St George's Circus
St Georges Circus is a road junction in Southwark, England. At its centre, which is now a roundabout, is a historic obelisk, designed by Robert Mylne, in his role as surveyor. It was the first purpose-built traffic junction in London, and initially featured an obelisk with four oil lamps affixed to it. In 1905, the obelisk was relocated to Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park, in front of the Imperial War Museum close by, to accommodate a new clock tower. The clocktower was demolished as a nuisance to traffic in the 1930s, the landscaping introduced in the centre of the circus when the obelisk returned incorporated a semi circle of soil in which two Cabbage Palms were planted. This was neglected and fell into long term decay until in 2005 guerrilla gardeners took over the land and they have since replanted it with lavender, tulips, campanula and even a 7 Christmas tree. It is regularly cleared of litter and weeds and has something of a landmark. The circus and obelisk provided a formal termination of Blackfriars Road, at the circus, Blackfriars Road intersected with new and existing highways to Lambeth, Westminster Bridge and The Borough at Southwark.
In local parlance the area was known as the obliss, it was a point for both trams and busses, so passengers, - if they so wished - could ask for a tuppeny to the obliss please guv. It specified that no houses “inferior to the 3rd building rate should be erected on the frontages of Borough Road, following the construction of Waterloo Bridge, Waterloo Road was cut through to terminate nearby, but this was not part of the original formal layout. The surrounding streets contain a number of housing estates constructed by the City of London Corporation and Peabody Trust. The south side of the circus was originally occupied by the School for the Indigent Blind and this was reconstructed and enlarged in the 1830s, but subsequently moved out of London. The site is now occupied by a building of 1901 on the same scale as the adjacent terraces. This conceals the subsurface depot for London Undergrounds Bakerloo line, in 1900 a replica of the obelisk was placed in Brookwood Cemetery to mark where human remains from the crypt of St George the Martyr Southwark were reburied in 1899.
Located on St. George the Martyr Avenue in plot 81 in the South side of the cemetery, to the north of St Georges Circus is McLaren House, a hall of residence for students of London South Bank University. The building was opened in 1996 and holds around 600 students and this ten-storey building replaced a derelict 1890s building that previously housed the Royal Eye Hospital. The St Georges Circus area is now an area, including a number of Georgian buildings that formed part of the original development. In 2007 facade repairs were completed to most of the buildings, St Georges Obelisk photograph at night
Borough Road is in Southwark, London SE1. It runs east-west between St Georges Circus and Borough High Street, Southwark Bridge Road crosses Borough Road north-south about halfway along. The railway to Blackfriars station passes overhead at the junction where there had been Borough Road Station, the campus of London South Bank University lies to the south between St Georges Circus and the junction with Southwark Bridge Road. The main entrance lies on Borough Road and is LSBUs main address, the building where this entrance is located is known as the Borough Road Building, at 103 Borough Road. The London School of Musical Theatre is based at 83 Borough Road, the Borough Road Gallery, featuring paintings by David Bomberg and th Borough Group, opened in 2012 in the main Borough Road Building of London South Bank University. Other adjoining roads include Blackfriars Road, London Road and Newington Causeway, grid reference TQ319795 Borough Road has been a site of educational activity for over two centuries.
Joseph Lancasters School was established by the Quaker, Joseph Lancaster and it was an early and innovative example of a universal free school, based on the monitorial system, that became known as a British School. An associated teacher training institute, Borough Road College, was established soon afterwards in 1804, in 1889, the College moved to Isleworth, west London. Much later, in 1975, Borough Road College merged with Maria Grey Training College to form the West London Institute of Higher Education and this became the Osterley Campus of Brunel University from 1995 to 2006. London South Bank University was established on Borough Road as the Borough Polytechnic Institute in 1892, the associated National School of Bakery was founded two years in 1894 and is now the oldest bakery school in the world. The Institute expanded and became the Polytechnic of the South Bank, South Bank Polytechnic, attaining university status as South Bank University in 1992, a bust of Joseph Lancaster, given by the Victorian philanthropist John Passmore Edwards, remains at the University.
