, compiler of Carmina Gadelica Col John James McIntosh Shaw, military surgeon and pioneer of plastic surgery J. K. Rowling a current resident Robert Blyth Greig lived on West Barton Avenue