More recently, the London School of Musical Theatre was founded by Glenn Lee
Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side. The bridge is painted green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge. This is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge, which is red, in 2005–2007, it underwent a complete refurbishment, including replacing the iron fascias and repainting the whole bridge. It links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall, the next bridge downstream is the Hungerford footbridge and upstream is Lambeth Bridge. Westminster Bridge was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1981, for over 600 years, the nearest bridge to London Bridge was at Kingston. A bridge at Westminster was proposed in 1664, but opposed by the Corporation of London, despite further opposition in 1722, and after a new timber bridge was built at Putney in 1729, the scheme received parliamentary approval in 1736.
Financed by private capital and grants, Westminster Bridge was built between 1739–1750, under the supervision of the Swiss engineer Charles Labelye, the City of London responded to Westminster Bridge by removing the buildings on London Bridge and widening it in 1760–63. The City commenced work on the Blackfriars Bridge, which opened in 1769, other bridges from that time include Kew Bridge, Battersea Bridge, and Richmond Bridge. The bridge was required for traffic from the expanding West End to the developing South London as well as to south coast ports, without the bridge, traffic from the West End would have to negotiate the congested routes to London Bridge such as the Strand and New Oxford Street. Roads south of the river were improved, including the junction at the Elephant & Castle in Southwark, by the mid–19th century the bridge was subsiding badly and expensive to maintain. The current bridge was designed by Thomas Page and opened on 24 May 1862, with a length of 820 feet and a width of 85 feet, it is a seven-arch, cast-iron bridge with Gothic detailing by Charles Barry.
It is the oldest road bridge across the Thames in central London, on 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack started on the bridge and continued into Bridge Street and Old Palace Yard. Five people - three pedestrians, one officer, and the attacker - died as a result of the incident. A colleague of the officer was armed and shot the attacker, more than 50 people were injured. An investigation is ongoing by the Metropolitan Police, in the 2002 British horror film 28 Days Later, the protagonist awakes from a coma to find London deserted and walks over an eerily empty Westminster Bridge whilst looking for signs of life. Westminster Bridge is the start and finish point for the Bridges Handicap Race, william Wordsworth wrote the sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3,1802. In the finale of the 24th James Bond film Spectre, Blofelds helicopter crashes into Westminster Bridge, Westminster Bridge at Structurae Westminster Bridge at Structurae Interactive Panorama, Westminster Bridge
Southwark is a district of Central London and part of the London Borough of Southwark. Situated 1.5 miles east of Charing Cross, it one of the oldest parts of London. It historically formed an ancient borough in the county of Surrey, made up of a number of parishes, as an inner district of London, Southwark experienced rapid depopulation during the late-19th and early-20th centuries. It is now at a stage of regeneration and is the county town of Greater London which is the location of the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. Southwark had a population of 30,119 in 2011, Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name means southern defensive work and is formed from the Old English sūth, the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. The ancient borough of Southwark was simply as The Borough—or Borough—and this name. Southwark was referred to as the Ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City.
Southwark is on a marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of ploughing, burial mounds. The area was originally a series of islands in the River Thames and this formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street, archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to London from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the fifth century. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a largely featureless soil called the Dark Earth which probably represents an urban area abandoned, Southwark appears to recover only during the time of King Alfred and his successors. Sometime about 886 AD, the burh of Southwark was created and it was probably fortified to defend the bridge and hence the re-emerging City of London to the north.
He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England, Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as held by several Surrey manors. Southwarks value to the King was £16, much of Southwark was originally owned by the church—the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral, originally the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295
City of London Corporation
In 2006 the name was changed from Corporation of London to avoid confusion with the wider London local government, the Greater London Authority. The Corporation is probably the worlds oldest continuously-elected local government authority, the corporations structure includes the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, the Court of Common Council, and the Freemen and Livery of the City. In Anglo-Saxon times, consultation between the Citys rulers and its citizens took place at the Folkmoot and judicial processes were conducted at the Court of Husting and the non-legal part of the courts work evolved into the Court of Aldermen. Numerous subsequent Royal Charters over the centuries confirmed and extended the citizens rights, around 1189, the City gained the right to have its own mayor, being advanced to the degree and style of Lord Mayor of London. The individual commissioners were nominated by the Corporation, but it was a separate body. Local government legislation often makes special provision for the City to be treated as a London borough, the Chief Executive of the administrative side of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London.
The Chamberlain, the City Treasurer and Finance Officer, the City Remembrancer, who is responsible for protocol, security issues as well as legislative matters that may affect the Corporation and is legally qualified. The Comptroller and City Solicitor, legal officer. e, former Lord Mayors, and the junior Aldermen. The Common Serjeant, the senior judge at the Central Criminal Court Old Bailey. C) The Ward Beadles, responsible to a specific Ward from which they are elected, largely ceremonial support to their respective Aldermen, and perform a formal role at Ward Motes. In 1801, the City had a population of about 130,000 and it has risen slightly to around 9,000 since, largely due to the development of the Barbican Estate. As it has not been affected by other municipal legislation over the period of time since then, the non-residential vote, abolished in the rest of the country in 1969, became an increasingly large part of the electorate. The non-residential vote system used disfavoured incorporated companies, the City of London Act 2002 greatly increased the business franchise, allowing many more businesses to be represented.
In 2009, the vote was about 24,000. Each body or organisation, whether unincorporated or incorporated, whose premises are within the City of London may appoint a number of based on the number of workers it employs. Limited liability partnerships fall into this category, though workers count as part of a workforce regardless of nationality, only certain individuals may be appointed as voters. The City of London is divided into twenty-five Wards, each of which is a division, electing one Alderman. The numbers below reflect the changes caused by the City of London Act, there are over one hundred livery companies in London
An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side, a viaduct may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today. Possibly the oldest existing bridge is the Mycenaean Arkadiko bridge in Greece from about 1300 BC. The stone corbel arch bridge is used by the local populace. The well-preserved Hellenistic Eleutherna Bridge has a corbel arch. The 4th century BC Rhodes Footbridge rests on an early voussoir arch, a more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges, mostly of stone, in as many as 26 different countries. Roman arch bridges were usually semicircular, although a number were segmental arch bridges, Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones of the same in size and shape. The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct.
Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e. g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome, Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium. The outside was covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. The Romans introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction, trajans bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood. This was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length, while the longest extant Roman bridge is the 790 m long Puente Romano at Mérida. The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch, in medieval Europe, bridge builders improved on the Roman structures by using narrower piers, thinner arch barrels and lower span-rise ratios on bridges. Gothic pointed arches were introduced, reducing lateral thrust.
The 14th century in particular saw bridge building reaching new heights, the bridge at Trezzo sullAdda, destroyed in the 15th century, even featured a span length of 72 m, not matched until 1796. Constructions such as the acclaimed Florentine segmental arch bridge Ponte Vecchio combined sound engineering with aesthetical appeal, the three elegant arches of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita constitute the oldest elliptic arch bridge worldwide. In China, the oldest existing bridge is the Zhaozhou Bridge of 605 AD. The Zhaozhou Bridge, with a length of 167 feet and span of 123 feet, is the worlds first wholly stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge, Bridges with perforated spandrels can be found worldwide, such as in China
Charles Dibdin was a British composer, dramatist and actor. With over 600 songs to his name, for many of which he wrote both the lyrics and the music and performed himself, he was in his time the most prolific English singer-songwriter. He is best known as the composer of Tom Bowling, one of his many sea songs, the son of a silversmith, he was privately baptised on 4 March 1745 in Southampton and is often described as the youngest child of 18 born to a 50-year-old mother. His parents, intending him for the clergy, sent Dibdin to Winchester School and he possessed a remarkable good voice at a young age, and was in demand for concerts even as a boy. Anthems were composed for him by Mr. Kent and his successor Mr Fussell, organists of Winchester Cathedral and he went to London at the age of fifteen at his brothers invitation, and was first employed tuning harpsichords in a music warehouse in Cheapside. Through Mr. Berenger he was introduced to John Rich and John Beard, as his voice was not yet settled, Rich thought he would become a bass, and marked out the pantomime roles of Richard Leveridge for him.
Dibdin held back from this path, but made the most of his introductions, as an actor, Dibdin had constant opportunities to study Garricks performances, and befriended his associates, notably his prompter, who could remember Cibber. He enjoyed two seasons touring at the Vauxhall in Birmingham, and another at Richmond and he gained so much success over a run of more than fifty nights, that Ralph handkerchiefs were worn in compliment to him. He agreed to article himself, both as actor and musician, to Beard for three years at a salary rising from three to five pounds a week, his contract established a precedent by which actors were not paid in case of absence through sickness. The script for The Maid of the Mill was by playwright Isaac Bickerstaffe, who had written the libretto for Love in a Village and he had already confided to Beard that he disliked acting because of the jealousy and spite which his success brought upon him from other actors. Hence he had turned again to composition, Love in the City was abandoned, but Dibdins music was successful and was transferred into a play called The Romp.
The association with Bickerstaffe continued in Dibdins music for the play Lionel and Clarissa at Covent Garden in 1767, by 1768, his articles completed, and receiving harsh treatment from his new manager George Colman, Dibdin was ready to part company with Covent Garden. Dibdin made only £40 from it while Bickerstaffe made a fortune, the Padlock was produced at Drury Lane under Garricks management in 1768, Dibdin taking the part of Mungo so as to cause that degree of sensation in the public which is called a rage. In 1769 for Garrick he composed for Garricks Shakespeare Jubilee at Stratford, Dibdin set a text by Garrick for The Installation of the Garter in 1771. Dibdin was obliged to appear on stage and claim authorship of both words and music, while salacious tittle-tattle sought to both him and Garrick in Bickerstaffes offence. During the same year he worked closely with Garrick at Hampton to compose songs and music for Garricks winter piece, The Christmas Tale. From this ordeal he acquired the technique of composing the music entire in his mind, writing down nothing until the manuscript was needed.
Dibdins own most lasting opera, The Waterman, the music of which he sold for £30, was produced first at the Haymarket Theatre in 1774, Charles Bannister was again prominent in the cast of all three operas
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain. It is not easy to define the limits of the estuary, the eastern boundary of the estuary suggested in a Hydrological Survey of 1882-9 is a line drawn from North Foreland, Kent via the Kentish Knock lighthouse to Harwich in Essex. It is to this line that the typical estuarine sandbanks extend, the estuary downstream of the Tideway has a tidal movement of 4 metres, moving at a speed of 8 miles per hour. The estuary is one of the largest of 170 such inlets on the coast of Great Britain, the traditional Thames sailing barge worked in this area, designed to be suitable for the shallow waters in the smaller ports. More recently one of the largest wind farms in the UK has been developed in the estuary, located 8.5 km north of Herne Bay, the farm contains 30 wind turbines generating a total of 82. 4MW of electricity. The much larger London Array of up to 1GW capacity is planned and this area has had several proposed sites for the building of a new airport to supplement, or even to replace Heathrow/Gatwick.
In the 1960s Maplin Sands was a contender, in 2002 it was to be at Cliffe, the Thames Estuary is the focal part of the 21st-century toponym, the Thames Gateway, designated as one of the principal development areas in Southern England. The appellation Greater Thames Estuary applies to the coast and the lands bordering the estuary itself. These are characterised by the presence of mudflats, low-lying open beaches and salt marshes, namely the North Kent Marshes and the Essex Marshes. There are many smaller estuaries in Essex, including the Rivers Colne and Crouch Small coastal villages depend on an economy of fishing, boat-building, a similar pattern of replacement can be observed with the aquatic plants and invertebrates living in the river. Joseph Conrad lived in Stanford-le-Hope close to the Essex marshes and his The Mirror of the Sea contains a memorable description of the area as seen from the Thames. Accent The form of speech of many of the people of the area, principally the accents of those from Kent, the term is a term for a milder variety of the London Accent.
The term London Accent is generally avoided as it can have many meanings
Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters O. P. after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, in the year 2000, there were 5,171 Dominican friars in solemn vows,917 student brothers, and 237 novices. By the year 2013 there were 6,058 Dominican friars, a number of other names have been used to refer to both the order and its members. In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as Black Friars because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits, Dominicans were Blackfriars, as opposed to Whitefriars or Greyfriars. They are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit and their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the Domini canes, or Hounds of the Lord.
The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when religion began to be contemplated in a new way, men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this emerged two orders of mendicant friars, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi, the other. Dominics new order was to be an order, trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Rather than earning their living on vast farms as the monasteries had done, at the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a mixed spirituality. They were both active in preaching, and contemplative in study and meditation, the brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns especially absorbed the latter characteristics, in England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart.
The orders origins in battling heterodoxy influenced its development and reputation. Many Dominicans battled heresy as part of their apostolate, many years after St. Dominic reacted to the Cathars, the first Grand Inquistor of Spain, Tomás de Torquemada, would be drawn from the Dominican Order. As an adolescent, he had a love of theology. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books. At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood, at that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar or Albigensian heresy, named after the Duke of Albi, a Cathar sympathiser and opponent to the subsequent Albigensian Crusade
St Paul's Cathedral
St Pauls Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London and is a Grade 1 listed building and its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD604. The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren and its construction, completed in Wrens lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London. The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London and its dome, framed by the spires of Wrens City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years. At 365 feet high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1967, the dome is among the highest in the world. St Pauls is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral, St Pauls Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.
It is the subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke. St Pauls Cathedral is a church with hourly prayer and daily services. The entry fee is £18 for adults, the location of Londiniums original cathedral is unknown. In 1995, however, a large and ornate 5th century building on Tower Hill was excavated, the Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Pauls Cathedral. Wren reported that he had no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire. Bede records that in AD604 St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberhts uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a dedicated to St Paul in London. It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the site as the medieval. On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his sons expelled Mellitus from London.
The fate of the first cathedral building is unknown and this building, or a successor, was destroyed by fire in 962, but rebuilt in the same year. King Æthelred the Unready was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016, the cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The fourth St Pauls, generally referred to as Old St Pauls, was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire, a further fire in 1136 disrupted the work, and the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240
George Dance the Younger
George Dance the younger, RA was an English architect and surveyor as well as a portraitist. The fifth and youngest son of the architect George Dance, he came from a family of architects and dramatists and he was described by Sir John Summerson as among the few really outstanding architects of the century, but few of his buildings remain. The architect George Dance the elder married Elizabeth Gould in 1719 and their fifth son, was born 1 April 1741 at the family home in Chiswell Street and was educated at St Pauls School. Dance spent the six years between 1759 and 1765 studying architecture and draughtsmanship in Rome, aged 17, he set off on his Grand Tour, sailing from Gravesend, Kent in December 1758. After a short stay in Florence, where he was joined by his brother Nathaniel, by the early 1760s the brothers were living at 77 Strada Felice. At Rome, Dance was acquainted with the architect, James Adam, peters Basilica, showing much promise as a draughtsman. Much of his work was inspired by Piranesi.
In late 1759 Dance received his first commission - to design two chimneypieces for Sir Robert Mainwaring. His drawings were dispatched to Parma in April 1763, and a few weeks it was announced that he had won the Gold Medal, the projected building was in the latest style of neoclassical architecture. During June 1764 the Dance brothers were in Naples, but that year they were back in Rome, entertaining the actor David Garrick and his wife. On the 21 December 1764 George Dance and his brother were elected to the Accademia di S. Luca, on the 16 February 1765 Dance dined with the painter Angelica Kauffman and James Boswell who was visiting Rome. A few weeks the brothers left Rome to return to London, on his return from the Grand Tour, George joined his fathers office. His earliest London project was the rebuilding of All Hallows-on-the-Wall Church and he was one of five architects asked to submit designs, and his design was chosen on 8 May 1765. Work on the building starting in June 1765, at a cost of £2,941, in 1768, when he was only 27, George succeeded as Architect and Surveyor to the Corporation of London on his fathers death.
His first major works were the rebuilding of Newgate Prison in 1770 and building the front of the Guildhall. Other London works of his include the rebuilding of the Church of St Bartholomew the Less, at Bath, Somerset he largely designed the Theatre Royal, built by John Palmer in 1804-5. Coleorton Hall was one of his few buildings in the Gothic style, Dance retired from practice in 1815. With his brother Nathaniel, George Dance was a member of the Royal Academy